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Transmission Grating Measurements of Undulator K

Description: This study was undertaken to understand the practicalities of determine K differences in the undulator modules by measuring single-shot x-ray spectra of the spontaneous radiation with a transmissive grating spectrometer under development to measure FEL spectra. Since the quality of the FEL is dependent on a uniform K value in all the undulator modules, being able to measure the relative undulator K values is important. Preliminary results were presented in a presentation, 'Use of FEL Off-Axis Zone Plate Spectrometer to Measure Relative K by the Pinhole/Centroid Method', at the 'LCLS Beam-Based Undulator K Measurements Workshop' on November 14, 2005 (UCRL-PRES-217281). This study applies equally well to reflective gratings of the appropriate period and inclinations.
Date: December 1, 2010
Creator: Bionta, R. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Color gamma ray camera: Laboratory directed research & development (LDRD) FY 1995

Description: Gamma-Ray imaging is a potentially powerful tool for the areas of arms-control, counter proliferation, safeguards and forensics. Combining spectral and spatial information increases the amount of information available for the detection and characterization of Special Nuclear Material (SNM). Two advanced gamma ray imaging technologies have been completed and are nearing completion at LLNL. These include the Gamma Ray Imaging System (GRIS), used to detect sub-600 keV gamma rays, and the Gamma Ray Bar Imaging Telescope (GRABIT), which extends the work of GRIS to larger areas and higher energies ({approximately}1000 keV). We proposed to continue work on a third, complementary type of detector, a Gamma Ray Color Camera (GRCC), which will incorporate spatial and spectral information from a gamma emitter.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Bionta, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transmission Grating Measurements of Undulator K

Description: This study was undertaken to understand the practicalities of determine K differences in the undulator modules by measuring single-shot x-ray spectra of the spontaneous radiation with a transmissive grating spectrometer under development to measure FEL spectra. Since the quality of the FEL is dependent on a uniform K value in all the undulator modules, being able to measure the relative undulator K values is important. Preliminary results were presented in a presentation, ''Use of FEL Off-Axis Zone Plate Spectrometer to Measure Relative K by the Pinhole/Centroid Method'', at the ''LCLS Beam-Based Undulator K Measurements Workshop'' on November 14, 2005 (UCRL-PRES-217281). This study applies equally well to reflective gratings of the appropriate period and inclinations.
Date: May 15, 2006
Creator: Bionta, R M & Ott, L L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Low temperature reactive bonding

Description: Disclosed is a joining technique that requires no external heat source and generates very little heat. It involves the reaction of thin multilayered films deposited on faying (closely fit or joining) surfaces to create a stable compound that functions as an intermediate or braze material in order to create a high strength bond. While high temperatures are reached in the reaction of the multilayer film, very little heat is generated because the films are very thin. It is essentially a room temperature joining process. It can be used for joining silicon wafers and integrated circuits.
Date: June 23, 1995
Creator: Makowiecki, D.M. & Bionta, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and evaluation of transmissive multilayer optics for 8 keV x rays. [Zone plates]

Description: We have investigated an alternative technique for fabricating zone plates that operate in the 5 to 10 keV regime. Ultimately we plan to make zone plates by sputtering alternating layers of opaque and transparent materials onto a thin wire core, then slicing perpendicular to the core axis to produce many zone plates. This technique shows promise for making x-ray optical elements that can be used in industrial crystallography, microprobe and radiography equipment. In a previous publication we reported on the favorable comparison between the measured performance of an Al/Ta diffraction grating and our numerical simulation. In this report we concentrate on the fabrication techniques used to produce diffraction gratings and linear zone plates. 2 refs., 10 figs.
Date: December 1, 1987
Creator: Bionta, R.M.; Jankowski, A.F. & Makowiecki, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and evaluation of transmissive multilayer optics for 8 keV x rays

Description: We have made and tested several sliced multilayer structures which can function as transmissive x-ray optical elements (diffraction gratings, zone plates, and phase gratings) at 8 keV. Our automated multilayer sputtering system is optimized to sputter layers of arbitrary thickness for very large total deposits at high deposition rates. Diffraction patterns produced by the multilayer devices closely match theoretical predictions. Such transmissive optics have the potential for wide application in high resolution microscope and spectrometer systems. 13 refs., 10 figs.
Date: January 21, 1988
Creator: Bionta, R.M.; Jankowski, A.F. & Makowiecki, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gamma Ray Burst Optical Counterpart Search Experiment (GROCSE)

