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Raft River 5MW(e) binary geothermal-electric power plant: operation and performance

Description: A 5MW(e) Pilot Geothermal Power Plant was built at Raft River, Idaho, as an integral part of the Department of Energy's plan for commercial development of geothermal energy. The purpose of the plant was to investigate the technical feasibility of utilizing a moderate temperature hydrothermal resource (275 to 300/sup 0/F) to generate electrical power in an environmentally acceptable manner. The plant used a dual-boiling binary cycle with isobutane as the working fluid, and drew thermal energy from a 280/sup 0/F liquid-dominated resource. This paper presents the results of that testing, comparing the system performance to the performance predicted prior to operation along with a summary of operational experience.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Bliem, C.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zeotropic mixtures of halocarbons as working fluids in binary geothermal power generation cycles

Description: The performance of Rankine cycle binary systems for geothermal power generation using a hydrothermal resource has been investigated. To date, in addition to many pure fluids, mixtures of Paraffin-type hydrocarbons and water-ammonia mixtures have been investigated. This paper gives the results of consideration of mixtures of halocarbons as working fluids in these power cycles. The performance of mixtures of Refrigerant-114 (R-114) and Refrigerant-22 (R-22) in combinations from pure R-114 to pure R-22 was calculated for such cycles. Various alternatives were considered: (1) minimum geofluid outlet temperature constraint/no constraint, (2) dry turbine expansion/expansion through vapor dome, and (3) use of turbine exhaust gas recuperator/no recuperator. Results of the study indicate that the halocarbon mixtures are at least as good as the hydrocarbon mixtures previously analyzed for a 360 F resource. The magnitude of the net geofluid effectiveness (net energy produced per unit mass geofluid flow) for the R-114/R-22 mixtures is the same as for the best hydrocarbon mixture previously analyzed. The percentage improvement in effectiveness in using mixtures over using the pure fluids as working fluids is comparable for both classes of working fluids.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary performance estimates and value analyses for binary geothermal power plants using ammonia-water mixtures as working fluids

Description: The use of ammonia-water mixtures as working fluids in binary geothermal power generation systems is investigated. The available thermodynamic data is discussed and the methods of extrapolating this data to give the quantities needed to perform analyses of the system is given. Results indicated that for a system without a recuperator and with a working fluid which is 50 percent by mass of each constituent, the geofluid effectiveness (watt-hr/lbm geofluid) is 84 percent of that for the 50MW Heber Plant. The cost of generating electric power for this system was estimated to be 9 percent greater than for the Heber Plant. However, if a recuperator is incorporated in the system (using the turbine exhaust to preheat and partially boil the working fluid) the geofluid effectiveness becomes 102 percent of that for the Heber Plant, and the cost of electricity is 5-1/4 percent lower (relative to the Heber Plant) because of less expensive equipment resulting from lower pressure, better heat transfer, and less working fluid to handle for the ammonia-water plant. These results do not necessarily represent the optimum system. Because of uncertainty in thermodynamic properties, it was felt that detailed optimization was not practical at this point. It was concluded that use of nonazeotropic mixtures of fluorocarbons as working fluids should be studied before expending further effort in the investigation of the ammonia-water mixtures.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary performance estimates of binary geothermal cycles using mixed-halocarbon working fluids

Description: The performance of Rankine cycle binary systems for power generation using a hydrothermal resource has been investigated as a part of the DOE/GTD Heat Cycle Research Program. To date mixtures of paraffin-type hydrocarbons and water-ammonia mixtures have been investigated. This report gives the first results of the consideration of mixtures of halocarbons as working fluids in these power cycles. The performance of mixtures of Refrigerant-114 (R-114) and Refrigerant-22 (R-22) in combinations from pure R-114 to pure R-22 was calculated for such cycles. Various alternatives were considered: (1) minimum geofluid outlet temperature constraint/no constraint, (2) dry turbine expansion/expansion through vapor dome, (3) use of a turbine exhaust gas recuperator/no recuperator. Results of the study indicate that the halocarbon mixtures are at least as good as the hydrocarbon mixtures previously analyzed for a 360/sup 0/F resource. The magnitude of the net geofluid effectiveness (net energy produced per unit mass geofluid flow) for the R-114/R-22 mixtures is the same as for the best hydrocarbon mixtures previously analyzed. The percentage improvement in effectiveness in using mixtures over using the pure fluids as working fluids is comparable for both classes of working fluids. Recommendations are made to continue investigation of the halocarbon mixtures as possible alternatives to the hydrocarbon working fluids.
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design and off-design operation of a dual-boiling binary geothermal power plant

