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Betatron-Function Measurement in Lattices with 90-Degrees Sections

Description: Lattice functions derived from betatron phase-advance measurements have been used successfully at many e{sup +}-e{sup -} facilities in the world, including at the PEP-II High Energy Ring. For the Low energy Ring of PEP-II, however, extraction of meaningful beta functions is hampered by the 90{sup o} phase advance/cell in the arcs, which causes a singularity in the expressions for beta. An algorithm has been developed calculating beta functions based on {beta} and {alpha} at the beginning of an arc and tracking the Twiss parameters through the arc while matching the observed phase advance/cell. Stability of the algorithm is improved by doing the same calculation 'backward' as well as forward and averaging the result. The algorithm allows estimating beta functions at bad BPMs in many cases. The paper presents the algorithm used as well as examples of use in PEP.
Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Biagini, M.E. & /Frascati
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Beam-Beam Simulations for a Single Pass SuperB-Factory

Description: A study of beam-beam collisions for an asymmetric single pass SuperB-Factory is presented [1]. In this scheme an e{sup -} and an e{sup +} beam are first stored and damped in two Damping Rings (DR), then extracted, compressed and focused to the IP. After collision the two beams are re-injected in the DR to be damped and extracted for collision again. The explored beam parameters are similar to those used in the design of the International Linear Collider, except for the beam energies. Flat beams and round beams were compared in the simulations in order to optimize both luminosity performances and beam blowup after collision. With such approach a luminosity of the order of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be achieved.
Date: May 18, 2007
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; /Frascati; Raimondi, P.; Seeman, J.; /SLAC; Schulte, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Preliminary Interaction Region Design for a Super B-Factory

Description: The success of the two B-Factories (PEP-II and KEKB) has encouraged us to look at design parameters for a B-Factory with a 30-50 times increase in the luminosity of the present machines to a luminosity of L {approx} 1 x 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}. We present an initial design of an interaction region for a ''SuperB'' accelerator with a crossing angle of {+-}14 mrad and include a discussion of the constraints, requirements and concerns that go into designing an interaction region for these very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} machines.
Date: June 10, 2005
Creator: Sullivan, M.; Donald, M.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seeman, J.; Wienands, U. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Touschek Background and Lifetime Studies for the SuperB Factory

Description: The novel crab waist collision scheme under test at the DA{Phi}NE Frascati {Phi}-factory finds its natural application to the SuperB project, the asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} flavour factory at very high luminosity with relatively low beam currents and reduced backgrounds. The SuperB accelerator design requires a careful choice of beam parameters to reach a good trade-off between different effects. We present here simulation results for the Touschek backgrounds and lifetime obtained for both the low and high energy rings for different machine designs. A first set of horizontal collimators has been studied to stop Touschek particles. A study of the distributions of the Touschek particle losses at the interaction region into the detectors for further investigations is underway.
Date: August 26, 2010
Creator: Boscolo, M.; Biagini, M.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati; Sullivan, M.; /SLAC et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An Improved Design for a Super-B Interaction Region

Description: We present an improved design for a Super-B interaction region. The new design attempts to minimize the bending of the two colliding beams which results from shared magnetic elements near the Interaction Point (IP). The total crossing angle at the IP is increased from 34 mrad to 50 mrad and the distance from the IP to the first quadrupole is increased. Although the two beams still travel through this shared magnet, these changes allow for a new magnetic field design with a septum which gives the magnet two magnetic centers. This greatly reduces the beam bending from this shared quadrupole and thereby reduces the radiative bhabha background for the detector as well as any beam emittance growth from the bending. We describe the new design for the interaction region.
Date: July 25, 2008
Creator: Sullivan, M.K.; Seeman, J.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Bettoni, S.; /CERN et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameters for a Super-Flavor-Factory

Description: A Super Flavor Factory, an asymmetric energy e{sup +}e{sup -} collider with a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, can provide a sensitive probe of new physics in the flavor sector of the Standard Model. The success of the PEP-II and KEKB asymmetric colliders in producing unprecedented luminosity above 10{sup 34} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider in a new parameter regime. Furthermore, the success of the SLAC Linear Collider and the subsequent work on the International Linear Collider allow a new Super-Flavor collider to also incorporate linear collider techniques. This note describes the parameters of an asymmetric Flavor-Factory collider at a luminosity of order 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the Y(4S) resonance and about 10{sup 35} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} at the {tau} production threshold. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the Y(4S) resonance. In the following note only the parameters relative to the Y(4S) resonance will be shown, the ones relative to the lower energy operations are still under study.
Date: June 27, 2006
Creator: Seeman, J.T.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Novokhatski, A.; Seryi, A.; Sullivan, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Further Progress on a Design for a Super-B Interaction Region