Description: GROCSE (Gamma-Ray Optical Counterpart Search Experiments) is a system of automated telescopes that search for simultaneous optical activity associated with gamma ray bursts in response to real-time burst notifications provided by the BATSE/BACODINE network. The first generation system, GROCSE 1, is sensitive down to Mv {approximately} 8.5 and requires an average of 12 seconds to obtain the first images of the gamma ray burst error box defined by the BACODINE trigger. The collaboration is now constructing a second generation system which has a 4 second slewing time and can reach Mv {approximately} 14 with a 5 second exposure. GROCSE 2 consists of 4 cameras on a single mount. Each camera views the night sky through a commercial Canon lens (f/1.8, focal length 200 mm) and utilizes a 2K x 2K Loral CCD. Light weight and low noise custom readout electronics were designed and fabricated for these CCDs. The total field of view of the 4 cameras is 17.6 x 17.6 {degree}. GROCSE II will be operated by the end of 1995. In this paper, the authors present an overview of the GROCSE system and the results of measurements with a GROCSE 2 prototype unit.
Date: October 27, 1995
Creator: Park, H.S.; Ables, E. & Bionta, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Transmissive Optics Approach for Time-Slicing the LCLS X-Ray Pulse

Description: This paper investigates the use of off-axis zone plate optical systems to deliver time-sliced LCLS FEL pulses to users under the 3 energy chirp scenarios elucidated by P. Emma. We present formulas for designing off-axis zone plate optical systems that achieve a given time-slice duration and intensity. The results show that it is feasible to fabricate zone-plate systems capable of providing intense spots of time-sliced 8.275 KeV photons under the scenario of a 2.0% chirp, but that it is beyond current and envisioned fabrication capabilities to create zone-plate systems of similar performance under the scenarios offering energy chirps of < 0.25%. Finally we present results of numerical calculations of the electric fields delivered to the user by an off-axis zone plate optical system producing time-slices of {le} 50 {center_dot} fs with photon densities of 200 photons/{angstrom}{sup 2} under the 2% energy chirp scenario.
Date: May 17, 2000
Creator: Bionta, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Controlling Dose to Low Z Solids at LCLS

Description: Calculations of the dose suffered by the low Z solids, Li, Be, B, B{sub 4}C, BeO and C at various points along the LCLS beamline as a function of FEL photon energy are presented. Specific column densities of attenuator gases necessary to control the dose to C are calculated for assumed damage thresholds of 0.1 eV/atom and 0.01 eV/atom.
Date: January 3, 2000
Creator: Bionta, R.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Soft X-ray Mirrors for the Linac Coherent Light Source

Description: The Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) is a 0.15-1.5 nm wavelength free-electron laser (FEL) being constructed at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center (SLAC) by a multi-institution consortium, including Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL). One of LLNL's responsibilities involves the design and construction of two grazing-incidence mirror systems whose primary intent is to reduce radiation levels in the experimental halls by separating the FEL beam from unwanted high-energy photons. This paper discusses one of these systems, the Soft X-ray Offset Mirror System (SOMS) that will operate in the wavelength range 0.62-1.5 nm (0.827-2.00 keV). The unusual properties of the FEL beam translate to stringent specifications in terms of stability, material choice and mirror properties. It also precludes using approaches previously developed for synchrotron light sources. This situation has led us to a unique mirror design, consisting of a reflective boron carbide layer deposited on a silicon substrate. In the first part of this paper, we discuss the basic system requirements for the SOMS and motivate the need for these novel reflective elements. In the second part of this paper, we discuss the development work we have performed, including simulation and experimental verification of the boron carbide coating properties, and the expected performance of the final system.
Date: August 13, 2007
Creator: Pivovaroff, M. J.; Bionta, R. M.; Mccarville, T. J.; Soufli, R. & Stefan, P. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas (Rev. 1)

