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Semi-Annual Report on Work Supporting the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

Description: During the first six months of this project, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has provided planning and leadership support for the establishment of the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM). This entailed facilitating the efforts of the Global Steering Committee to prepare the charter, operating guidelines, and other documents for IFRAM. It also included making plans for the Inaugural meeting and facilitating its success. This meeting was held on August 4 5, 2011, in Colorado Springs, Colorado. Representatives from Asia, Europe, and the United States met to share information on reactor aging management and to make plans for the future. Professor Tetsuo Shoji was elected chairperson of the Leadership Council. This kick-off event transformed the dream of an international forum into a reality. On August 4-5, 2011, IFRAM began to achieve its mission. The work completed successfully during this period was built upon important previous efforts. This included the development of a proposal for establishing IFRAM and engaging experts in Asia and Europe. The proposal was presented at Engagement workshops in Seoul, Korea (October 2009) and Petten, The Netherlands (May 2010). Participants in both groups demonstrated strong interest in the establishment of IFRAM. Therefore, the Global Steering Committee was formed to plan and carry out the start-up of IFRAM in 2011. This report builds on the initial activities and documents the results of activities over the last six months.
Date: November 30, 2011
Creator: Bond, Leonard J. & Brenchley, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the Inaugural Meeting of the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM)

Description: In almost all countries with nuclear power plants (NPPs), regulatory authorities and the nuclear industry are looking at some form of extended operating periods. To support life extension activities it is necessary to ensure the continued safety and reliability of system, structures, and components, and the component materials. Internationally, a variety of individual national and international activities have been initiated including Plant Life Management through the International Atomic Energy Agency, Electric Power Research Institute’s Long Term Operation program, and various national programs in managing materials degradation and related topics. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) engaged the international community in workshops in 2005-2006 to identify research needs and to collect information in an expert panel report on Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD), which was reported in NUREG/CR-6923. These results are also available via an Information Tool on the internet at http://pmmd.pnl.gov. This information builds on the extensive compilations known as the GALL Report (Generic Aging Lessons Learned, NUREG-1801, Vols. 1 and 2). Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) recently issued a report on the review of various international activities in PMMD (PNNL-17779). There have also been initiatives by Electricite de France, Tokyo Electric Power Company, EPRI, and others to establish a "Materials Aging Institute." Within the materials degradation research community there are also networks and technical meetings focused on some elements of PMMD. In spite of all these efforts, there is currently no forum to bring together these diverse activities and provide coordinated information exchange and prioritization of materials aging management/PMMD topics. It is believed that the International Forum for Reactor Aging Management (IFRAM) would be a good way to achieve this goal and help develop new approaches for ensuring continued safe operation in existing and future nuclear power plants. To begin addressing this need, NRC has established a Proactive ...
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Bond, Leonard J. & Brenchley, David L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prognostics and Life Beyond 60 for Nuclear Power Plants

Description: Safe, secure, reliable and sustainable energy supply is vital for advanced and industrialized life styles. To meet growing energy demand there is interest in longer term operation (LTO) for the existing nuclear power plant fleet and enhancing capabilities in new build. There is increasing use of condition based maintenance (CBM) for active components and periodic in service inspection (ISI) for passive systems: there is growing interest in deploying on-line monitoring. Opportunities exist to move beyond monitoring and diagnosis based on pattern recognition and anomaly detection to and prognostics with the ability to provide an estimate of remaining useful life (RUL). The adoption of digital I&C systems provides a framework within which added functionality including on-line monitoring can be deployed, and used to maintain and even potentially enhance safety, while at the same time improving planning and reducing both operations and maintenance costs.
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Bond, Leonard J.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Tawfik, Magdy S. & Lybeck, Nancy J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prognostics and Health Management in Nuclear Power Plants: A Review of Technologies and Applications

Description: This report reviews the current state of the art of prognostics and health management (PHM) for nuclear power systems and related technology currently applied in field or under development in other technological application areas, as well as key research needs and technical gaps for increased use of PHM in nuclear power systems. The historical approach to monitoring and maintenance in nuclear power plants (NPPs), including the Maintenance Rule for active components and Aging Management Plans for passive components, are reviewed. An outline is given for the technical and economic challenges that make PHM attractive for both legacy plants through Light Water Reactor Sustainability (LWRS) and new plant designs. There is a general introduction to PHM systems for monitoring, fault detection and diagnostics, and prognostics in other, non-nuclear fields. The state of the art for health monitoring in nuclear power systems is reviewed. A discussion of related technologies that support the application of PHM systems in NPPs, including digital instrumentation and control systems, wired and wireless sensor technology, and PHM software architectures is provided. Appropriate codes and standards for PHM are discussed, along with a description of the ongoing work in developing additional necessary standards. Finally, an outline of key research needs and opportunities that must be addressed in order to support the application of PHM in legacy and new NPPs is presented.
Date: July 17, 2012
Creator: Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hines, Wes & Upadhyaya, Belle
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Instrumentation, Information, and Control System Technologies: Nondestructive Examination Technologies - FY11 Report