Description: The design of a 5 MW(e) geothermal plant using a binary fluid process is described. The second fluid is isobutane. This plant is presently under construction at Raft River, Idaho. A mathematical simulation of the plant is discussed. The heat exchangers were modeled by dividing them into segments in the direction of flow to permit local adjustments in heat transfer coefficients and fluid properties. Sensitivity of plant performance to geofluid temperature and flow rate, heat exchanger fouling and cooling water temperatures were investigated. Conventional correlations were used for the heat transfer coefficients except for the condensing coefficient, which was obtained from a recent study at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Bliem, C.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and operability study of the Raft River 5 MW(e) pilot geothermal power plant steady-state behavior

Description: Estimates of the steady-state performance of the Raft River 5 MW(e) Pilot Geothermal Power Plant have been made using an existing digital computer simulation which has been updated to reflect the individual performance of the actual components in the plant. The plant output (gross and net) has been obtained as a function of geothermal fluid inlet temperature and flow rate and isobutane preheater bypass (boiler inlet subcooling). The plant performance has been determined for two ambient conditions (summer and winter extremes), and different conditions of heat exchanger fouling. These results along with transient simulations, which will be made in the near future, are needed to establish operating procedures and set point, check out control system, determine control gains, and set alarm points. Appendix A contains a brief description of the executive code (TAF), the mathmatical model of the plant, and the input-output requirements to obtain steady-state and transient solutions.
Date: November 13, 1979
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quick look report on the startup tests for the Raft River 5-MW(e) pilot geothermal power plant

Description: A preliminary analysis was made of the initial startup data taken between October 20 and November 2, 1981 for the 5 MW(e) Pilot Geothermal Power Plant located at the Raft River Site in southeast Idaho. This plant utilizes a dual-boiling isobutane binary cycle. Two test conditions were selected for analysis: (1) a thermal loop test with 94% of the design geofluid flow, and (2) a test at about three-fourths of the design geofluid flow in which one megawatt was generated from working-fluid flow through the low-pressure stage of the turbine. Component and system energy balances were made, and comparisons between experimental results and computer simulations of the plant were conducted. A preliminary analysis of condenser tube wall temperatures was performed. Except for a malfunction in the high pressure turbine throttle valve system, the plant performed generally as predicted, and the testing was judged to be successful.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Kalina cycle and similar cycles for geothermal power production

Description: This report contains a brief discussion of the mechanics of the Kalina cycle and ideas to extend the concept to other somewhat different cycles. A modified cycle which has a potential heat rejection advantage but little or no performance improvement is discussed. Then, the results of the application of the Kalina cycle and the modified cycle to a geothermal application (360/degree/F resource) are discussed. The results are compared with published results for the Kalina cycle with high temperature sources and estimates about performance at the geothermal temperatures. Finally, the conclusions of this scoping work are given along with recommendations of the direction of future work in this area. 11 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.
Date: September 1, 1988
Creator: Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boiler performance and liquid entrainment in a pilot geothermal power plant

Description: Two kettle boilers used in a pilot scale version of a binary geothermal power plant were tested over the life of the project. The results of that testing are presented here. In addition to the overall performance of the boilers, the problem of excessive liquid being entrained in the outlet flow was investigated. Although predictions during the design phase indicated that there would be no significant amount of liquid in the outlet vapor flow, large amounts of liquid were detected when the boiler was operated at design liquid level. Tests indicated that the amount of entrainment decreased as the apparent liquid level was decreased. The results of this testing were correlated with boiler level, boiler geometry, fluid properties and vapor velocity. The results of this correlation indicate that there is a threshold below which the entrainment is insignificent, but above that point it increases rapidly. The boilers could be operated at apparent liquid levels lower than the bundle diameter without actually uncovering tubes and thereby eliminate the entrainment. (Instrumented tubes indicated no evidence of the tubes being uncovered until the apparent level was reduced to 60 percent of the bundle diameter.)
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Bliem, C.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of recent activities in the Heat Cycle Research Program

