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1-GWh diurnal load-leveling superconducting magnetic energy storage system reference design. Appendix F. 1-GWh electrical system design

Description: Two circuit configurations for reducing the installed converter power and cost of high-power converter systems that operate in a constant-power mode over a wide current and voltage range are suggested and analyzed.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Boenig, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Los Alamos 600 MJ, 1500 MW inertial energy storage and pulsed power unit

Description: A 1430 MVA synchronous generator from a cancelled nuclear power plant has been installed and commissioned at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) to be used as the pulsed power generator for physics experiments. The generator is mounted on a spring foundation to prevent dynamic forces from being transmitted to the substructure and into the ground. A 6 MW load-commutated inverter drive accelerates the machine from standstill to the maximum operating speed of 1800 rpm and from 1260 rpm to 1800 rpm between load pulses. The generator cooling method has been changed from hydrogen to air cooling to facilitate operation. A current limiting fuse, with a fuse clearing current of 90 kA, will protect the generator output against short circuit currents. An overview of the installation is presented. The paper also addresses the overload capability of the generator for pulsed loads. 7 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Boenig, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Application of superconducting coils to VAR control in electric power systems: a proposal

Description: During the last eight years, static VAR-control systems with thyristor-controlled, room-temperature reactors have been used in electrical systems for voltage control and system stabilization. In this proposal, we describe a new static VAR-control system that uses an asymmetrically controlled Graetz bridge and a superconducting dc coil. Preliminary studies indicate that the proposed system will have lower overall losses and that its capital cost and electrical characteristics are comparable to those of a conventional system. Three- and four-year programs for developing the electronic circuitry and superconducting coils for VAR control, culminating in the installation and testing of an approx. 40-MVAR system, are proposed.
Date: November 1, 1979
Creator: Boenig, H.J. & Hassenzahl, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

Description: The U.S. electric utility industry transmits power to customers at a rate equivalent to only 60% of generating capacity because, on an annual basis, the demand for power is not constant. Load leveling and peak shaving units of various types are being used to increase the utilization of the base load nuclear and fossil power plants. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory (LASL) is developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems which will store and deliver electrical energy for the purpose of load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. This technology may prove to be an effective means of storing energy for the electric utilities because (1) it has a high efficiency (approximately 90%), (2) it may improve system stability through the fast response of the converter, and (3) there should be fewer siting restrictions than for other load leveling systems. A general SMES system and a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling are described; and the results of some recent converter tests are presented.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Hassenzahl, W. V. & Boenig, H. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fault-current limiter using a superconducting coil

Description: A novel circuit, consisting of solid-state diodes and a biased superconducting coil, for limiting the fault currents in three-phase ac systems is presented. A modification of the basic circuit results in a solid-state ac breaker with current-limiting features. The operating characteristics of the fault-current limiter and the ac breaker are analyzed. An optimization procedure for sizing the superconducting coil is derived.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Boenig, H.J. & Paice, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and operating experience of an ac-dc power converter for a superconducting magnetic energy storage unit

Description: The design philosophy and the operating behavior of a 5.5 kA, +-2.5 kV converter, being the electrical interface between a high voltage transmission system and a 30 MJ superconducting coil, are documented in this paper. Converter short circuit tests, load tests under various control conditions, dc breaker tests for magnet current interruption, and converter failure modes are described.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Boenig, H.J.; Nielsen, R.G. & Sueker, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests with a line-commutated converter as a variable inductive load on the Bonneville Power Administration transmission system

Description: A twelve-pulse, line-commutated converter, with a steady-state rating of 2.5 kV and 5.5 kA, formerly used for charging and discharging a superconducting magnet, was reconfigured as a static reactive power load. Tests staged at the Tacoma, WA, substation of the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) revealed that the converter could be used as a variable inductive load, provided a stable current controller was installed. The unit was modulated as a variable VAR load following a sinusoidal VAR demand signal with an amplitude up to 14.8 MVAR. The total losses at maximum VAR output were 370 kW. This paper explains the necessary modifications of the converter to operate as a variable reactive load. Measured current waveshapes are analyzed. The effects of such a load on the BPA transmission system are presented.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Boenig, H.J.; Hauer, J.F. & Nielsen, R.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for electric utilities and fusion systems