Description: Licensees of commercial nuclear power plants in the US are expected to submit license renewal applications for the period of operation of 60 to 80 years which has also been referred to as long term operation (LTO). The greatest challenges to LTO are associated with degradation of passive components as active components are routinely maintained and repaired or placed through maintenance programs. Some passive component degradation concerns include stress corrosion cracking (SCC) of metal components, radiation induced embrittlement of the reactor pressure vessel (RPV), degradation of buried piping, degradation of concrete containment structures, and degradation of cables. Proactive management of passive component aging employs three important elements including online monitoring of degradation, early detection of degradation at precursor stages, and application of prognostics for the prediction of remaining useful life (RUL). This document assesses several nondestructive examination (NDE) measurement technologies for integration into proactive aging management programs. The assessment is performed by discussing the three elements of proactive aging management identified above, considering the current state of the industry with respect to adopting these key elements, and analyzing measurement technologies for monitoring large cracks in metal components, monitoring early degradation at precursor stages, monitoring the degradation of concrete containment structures, and monitoring the degradation of cables. Specific and general needs have been identified through this assessment. General needs identified include the need for environmentally rugged sensors are needed that can operate reliably in an operating reactor environment, the need to identify parameters from precursor monitoring technologies that are unambiguously correlated with the level of pre-macro defect damage, and a methodology for identifying regions where precursor damage is most likely to initiate.
Date: August 30, 2011
Creator: Meyer, Ryan M.; Coble, Jamie B.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep & Bond, Leonard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation Source Replacement Workshop

Description: This report summarizes a Radiation Source Replacement Workshop in Houston Texas on October 27-28, 2010, which provided a forum for industry and researchers to exchange information and to discuss the issues relating to replacement of AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources used in well logging.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Moran, Traci L. & Bond, Leonard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proactive Management of Materials Degradation - A Review of Principles and Programs

Description: The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) has undertaken a program to lay the technical foundation for defining proactive actions so that future degradation of materials in light water reactors (LWRs) is limited and, thereby, does not diminish either the integrity of important LWR components or the safety of operating plants. This technical letter report was prepared by staff at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory in support of the NRC Proactive Management of Materials Degradation (PMMD) program and relies heavily on work that was completed by Dr. Joseph Muscara and documented in NUREG/CR-6923. This report concisely explains the basic principles of PMMD and its relationship to prognostics, provides a review of programs related to PMMD being conducted worldwide, and provides an assessment of the technical gaps in PMMD and prognostics that need to be addressed. This technical letter report is timely because the majority of the U.S. reactor fleet is applying for license renewal, and many plants are also applying for increases in power rating. Both of these changes could increase the likelihood of materials degradation and underline, therefore, the interest in proactive management in the future.
Date: August 28, 2008
Creator: Bond, Leonard J.; Doctor, Steven R. & Taylor, Theodore T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Physics-Based Prognostics for Optimizing Plant Operation

Description: Scientists at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) have examined the necessity for optimization of energy plant operation using 'DSOM{reg_sign}'--Decision Support Operation and Maintenance and this has been deployed at several sites. This approach has been expanded to include a prognostics components and tested on a pilot scale service water system, modeled on the design employed in a nuclear power plant. A key element in plant optimization is understanding and controlling the aging process of safety-specific nuclear plant components. This paper reports the development and demonstration of a physics-based approach to prognostic analysis that combines distributed computing, RF data links, the measurement of aging precursor metrics and their correlation with degradation rate and projected machine failure.
Date: March 1, 2005
Creator: Bond, Leonard J. & Jarrell, Don B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterization Slurry Properties

Description: This presentation was given at the DOE Office of Science-Environmental Management Science Program (EMSP) High-Level Waste Workshop held on January 19-20, 2005 at the Savannah River Site.
Date: January 19, 2005
Creator: Greenwood, Margaret S.; Ahmed, Salahuddin & Bond, Leonard J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties

Description: The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) to measure the velocity of sound in a liquid or slurry and the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Greenwood, Margaret S.; Bond, Leonard J.; Burgess, Lloyd & Brodsky, Anatol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Final Report