Description: The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. To meet this objective, the program has as one of its goals to improve the performance of geothermal binary cycles to levels approaching the practicable thermodynamic maximum. In pursuit of this goal, tests are being conducted at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. In addition to the present test program, preparations are being made to investigate the binary cycle performance improvements which can be achieved by allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. These efforts are anticipated to verify that through the utilization of these advanced power cycle concepts and allowing the supersaturated turbine expansions, improvements of up to 28% in the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) over conventional binary power plants can be achieved. Results presented for the recent testing, including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations, support the assumptions used in projected performance improvements. 3 refs., 9 figs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Raft River binary-cycle geothermal pilot power plant final report

Description: The design and performance of a 5-MW(e) binary-cycle pilot power plant that used a moderate-temperature hydrothermal resource, with isobutane as a working fluid, are examined. Operating problems experienced and solutions found are discussed and recommendations are made for improvements to future power plant designs. The plant and individual systems are analyzed for design specification versus actual performance figures.
Date: April 1, 1983
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Walrath, L.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Power-cycle studies for a geothermal electric plant for MX operating bases

Description: Binary geothermal plants were investigated for providing electrical power for MX missile bases. A number of pure hydrocarbons and hydrocarbon mixtures were evaluated as working fluids for geothermal resource temperatures of 365, 400, and 450/sup 0/F. Cycle thermodynamic analyses were conducted for pure geothermal plants and for two types of coal-geothermal hybrid plants. Cycle performance results were presented as net geofluid effectiveness (net plant output in watts per geofluid flow in 1 bm/hr) and cooling water makeup effectiveness (net plant output in watts per makeup water flow in 1 bm/hr). A working fluid containing 90% (mass) isobutane/10% hexane was selected, and plant statepoints and energy balances were determined for 20MW(e) geothermal plants at each of the three resource temperatures. Working fluid heaters and condensers were sized for these plants. It is concluded that for the advanced plants investigated, geothermal resources in the 365 to 450/sup 0/F range can provide useful energy for powering MX missile bases.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Kochan, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced binary geothermal power plants working fluid property determination and heat exchanger design

Description: The performance of binary geothermal power plants can be improved through the proper choice of a working fluid, and optimization of component designs and operating conditions. This paper reviews the investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which are examining binary cycle performance improvements for moderate temperature (350 to 400 F) resources with emphasis on how the improvements may be integrated into design of binary cycles. These investigations are examining performance improvements resulting from the supercritical vaporization of mixed hydrocarbon working fluids and achieving countercurrent integral condensation with these fluids, as well as the modification of the turbine inlet state points to achieve supersaturated turbine vapor expansions. For resources where the brine outlet temperature is restricted, the use of turbine exhaust recuperators is examined. The baseline plant used to determine improvements in plant performance (characterized by the increase in the net brine effectiveness, watt-hours per pound of brine) in these studies operates at conditions similar to the 45 MW Heber binary plant. Through the selection of the optimum working fluids and operating conditions, achieving countercurrent integral condensation, and allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine, the performance of the binary cycle (the net brine effectiveness) can be improved by 25 to 30% relative to the baseline plant. 15 refs., 7 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Relative performance of supercritical binary geothermal power cycles with in-tube condensors in different orientations

Description: The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. The current testing involves the investigation of the performance of binary power cycles utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation. The utilization of these concepts will improve the net geofluid effectiveness (net plant output per unit mass of geofluid) about 20% over that of a conventional binary power plant. The major prerequisite for this improvement is the achievement of integral, countercurrent condensation. Results are presented for testing of the performance of the condenser at different tube inclinations. The performance in the vertical orientation is better than in either the horizontal or inclined orientations. 7 refs., 8 figs.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial results for supercritical cycle experiments using pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids

Description: The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility (HCRF) located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility (GTF), East Mesa, California, is presently being conducted to meet this objective. Current testing involves a supercritical vaporization and countercurrent in-tube condensing system. The paper presents a brief description of the test facility and a discussion of the test program. Preliminary results on the performance of the supercritical heaters, countercurrent in-tube condenser, and turbine are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids.
Date: January 1, 1984
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving the efficiency of binary cycles