Description: Superconducting inductors provide a compact and efficient means of storing electrical energy without an intermediate conversion process. Energy storage inductors are under development for load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems and for driving magnetic confinement and plasma heating coils in fusion energy systems. Fluctuating electric power demands force the electric utility industry to have more installed generating capacity than the average load requires. Energy storage can increase the utilization of base-load fossil and nuclear power plants for electric utilities. The Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory and the University of Wisconsin are developing superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) systems, which will store and deliver electrical energy for load leveling, peak shaving, and the stabilization of electric utility networks. In the fusion area, inductive energy transfer and storage is being developed. Both 1-ms fast-discharge theta-pinch systems and 1-to-2-s slow energy transfer tokamak systems have been demonstrated. The major components and the method of operation of a SMES unit are described, and potential applications of different size SMES systems in electric power grids are presented. Results are given of a reference design for a 10-GWh unit for load leveling, of a 30-MJ coil proposed for system stabilization, and of tests with a small-scale, 100-kJ magnetic energy storage system. The results of the fusion energy storage and transfer tests are presented. The common technology base for the various storage systems is discussed.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J. & Hassenzahl, W.V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting energy storage development for electric utility systems

Description: Model SMES experiments performed at LASL show that magnetic energy storage in a superconducting magnet is a viable alternate to energy storage methods which are being built today. It is a fast responding device, i.e., milliseconds, and efficient method which does not require electric energy be converted to mechanical form for storage. Component tests on a model SMES system include 12 pulse converter, automatic and manual converter power control system, and high current superconductors have been performed to evaluate and develop systems which could be used on the 100 MJ SMES system that has been designed. Test circuits have been designed and used for economical and nondestructive testing of magnets for superconductor performance and evaluation. A closed-loop model SMES system has been developed and built to study the electrical characteristics of the system. Initial test results were obtained for a symmetrically and asymmetrically triggered twelve-pulse converter. The asymmetrically triggered bridge shows the lower reactive power requirement, but a more distorted line current. Future converter tests and studies will be required to clearly identify the better circuit. A converter optimization study will include an evaluation of costs for harmonic filtering and power factor correction. Tests with the automatic control system show that a SMES system has switching times between the charging and discharging mode of about a cycle and a half. This makes the system very attractive for power system stabilization.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Turner, R. D.; Boenig, H. J. & Hassenzahl, W. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and tests of superconducting magnetic energy storage systems components

Description: The major components of a superconducting magnetic energy storage system are briefly discussed. The electrical parameters of such a system are derived for constant power operation during magnet charging and discharging. A circuit to evaluate high current superconductors economically and nondestructively is described and test results for three different wires are presented. The second half of the paper deals with the design of an automated model SMES system which operates in a closed-loop power control mode. Test results of a twelve-pulse converter loaded with a pure inductance are given.
Date: January 1, 1976
Creator: Boenig, H. J.; Turner, R. D. & Hassenzahl, W. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{open_quotes}Secure Bus{close_quotes} disturbance-free power at the utility substation level

Description: Over the last 18 months Public Service Company of New Mexico (PNM), El Camino Real Engineering, Inc. (CRE), Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) and Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) have worked on the development of disturbance-free power at the medium voltage substation level. The work resulted in the Secure Bus concept, a system in which a medium voltage bus in a substation is immune to power outages and voltage sags on the utility source. The Secure Bus voltage is also immune to voltage sags resulting from faults on any distribution feeder connected to the bus. The Secure Bus concept originated from work conducted to improve power quality for large high-tech manufacturing facilities, in particular for large semiconductor manufacturing plants. For the demands on quality power of a modern facility conventional equipment is not adequate for protecting the end user. For example, the operation of conventional vacuum breakers during short circuit conditions on a feeder circuit, requiring 3 to 5 cycles for breaker opening, does not allow for fast enough current interruption to avoid a voltage dip on the main bus. A sever voltage sag could result in a shut down of sensitive equipment being supplied by the other feeder circuits, which are connected to the main bus. The circumvent the problem, a fast breaker was introduced which interrupts the short circuit before the current causes a significant voltage disturbance. To make the bus immune also to power disturbances caused by power outages, energy storage is introduced to provide the necessary energy back-up in case the primary source is not available.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Boenig, H. J. & Jones, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and testing of a 320 MW pulsed power supply