Description: The focus of this study is the understanding of the technical obstacles that hinder the replacement of and the disadvantages from the loss of extensive interpretation experience based on data accumulated with AmBe. Enhanced acoustic and electromagnetic sensing methods in combination with non-isotope-based well logging techniques have the potential to complement and/or replace existing isotope-based techniques, providing the opportunity to reduce oil industry dependence on isotopic sources such as AmBe.
Date: August 1, 2011
Creator: Bond, Leonard J.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Harris, R. V.; Denslow, Kayte M. & Moran, Traci L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigating Ultrasonic Diffraction Grating Spectroscopy and Reflection Techniques for Characterizing Slurry Properties

Description: The objectives of the project are to investigate the use of (1) ultrasonic diffraction grating spectroscopy (UDGS) for measuring the particle size of a slurry and (2) shear wave reflection techniques to measure the viscosity of a slurry. For the first topic, the basic principle is to extend the methods that have been successful in optics, called grating light reflection spectroscopy (GLRS), to ultrasonics. At the University of Washington, researchers are using GLRS to measure nanometer-sized particles and particles up to two microns in size in slurries. The goal of the research with ultrasonics is to measure particles in the range of a few microns to about 100 microns, which is the range of particle sizes for slurries in the radioactive waste tanks at U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) sites. The collaborators at the University of Washington will provide the theoretical algorithm that extracts particle size information from the experimental measurements of the critical frequency a nd amplitude. For the second topic, the research will use multiple reflections of ultrasonic shear waves at the interface between a solid and a liquid or slurry. Such reflections are known to provide information about the viscosity, but the goal here is to develop a method to make on-line measurements. This will include using the self calibrating method, developed by Greenwood, for which a patent application has been submitted. In both phases of the research, collaboration with partners at the University of Washington will provide the theoretical basis for analysis of the experimental data.
Date: June 1, 2002
Creator: Greenwood, Margaret S.; Bond, Leonard J.; Burgess, Lloyd & Brodsky, Anatol
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of Non-Nuclear Techniques for Well Logging: Technology Evaluation

Description: This report presents an initial review of the state-of-the-art nuclear and non-nuclear well logging methods and seeks to understand the technical and economic issues if AmBe, and potentially other isotope sources, are reduced or even eliminated in the oil-field services industry. Prior to considering alternative logging technologies, there is a definite need to open up discussions with industry regarding the feasibility and acceptability of source replacement. Industry views appear to range from those who see AmBe as vital and irreplaceable to those who believe that, with research and investment, it may be possible to transition to electronic neutron sources and employ combinations of non-nuclear technologies to acquire the desired petro-physical parameters. In one sense, the simple answer to the question as to whether petro-physical parameters can be sensed with technologies other than AmBe is probably "Yes". The challenges come when attention turns to record interpretation. The many decades of existing records form a very valuable proprietary resource, and the interpretation of subtle features contained in these records are of significant value to the oil-gas exploration community to correctly characterize a well. The demonstration of equivalence and correspondence/correlation between established and any new sensing modality, and correlations with historic records is critical to ensuring accurate data interpretation. Establishing the technical basis for such a demonstration represents a significant effort.
Date: November 1, 2010
Creator: Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M.; Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Dale, Gregory E.; Harris, Robert V.; Moran, Traci L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ultrasonic Characterization of Cast Austenitic Stainless Steel Microstructure: Discrimination between Equiaxed- and Columnar-Grain Material – An Interim Study

Description: Ultrasonic nondestructive evaluation (NDE) and inspection of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) components used in the nuclear power industry is neither as effective nor reliable as is needed due to detrimental effects upon the interrogating ultrasonic beam and interference from ultrasonic backscatter. The root cause is the coarse-grain microstructure inherent to this class of materials. Some ultrasonic techniques perform better for particular microstructural classifications and this has led to the hypothesis that an ultrasonic inspection can be optimized for a particular microstructural class, if a technique exists to reliably classify the microstructure for feedback to the inspection. This document summarizes scoping experiments of in-situ ultrasonic methods for classification and/or characterization of the material microstructures in CASS components from the outside surface of a pipe. The focus of this study was to evaluate ultrasonic methods and provide an interim report that documents results and technical progress. An initial set of experiments were performed to test the hypothesis that in-service characterization of cast austenitic stainless steel (CASS) is feasible, and that, if reliably performed, such data would provide real-time feedback to optimize in-service inspections in the field. With this objective in mind, measurements for the experiment were restricted to techniques that should be robust if carried forward to eventual field implementation. Two parameters were investigated for their ability to discriminate between different microstructures in CASS components. The first parameter was a time-of-flight ratio of a normal incidence shear wave to that of a normal incidence longitudinal wave (TOFRSL). The ratio removed dependency on component thickness which may not be accurately reported in the field. The second parameter was longitudinal wave attenuation. The selected CASS specimens provided five equiaxed-grain material samples and five columnar-grain material samples for a two-class discrimination problem. Qualitative TOFRSL estimates and a threshold algorithm classified all 10 material samples ...
Date: October 27, 2009
Creator: Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Good, Morris S.; Diaz, Aaron A.; Anderson, Michael T.; Watson, Bruce E.; Peters, Timothy J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Review of Sensor Calibration Monitoring for Calibration Interval Extension in Nuclear Power Plants