Description: A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator has to operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. A detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas has been recently carried out by S. Shen [1]. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues; the design features will probably be not that different from the aforementioned nitrogen attenuator. Although specific results obtained in our note pertain to argon, the general framework (and many equations obtained) are applicable also to the nitrogen attenuator. In the past, an analysis of the attenuator based on the use of a noble gas has already been carried out [2]. This analysis was performed for an extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed x-ray beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the facility. A ...
Date: January 3, 2006
Creator: Ryutov, D D; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Shen, S & Trent, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics Analysis of a Gas Attenuator with Argon as a Working Gas

Description: A gas attenuator is an important element of the LCLS facility. The attenuator has to operate in a broad range of x-ray energies, provide attenuation coefficient between 1 and 10{sup 4} with the accuracy of 1% and, at the same time, be reliable and allow for many months of un-interrupted operation. A detailed design study of the attenuator based on the use of nitrogen as a working gas has been recently carried out by S. Shen et al [1]. In this note we assess the features of the attenuator based on the use of argon. We concentrate on the physics issues; the design features will probably be not that different from the aforementioned nitrogen attenuator. Although specific results obtained in our note pertain to argon, the general framework (and many equations obtained) are applicable also to the nitrogen attenuator. In the past, an analysis of the attenuator based on the use of a noble gas has already been carried out [2]. This analysis was performed for an extremely stringent set of specifications. In particular, a very large diameter for the unobstructed x-ray beam was set (1 cm) to accommodate the spontaneous radiation; the attenuator was supposed to cover the whole range of energies of the coherent radiation, from 800 eV to 8000 eV; the maximum attenuation was set at the level of 10{sup 4}; the use of solid attenuators was not allowed, as well as the use of rotating shutters. The need to reach a sufficient absorption at the high-energy end of the spectrum predetermined the choice of Xe as the working gas (in order to have a reasonable absorption at a not-too-high pressure). A sophisticated differential pumping system that included a Penning-type ion pump was suggested in order to minimize the gas leak into the undulator/accelerator part of the ...
Date: December 19, 2005
Creator: Ryutov, D D; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Shen, S & Trent, J W
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication of Cryogenic Manganite Bolometers to Measure the Total Energy at the LCLS Free Electron X-ray Laser

Description: We are developing cryogenic bolometers to measure the total energy of the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS) free electron X-ray laser that is currently being built at the Stanford Linear Accelerator Center. LCLS will produce ultrashort {approx}200 fs X-ray laser pulses with {approx}10{sup 13} photons at 0.8 keV up to {approx}10{sup 12} photons at 8 keV per pulse at a repeat interval as short as 8 ms, and will be accompanied by a halo of spontaneous undulator radiation. Our bolometer consists of a 375 {micro}m thick Si absorber and a Nd{sub 0.67}Sr{sub 0.33}MnO{sub 3} sensor operated at its metal-insulator transition. It will measure the total energy of each pulse with a precision of <1%, and is designed to meet the conflicting requirements of radiation hardness, sensitivity, linearity over a dynamic range of three orders of magnitude, and readout speed compatible with the LCLS pulse rate. Here we discuss bolometer design and fabrication, and the photoresponse of prototype devices to pulsed optical lasers.
Date: June 14, 2008
Creator: Drury, O B; Yong, G J; Kolagani, R M; Liang, Y; Gardner, C; Ables, E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Instrumentation of LOTIS: Livermore Optical Transient Imaging System; a fully automated wide field of view telescope system searching for simultaneous optical counterparts of gamma ray bursts

Description: LOTIS is a rapidly slewing wide-field-of-view telescope which was designed and constructed to search for simultaneous gamma-ray burst (GRB) optical counterparts. This experiment requires a rapidly slewing ({lt} 10 sec), wide-field-of-view ({gt} 15{degrees}), automatic and dedicated telescope. LOTIS utilizes commercial tele-photo lenses and custom 2048 x 2048 CCD cameras to view a 17.6 x 17.6{degrees} field of view. It can point to any part of the sky within 5 sec and is fully automated. It is connected via Internet socket to the GRB coordinate distribution network which analyzes telemetry from the satellite and delivers GRB coordinate information in real-time. LOTIS started routine operation in Oct. 1996. In the idle time between GRB triggers, LOTIS systematically surveys the entire available sky every night for new optical transients. This paper will describe the system design and performance.
Date: March 6, 1998
Creator: Park, H.S.; Ables, E.; Barthelmy, S.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Ott, L.L.; Parker, E.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary limits on the flux of muon neutrinos from extraterrestrial point sources