Description: For a 60 Tesla, 100 millisecond long pulse magnet five 64 MW (87.6 MVA) power converter modules have been installed. Each module provides a no-load voltage of 4.18 kV and a full load voltage of 3.20 kV at the rated current of 20 kA. The modules are connected to a 1,430 MVA/650 MJ inertial energy storage generator set, which is operated at 21 kV and frequencies between 60 and 42 Hz. They are designed to provide the rated power output for 2 seconds once every hour. Each module consists of two 21 kV/3.1 kV cast coil transformers and two 6-pulse rectifiers connected in parallel without an interphase reactor, forming a 12-pulse converter module. As far as possible standard high power industrial converter components were used, operated closer to their allowable limits. The converters are controlled by three programmable high speed controllers. In this paper the design of the pulsed converters, including control and special considerations for protection schemes with the converters supplying a mutually coupled magnet system, is detailed. Test results of the converters driving an ohmic-inductive load for 2 seconds at 20 kA and 3.2 kV are presented.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Schillig, J.B.; Boenig, H.J. & Ferner, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and testing of a 13. 75-MW converter for a superconducting magnetic-energy-storage system

Description: A 30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage system will be installed in 1982 in Tacoma, WA, to act as a transmission line stabilizer. Two 6 MVA transformers and a 5.5 kA, + 2.5 kV converter will connect the superconducting coil to the 13.8 kV bus and regulate the power flow between the coil and the three phase system. The design philosophy for the converter including its control and protection system is given in the paper. The converter has been tested with 10% overvoltage at no load, with 10% overcurrent at zero output voltage and with a watercooled resistive load of about 1 MW. These test results show that the converter will meet the expected full load operating conditions.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Boenig, H.J.; Turner, R.D.; Neft, C.L. & Sueker, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conductor qualification tests for the 30-MJ Bonneville Power Administration SMES coil

Description: The 30-MJ energy storage coil for the Bonneville Power Administration requires a low-loss, cryostable conductor that is able to carry 4.9 kA in a field of 2.8 T and will maintain its properties over 10/sup 8/ partial discharge cycles. The multi-level cable which satisfies these requirements has been extensively tested at various stages in its development and in its final form. Tests have been performed to determine the effect of manufacturing options on ac losses, low temperature electrical resistivity, stability, and fatigue resistance of the insulated conductor. This paper will concentrate on the stability and fatigue tests which have not previously been reported.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Schermer, R.I.; Boenig, H.J.; Henke, M.; Turner, R.D. & Schramm, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of the 30-MJ superconducting magnetic-energy storage unit

Description: A 30-MJ (8.4 kWh) superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) unit with a 10-MW converter was installed during the later months of 1982 at the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Tacoma substation in Tacoma, Washington. The unit, which is capable of absorbing and releasing up to 10 MJ of energy at a frequency of 0.35 Hz, was designed to damp the dominant power swing mode of the Pacific AC Intertie. Extensive tests were performed with the unit during the first half of 1983. This paper will review the major components of the storage unit and describe the startup and steady state operating experience with the coil, dewar, refrigerator and converter. The unit has absorbed power up to a level of 11.8 Mw. Real power was modulated following a sinusoidal power demand with frequencies from 0.1 to 1.2 Hz and a power level up to +- 8.3 MW. The unit has performed in accordance with design expectations and no major problems have developed.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Boenig, H.J.; Dean, J.W.; Rogers, J.D.; Schermer, R.I. & Hauer, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operation of the 30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage system in the Bonneville Power Administration Electrical Grid

Description: The 30 MJ superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) system was installed in the Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) Tacoma Substation in 1982 to 1983. Operation of the unit since that time has been for over 1200 hours. Specific tests to explore the SMES system's thermal and electrical characteristics and the control functions were conducted. The coil heat load with current modulation was determined. A converter with two 6-pulse bridges interfaces the superconducting coil to the power bus. Equal bridge voltage amplitude and constant reactive power modes of operation of the system were run with computer control of the SCR bridge firing angles. Coil energy dump tests were performed. Electrical grid system response to SMES modulation was observed, and full power SMES modulation was undertaken.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Schermer, R.I. & Hauer, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting magnetic energy storage

Description: Long-time varying-daily, weekly, and seasonal-power demands require the electric utility industry to have installed generating capacity in excess of the average load. Energy storage can reduce the requirement for less efficient excess generating capacity used to meet peak load demands. Short-time fluctuations in electric power can occur as negatively damped oscillations in complex power systems with generators connected by long transmission lines. Superconducting inductors with their associated converter systems are under development for both load leveling and transmission line stabilization in electric utility systems. Superconducting magnetic energy storage (SMES) is based upon the phenomenon of the nearly lossless behavior of superconductors. Application is, in principal, efficient since the electromagnetic energy can be transferred to and from the storage coils without any intermediate conversion to other energy forms. Results from a reference design for a 10-GWh SMES unit for load leveling are presented. The conceptual engineering design of a 30-MJ, 10-MW energy storage coil is discussed with regard to system stabilization, and tests of a small scale, 100-KJ SMES system are presented. Some results of experiments are provided from a related technology based program which uses superconducting inductive energy storage to drive fusion plasmas.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Rogers, J. D.; Boenig, H. J.; Hassenzahl, W. V. & Schermer, R. I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ac loss calorimeter for three-phase cable