Description: The performance of binary geothermal power plants can be improved through the proper choice of a working fluid, and optimization of component designs and operating conditions. This paper summarizes the investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which are examining binary cycle performance improvements for moderate temperature (350 to 400 F) resources. These investigations examine performance improvements resulting from the supercritical vaporization and countercurrent integral condensation of mixed hydrocarbon working fluids, as well as the modification of the turbine inlet state points to achieve supersaturated turbine vapor expansions. For resources, with the brine outlet temperature restricted, the use of turbine exhaust recuperators is examined. The reference plant used to determine improvements in plant performance in these studies operates at conditions similar to the 45 MW Heber binary plant. The brine effectiveness (watt-hours per pound of brine) is used as an indicator for improvements in performance. The performance of the binary cycle can be improved by 25 to 30% relative to the reference plant through the selection of the optimum working fluids and operating conditions, achieving countercurrent integral condensation, and allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. 9 refs., 5 figs.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Mines, G.L. & Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal Technical Report, Heat Exchanger Sizing for 20 MW Geothermal Power Plants at MX Sites

Description: This report presents the details of the analyses used to size the heaters, steam condenser, and working fluid condenser for a proposed 20 MW geothermal power plant application at MX sites in the southwest. These units would use a mixture of hydrocarbons (90% isobutane--10% n-hexane) to extract energy from moderate temperature resources (resource temperatures of 365 F, 400 F, and 450 F were considered). The working fluid will be maintained at supercritical pressures in the heater units. Studies have shown that this cycle will provide a significant net power increase over standard dual boiling single fluid cycles currently in use, e.g., the Raft River 5 MW pilot plant.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Kochan, R.J. & Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Internal Technical Report, Raft River Pump Selection Analysis

Description: The following is an analysis investigating the relation between well pumping rates and overall plant power at the 5 MW Raft River geothermal plant No.1. Information is generated to allow selection of well pumping rates, pump setting depths, and required characteristics of supply and injection pumps. The analysis proceeds with a simple analysis of plant power--flow split relationships from which the conclusion is drawn that the plant power, within certain limits, is insensitive to the flow split between wells. A more complex analysis is then performed which examines flow split sensitivity with all four wells operating and sensitivity of plant power to supply flow increases. This analysis is summarized by tentative field flow rate selections and a data table. Tentative supply and injection pump selections are made and contingency pumps are discussed.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Jacoby, J.K. & Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced Binary Geothermal Power Plancts Working Fluid Property Determination and Heat Exchanger Design

Description: The performance of binary geothermal power plants can be improved through the proper choice of a working fluid, and optimization of component designs and operating conditions. This paper reviews the investigations at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) which are examining binary cycle performance improvements: for moderate temperature (350 to 400 F) resources with emphasis on how the improvements may be integrated into design of binary cycles. These investigations are examining performance improvements resulting from the supercritical vaporization of mixed hydrocarbon working fluids and achieving countercurrent integral condensation with these fluids, as well as the modification of the turbine inlet state points to achieve supersaturated turbine vapor expansions. For resources where the brine outlet temperature is restricted, the use of turbine exhaust recuperators is examined. The baseline plant used to determine improvements in plant performance (characterized by the increase in the net brine effectiveness, watt-hours per pound of brine) in these studies operates at conditions similar to the 45 MW Heber binary plant. Through the selection of the optimum working fluids and operating conditions, achieving countercurrent integral condensation, and allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine, the performance of the binary cycle (the net brine effectiveness) can be improved by 25 to 30% relative to the baseline plant. The design of these supercritical Rankine-cycle (Binary) power plants for geothermal resources requires information about the potential working fluids used in the cycle. In addition, methods to design the various components, (e.g., heat exchangers, pumps, turbines) are needed. This paper limits its view of component design methods to the heat exchangers in binary power plants. The design of pumps and, turbines for these working fluids presents no new problems to the turbine manufacturer. However, additional work is proceeding at the Heat Cycle Research Facility to explore metastable expansions within turbines. This work, ...
Date: March 21, 1989
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersaturated Turbine Expansions for Binary Geothermal Power Plants

Description: The Heat Cycle Research project is developing the technology base that will permit a much greater utilization of the moderate-temperature, liquid-dominated geothermal resources, particularly for the generation of electrical power. The emphasis in the project has been the improvement of the performance of binary power cycles. The investigations have been examining concepts projected to improve the brine utilization by 20% relative to a ''Heber-type'' binary plant; these investigations are nearing completion. preparations are currently underway in the project to conduct field investigations of the condensation behavior of supersaturated turbine expansions. These investigations will evaluate whether the projected additional 8% to 10% improvement in brine utilization can be realized by allowing these expansions. Future program efforts will focus on the problems associated with heat rejection and on the transfer of the technology being developed to industry.
Date: March 24, 1992
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Second law analysis of advanced power generation systems using variable temperature heat sources