Description: Currently in the United States, periodic sensor recalibration is required for all safety-related sensors, typically occurring at every refueling outage, and it has emerged as a critical path item for shortening outage duration in some plants. Online monitoring can be employed to identify those sensors that require calibration, allowing for calibration of only those sensors that need it. International application of calibration monitoring, such as at the Sizewell B plant in United Kingdom, has shown that sensors may operate for eight years, or longer, within calibration tolerances. This issue is expected to also be important as the United States looks to the next generation of reactor designs (such as small modular reactors and advanced concepts), given the anticipated longer refueling cycles, proposed advanced sensors, and digital instrumentation and control systems. The U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) accepted the general concept of online monitoring for sensor calibration monitoring in 2000, but no U.S. plants have been granted the necessary license amendment to apply it. This report presents a state-of-the-art assessment of online calibration monitoring in the nuclear power industry, including sensors, calibration practice, and online monitoring algorithms. This assessment identifies key research needs and gaps that prohibit integration of the NRC-approved online calibration monitoring system in the U.S. nuclear industry. Several needs are identified, including the quantification of uncertainty in online calibration assessment; accurate determination of calibration acceptance criteria and quantification of the effect of acceptance criteria variability on system performance; and assessment of the feasibility of using virtual sensor estimates to replace identified faulty sensors in order to extend operation to the next convenient maintenance opportunity. Understanding the degradation of sensors and the impact of this degradation on signals is key to developing technical basis to support acceptance criteria and set point decisions, particularly for advanced sensors which do not ...
Date: August 31, 2012
Creator: Coble, Jamie B.; Meyer, Ryan M.; Ramuhalli, Pradeep; Bond, Leonard J.; Hashemian, Hash; Shumaker, Brent et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Under-Sodium Viewing: A Review of Ultrasonic Imaging Technology for Liquid Metal Fast Reactors

Description: This current report is a summary of information obtained in the "Information Capture" task of the U.S. DOE-funded "Under Sodium Viewing (USV) Project." The goal of the multi-year USV project is to design, build, and demonstrate a state-of-the-art prototype ultrasonic viewing system tailored for periodic reactor core in-service monitoring and maintenance inspections. The study seeks to optimize system parameters, improve performance, and re-establish this key technology area which will be required to support any new U.S. liquid-metal cooled fast reactors.
Date: March 27, 2009
Creator: Griffin, Jeffrey W.; Peters, Timothy J.; Posakony, Gerald J.; Chien, Hual-Te; Bond, Leonard J.; Denslow, Kayte M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Energy Research Initiative Project No. 02 103 Innovative Low Cost Approaches to Automating QA/QC of Fuel Particle Production Using On Line Nondestructive Methods for Higher Reliability Final Project Report

Description: This Nuclear Energy Research Initiative (NERI) project was tasked with exploring, adapting, developing and demonstrating innovative nondestructive test methods to automate nuclear coated particle fuel inspection so as to provide the United States (US) with necessary improved and economical Quality Assurance and Control (QA/QC) that is needed for the fuels for several reactor concepts being proposed for both near term deployment [DOE NE & NERAC, 2001] and Generation IV nuclear systems. Replacing present day QA/QC methods, done manually and in many cases destructively, with higher speed automated nondestructive methods will make fuel production for advanced reactors economically feasible. For successful deployment of next generation reactors that employ particle fuels, or fuels in the form of pebbles based on particles, extremely large numbers of fuel particles will require inspection at throughput rates that do not significantly impact the proposed manufacturing processes. The focus of the project is nondestructive examination (NDE) technologies that can be automated for production speeds and make either: (I) On Process Measurements or (II) In Line Measurements. The inspection technologies selected will enable particle “quality” qualification as a particle or group of particles passes a sensor. A multiple attribute dependent signature will be measured and used for qualification or process control decisions. A primary task for achieving this objective is to establish standard signatures for both good/acceptable particles and the most problematic types of defects using several nondestructive methods.
Date: February 28, 2006
Creator: Ahmed, Salahuddin; Batishko, Charles R.; Flake, Matthew; Good, Morris S.; Mathews, Royce; Morra, Marino et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department