Description: A calorimeter for measuring ac losses in meter-long lengths of HTS superconducting power transmission line cables is described. The calorimeter, which is based on a temperature difference technique, has a precision of 1 mW and measures single, two-phase (coupling), and three-phase losses. The measurements show significant coupling losses between phases.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Daney, D.E.; Boenig, H.J.; Maley, M.P.; McMurry, D.E. & DeBlanc, B.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal for a 30-T pulsed magnet suitable for neutron scattering experiments

Description: We describe a conceptual design for a 30-T vertical-field split-pair magnet suitable for neutron scattering studies. While the magnet is primarily intended for diffraction and spectroscopic studies using a pulsed neutron source, it might also have application for relaxational studies at steady-state sources. The magnet will have a 5-cm bore for sample environment equipment, a 1-cm gap for the neutrons to illuminate the sample and through which to observe the scattering. It will run with a repetition frequency of 2 Hz, and a pulse length of 3 ms. We discuss scientific and engineering considerations that led to this specification and describe the designs of both magnet and power supply.
Date: December 1, 1995
Creator: Robinson, R.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Eyssa, Y.M. & Schneider-Muntau, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A 30-T pulsed magnet suitable for neutron scattering experiments

Description: We describe a conceptual design for a 30-T vertical-field split-pair magnet suitable for neutron scattering studies. While the magnet is primarily intended for diffraction and spectroscopic studies using a pulsed neutron source, it might also have application for relaxational studies,at steady-state sources. The magnet will have a 5-cm bore for sample environment equipment, a 1-cm gap for the neutrons to illuminate the sample and through which to observe the scattering. It will run with a repetition frequency of 2 Hz, and a pulse length of 3 ms. We discuss scientific and engineering considerations that led to this specification and describe the designs of both magnet and power supply.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Robinson, R.A.; Boenig, H.J.; Eyssa, Y.M. & Schneider-Muntau, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting fault-current limiter and inductor design

Description: A superconducting fault current limiter (SFCL) that uses a biased superconducting inductor in a diode or thyristor bridge circuit was analyzed for transmission systems in 69, 138, and 230 rms kV utility transmission systems. The limiter was evaluated for costs with all components - superconducting coil, diode and/or SCR power electronics, high voltage insulation, high voltage bushings and vapor cooled leads, dewar, and refrigerator - included. A design was undertaken for the superconducting cable and coils for both diode and SCR 69 kV limiter circuits.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rogers, J.D.; Boenig, H.J.; Chowdhuri, P.; Schermer, R.I.; Wollan, J.J. & Weldon, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting magnetic energy storage for BPA transmission-line stabilization

Description: The Bonneville Power Administration (BPA) operates the electrical transmission system that joins the Pacific Northwest with southern California. A 30 MJ (8.4 kWh) Superconducting Magnetic Energy Storage (SMES) unit with a 10 MW converter is being installed at the Tacoma Substation to provide system damping for low frequency oscillations of 0.35 Hz. The integrated system status is described and reviewed. Components included in the system are the superconducting coil, seismically mounted in an epoxy fiberglass nonconducting dewar; a helium refrigerator; a heat rejection subsystem; a high pressure gas recovery subsystem; a liquid nitrogen trailer; the converter with power transformers and switchgear; and a computer system for remote microwave link operation of the SMES unit.
Date: January 1, 1982
Creator: Rogers, J.D.; Barron, M.H.; Boenig, H.J.; Criscuolo, A.L.; Dean, J.W. & Schermer, R.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assembly and testing of a composite heat pipe thermal intercept for HTS current leads

Description: We are building high temperature superconducting (HTS) current leads for a demonstration HTS-high gradient magnetic separation (HGMS) system cooled by a cryocooler. The current leads are entirely conductively cooled. A composite nitrogen heat pipe provides efficient thermal communication, and simultaneously electrical isolation, between the lead and an intermediate temperature heat sink. Data on the thermal and electrical performance of the heat pipe thermal intercept are presented. The electrical isolation of the heat pipe was measured as a function of applied voltage with and without a thermal load across the heat pipe. The results show the electrical isolation with evaporation, condensation and internal circulation taking place in the heat pipe.
Date: September 1, 1995
Creator: Daugherty, M.A.; Daney, D.E.; Prenger, F.C.; Hill, D.D.; Williams, P.M. & Boenig, H.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department