Description: Many systems produce power using variable temperature (sensible) heat sources. The Heat Cycle Research Program is currently investigating the potential improvements to such power cycles utilizing moderate temperature geothermal resources to produce electrical power. It has been shown that mixtures of saturated hydrocarbons (alkanes) or halogenated hydrocarbons operating with a supercritical Rankine cycle gave improved performance over boiling Rankine cycles with the pure working fluids for typical applications. Recently, in addition to the supercritical Rankine Cycle, other types of cycles have been proposed for binary geothermal service. This paper explores the limits on efficiency of a feasible plant and discusses the methods used in these advanced concept plants to achieve the maximum possible efficiency. The advanced plants considered appear to be approaching the feasible limit of performance so that the designer must weigh all considerations to fine the best plant for a given service. These results would apply to power systems in other services as well as to geothermal power plants. 17 refs., 15 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical binary geothermal cycle experiments with mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids and a near-horizontal in-tube condenser

Description: The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. Testing at the Heat Cycle Research Facility which was located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California is presently being conducted to meet this objective. The testing effort discussed in this interim report involves a supercritical vaporization and counterflow in-tube condensing system with a near horizontal tube orientation. A previous report explored the supercritical heating, supersaturated turbine expansions and the condenser performance in the vertical orientation. This report presents a description of the test facility and results from a part of the program in which the condenser was oriented in a nearly horizontal orientation. Results of the experiments for the in-tube condenser in a nearly horizontal orientation are given for both pure and mixed-hydrocarbon working fluids. Although most of the data is for a completely active condenser in countercurrent flow, some data is available for a configuration in which half of the tubes were plugged and some data for cocurrent (parallel) flow is analyzed. The horizontal-oriented condenser behavior predicted by the Heat Transfer Research Institute computer codes used for correlation of the data was not in agreement with experimental results at this orientation. Some reasons for this difference are discussed. A special series of tests, conducted with propane and up to approximately 40% isopentane concentration, indicated that a close approach to integral'' condensation has occurred as was the case with the horizontally oriented condenser (similar results were obtained for the vertical condenser). 18 refs., 37 figs., 15 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1989
Creator: Bliem, C.J. & Mines, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of a 5-MW(e) binary geothermal-electric power plant

Description: A 5-MW(e) Pilot Geothermal Power Plant was built by the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL), at Raft River, Idaho, as an integral part of the Department of Energy's plan for commercial development of geothermal energy. The purpose of the plant was to investigate the technical feasibility of utilizing a moderate temperature hydrothermal resource (275 to 300/sup 0/F) to generate electrical power in an environmentally acceptable manner. The plant used a dual-boiling binary cycle with isobutane as the working fluid, and drew thermal energy from a 280/sup 0/F liquid-dominated resource. This paper presents the results of that testing, and compares both component and system performance to the performance predicted prior to operation.
Date: January 1, 1983
Creator: Bliem, C.J.; Fullmer, K.S. & Kochan, R.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal heat cycle research: Supercritical cycle with horizontal counterflow condenser

Description: The Heat Cycle Research Program, which is being conducted for the Department of Energy, has as its objective the development of the technology for effecting the improved utilization of moderate temperature geothermal resources. To meet this objective, the program has as one of its goals to improve the performance of geothermal binary cycles to levels approaching the practicable thermodynamic maximum. In pursuit of this goal, tests are being conducted at the Heat Cycle Research Facility located at the DOE Geothermal Test Facility, East Mesa, California. The current testing involves the investigation of binary power cycle performance utilizing mixtures of non-adjacent hydrocarbons as the working fluids, with supercritical vaporization and in-tube condensation of the working fluid. In addition to the present test program, preparations are being made to investigate the binary cycle performance improvements which can be achieved by allowing supersaturated vapor expansions in the turbine. These efforts are anticipated to verify that through the utilization of these advanced power cycle concepts and allowing the supersaturated turbine expansions, improvements of up to 28% in the net geofluid effectiveness (net watt hours plant output per pound of geofluid) over conventional binary power plants can be achieved. Results are presented for the recent testing including those tests examining the performance of the countercurrent condenser at different tube inclinations. Performance of the heaters and the condenser in a vertical orientation can be predicted well with existing methods and data. The condenser in its near horizontal orientation performs slightly worse than in its vertical orientation. Some problems have been encountered in predicting the performance in the horizontal orientation. There is no evidence of departure from integral condensation in either orientation.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Mines, G.L.; Swank, W.D. & Bliem, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department