Description: We present the arrival directions of 117 upward-going muon events collected with the IMB proton lifetime detector during 317 days of live detector operation. The rate of upward-going muons observed in our detector was found to be consistent with the rate expected from atmospheric neutrino production. The upper limit on the total flux of extraterrestrial neutrinos >1 GeV is <0.06 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec. Using our data and a Monte Carlo simulation of high energy muon production in the earth surrounding the detector, we place limits on the flux of neutrinos from a point source in the Vela X-2 system of <0.009 neutrinos/cm/sup 2/-sec with E > 1 GeV. 6 refs., 5 figs.
Date: July 3, 1985
Creator: Bionta, R.M.; Blewitt, G.; Bratton, C.B.; Casper, D.; Cortez, B.G.; Chrysicopoulou, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High rate resistive plate chambers: An inexpensive, fast, large area detector of energetic charged particles for accelerator and non-accelerator applications

Description: Resistive Plate Chambers, or RPCs, have been used until recently as large detectors of cosmic ray muons. They are now finding use as fast large-area trigger and muon detection systems for different high energy physics detectors such the L3 Detector at LEP and future detectors to be built at the Superconducting Super Collider (SSC) and at the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN. RPC systems at these accelerators must operate with high efficiency, providing nanosecond timing resolution in particle fluences up to a few tens of kHz/cm{sup 2} -- with thousands of square meters of active area. RPCs are simple and cheap to construct. The authors report here recent work on RPCs using new materials that exhibit a combination of desirable RPC features such as low bulk resistivity, high dielectric strength, low mass, and low cost. These new materials were originally developed for use in electronics assembly areas and other applications, where static electric charge buildup can damage sensitive electrical systems.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Wuest, C. R.; Ables, E.; Bionta, R. M.; Clamp, O.; Haro, M.; Mauger, G. J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beryllium based multilayers for normal incidence extreme ultraviolet reflectivity

Description: The need for normal incidence mirrors maintaining reflectivity greater than 60% for an industrially competitive Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUV) system has been well documented. The Molybdenum/Silicon system has emerged as the de-facto standard, where researchers are now routinely fabricating mirrors demonstrating 63% reflectivity near 130 Angstroms. However, multilayer mirrors using beryllium as the low atomic number (low-Z) spacer could potentially show similar or better reflectivity, and operate at wavelengths down to the beryllium K-edge at 111 Angstroms. Besides offering potentially greater reflectivity, the shorter wavelength light offers increased dissolution depth in photoresists, and offers potentially better resolution and depth of focus. We will report our latest results from beryllium based multilayers. The mirrors were fabricated at the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) and tested at the Center for X-Ray Optics at Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (CXRO/LBL).
Date: May 26, 1994
Creator: Skulina, K. M.; Alford, C.; Bionta, R. M.; Makowiecki, D. M.; Kortright, J.; Soufli, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Physics of the Gas Attenuator for the Linac Coherent Light Source (LCLS)

Description: A systematic assessment of a variety of physics issues affecting the performance of the LCLS X-ray beam attenuator is presented. Detailed analysis of the gas flow in the gas attenuator and in the apertures is performed. A lot of attention is directed towards the gas ionization and heating by intense X-ray pulses. The role of these phenomena in possible deviations of the attenuation coefficient from its 'dialed in' value is evaluated and found small in most cases. Other sources of systematic and statistical errors are also discussed. The regimes where the errors may reach a few percent correspond to the lower X-ray energies (less than 2 keV) and highest beam intensities. Other effects discussed include chemical interaction of the gas with apertures, shock formation in the transonic flow in the apertures of the attenuator, generation of electromagnetic wakes in the gas, and head-to-tail variation of the attenuation caused by the ionization of gas or solid. Possible experimental tests of the consistency of the physics assumptions used in the concept of the gas attenuator are discussed. Interaction of X-rays with the solid attenuator (that will be used at higher X-ray energies, from 2.5 to 8 keV) is considered and thermo-mechanical effects caused by the beam heating are evaluated. Wave-front distortions induced by non-uniform heating of both the solid and the gas are found to be small. An overall conclusion drawn from the analysis presented is that the attenuator will be a reliable and highly versatile device, provided that some caution is exercised in its use for highest beam intensities at lowest X-ray energies.
Date: February 7, 2011
Creator: Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; McMahon, D.; Roeben, M.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precision Measurement of the Undulator K Parameter using Spontaneous Radiation

Description: Obtaining precise values of the undulator parameter, K, is critical for producing high-gain FEL radiation. At the LCLS [1], where the FEL wavelength reaches down to 1.5 {angstrom}, the relative precision of K must satisfy ({Delta}K/K){sub rms} {approx}&lt; 0.015% over the full length of the undulator. Transverse misalignments, construction errors, radiation damage, and temperature variations all contribute to errors in the mean K values among the undulator segments. It is therefore important to develop some means to measure relative K values, after installation and alignment. We propose a method using the angle-integrated spontaneous radiation spectrum of two nearby undulator segments, and the natural shot-to-shot energy jitter of the electron beam. Simulation of this scheme is presented using both ideal and measured undulator fields. By ''leap-frogging'' to different pairs of segments with extended separations we hope to confirm or correct the values of K, including proper tapering, over the entire 130-m long LCLS undulator.
Date: April 17, 2007
Creator: Welch, J.J.; Arthur, J.; Emma, P.; Hastings, J.B.; Huang, Z.; Nuhn, H.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Operating the LCLS Gas Attenuator and Gas Detector System with Apertures of 6mm Diameter

Description: The possibility of increasing the apertures of the LCLS gas attenuator/gas detector system is considered. It is shown that increase of the apertures from 3 to 6 mm, together with 4-fold reduction of the operation pressure does not adversely affect the vacuum conditions upstream or downstream. No change of the pump speed and the lengths of the differential pumping cells is required. One minor modification is the use of 1.5 cm long tubular apertures in the end cells of the differential pumping system. Reduction of the pressure does not affect performance of the gas attenuator/gas detector system at the FEL energies below, roughly, 2 keV. Some minor performance degradation occurs at higher energies.
Date: November 17, 2010
Creator: Ryutov, D.D.; Bionta, R.M.; Hau-Riege, S.P.; Kishiyama, K.I.; Roeben, M.D.; Shen, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proton radiography as a means of material characterization

Description: The authors describe how protons with energies of 800 MeV or greater can be used as radiographic probes for material characterization. A feature which distinguishes protons from x-rays is their charge, which results in multiple Coulomb scattering effects in proton radiographs. Magnetic lensing can ameliorate these effects and even allow mixed substances to be disentangled. They illustrate some of these effects using 800 MeV protons radiographs of a composite step wedge composed of Aluminum, Foam, and Graphite. They discuss how proton radiographs must be manipulated in order to use standard tomographic reconstruction algorithms. They conclude with a brief description of an upcoming experiment, which is performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory at 25 GeV.
Date: June 23, 1999
Creator: Aufderheide, M B; Barnes, P D; Bionta, R M; Hartouni, E P; Morris, C L; Park, H S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Damage threshold of inorganic solids under free-electron-laser irradiation at 32.5 nm wavelength

Description: We exposed samples of B4C, amorphous C, chemical-vapor-deposition (CVD)-diamond C, Si, and SiC to single 25 fs-long pulses of 32.5 nm free-electron-laser radiation at fluences of up to 2.2 J/cm{sup 2}. The samples were chosen as candidate materials for x-ray free electron laser (XFEL) optics. We found that the threshold for surface-damage is on the order of the fluence required for thermal melting. For larger fluences, the crater depths correspond to temperatures on the order of the critical temperature, suggesting that the craters are formed by two-phase vaporization [1]. XFELs have the promise of producing extremely high-intensity ultrashort pulses of coherent, monochromatic radiation in the 1 to 10 keV regime. The expected high output fluence and short pulse duration pose significant challenges to the optical components, including radiation damage. It has not been possible to obtain direct experimental verification of the expected damage thresholds since appropriate x-ray sources are not yet available. FLASH has allowed us to study the interaction of high-fluence short-duration photon pulses with materials at the shortest wavelength possible to date. With these experiments, we have come closer to the extreme conditions expected in XFEL-matter interaction scenarios than previously possible.
Date: December 3, 2007
Creator: Hau-Riege, S; London, R A; Bionta, R M; McKernan, M A; Baker, S L; Krzywinski, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department