Description: We present an improved design for a SuperB interaction region. The new design minimizes local bending of the two colliding beams by separating all beam magnetic elements near the Interaction Point (IP). The total crossing angle at the IP is increased from 48 mrad to 60 mrad. The first magnetic element is a six slice Permanent Magnet (PM) quadrupole with an elliptical aperture allowing us to increase the vertical space for the beam. This magnet starts 36 cm from the Interaction Point (IP). This magnet is only seen by the Low-Energy Beam (LEB), the High-Energy Beam (HEB) has a drift space at this location. This allows the preliminary focusing of the LEB which has a smaller beta y* at the IP than the HEB. The rest of the final focusing for both beams is achieved by two super-conducting side-by-side quadrupoles (QD0 and QF1). These sets of magnets are enclosed in a warm bore cryostat located behind the PM quadrupole for the LEB. We describe this design for the interaction region.
Date: May 20, 2009
Creator: Sullivan, M; Bertsche, K.; Seeman, J.; Wienands, U.; /SLAC; Biagini, M.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUPER-B LATTICE STUDIES

Description: The SuperB asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} collider is designed for 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} luminosity and beam energies of 6.7 and 4.18 GeV for e{sup +} and e{sup -} respectively. The High and Low Energy Rings (HER and LER) have one Interaction Point (IP) with 66 mrad crossing angle. The 1258 m rings fit to the INFN-LNF site at Frascati. The ring emittance is minimized for the high luminosity. The Final Focus (FF) chromaticity correction is optimized for maximum transverse acceptance and energy bandwidth. Included Crab Waist sextupoles suppress betatron resonances induced in the collisions with a large Piwinski angle. The LER Spin Rotator sections provide longitudinally polarized electron beam at the IP. The lattice is flexible for tuning the machine parameters and compatible with reusing the PEP-II magnets, RF cavities and other components. Details of the lattice design are presented.
Date: August 25, 2010
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Raimondi, P.; /Frascati; Piminov, P.; Sinyatkin, S.; /Novosibirsk, IYF et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Parameters of a Super-B-Factory Design

Description: Parameters are being studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity in the range of 7 to 10 x 10{sup 35}/cm{sup 2}/s. Particle physics studies dictate that a much higher luminosity collider than the present B-Factory accelerators will be needed to answer future new key physics questions. The success of the present B-Factories, PEP-II and KEKB, in producing unprecedented luminosity with very short commissioning times has taught us about the accelerator physics of asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} colliders in a new parameter regime. Such a collider could produce an integrated luminosity of 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year. A Super-B-Factory [1-8] with 30 to 50 times the performance of the present PEP-II accelerator would incorporate a higher frequency RF system, lower impedance vacuum chambers, higher power synchrotron radiation absorbers, and stronger bunch-by-bunch feedback systems. The present injector based on the SLAC linac needs no improvements and is ready for the Super-B-Factory.
Date: March 3, 2006
Creator: Seeman, J.; Cai, Y.; Ecklund, S.; Fox, J.D.; Heifets, S.A.; Li, N. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Low Emittance Lattice for the Super-B Accelerator

Description: New low emittance lattices have been designed for the asymmetric SuperB accelerator, aiming at a luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}. Main optics features are two alternating arc cells with different horizontal phase advance, decreasing beam emittance and allowing at the same time for easy chromaticity correction in the arcs. Emittance can be further reduced by a factor of two for luminosity upgrade. Spin rotation schemes for the e{sup -} beam have been studied to provide longitudinal polarization at the IP, and implementation into the lattice is in progress.
Date: October 21, 2011
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Boscolo, M.; Raimondi, P.; Tomassini, S.; Zobov, M.; /Frascati et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PEP-II Status and Outlook

Description: PEP-II/BABAR are presently in their second physics run. With machine and detector performance and reliability at an all-time high, almost 51 fb{sup -1} have been integrated by BABAR up to mid-October 2001. PEP-II luminosity has reached 4.4 x 10{sup 33} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and our highest monthly delivered luminosity has been above 6 pb{sup -1}, exceeding the performance parameters given in the PEP-II CDR by almost 50%. The increase compared to the first run in 2000 has been achieved by a combination of beam-current increase and beam-size decrease. In this paper we will summarize the PEP-II performance and the present limitations as well as our plans to further increase machine performance.
Date: April 24, 2012
Creator: Wienands, H.U.; Biagini, M.E.; Decker, F.J.; Donald, M.H.; Ecklund, S.; Fisher, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAPHNE Operation And Plans for DAPHNE2

Description: The e{sup +}e{sup -} collider DA{Phi}NE, a 1.02 GeV c.m. {Phi}-factory, has reached a peak luminosity of about 1.4 x 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} and a peak integrated luminosity in one day of about 8.6 pb{sup -1}. With the current rates the physics program of the three main experiments DEAR, FINUDA and KLOE will be completed by the end of 2007. In this paper we describe in detail the steps which have led to the luminosity improvement and the options for the upgrade of the collider towards higher energy and/or luminosity.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Zobov, M.; Alesini, D.; Benedetti, G.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the SPARC Project

Description: The SPARC project has entered its installation phase at the Frascati National Laboratories of INFN: its main goal, the promotion of an R&D activity oriented to the development of a high brightness photoinjector to drive SASE-FEL experiments, is being vigorously pursued by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata-INFM-ST. In this paper we will report on the installation and test of some major components, like Ti:Sa laser system, RF gun and RF power system. Advancements in the control and beam diagnostics systems will also be reported, in particular on the emittance-meter device for beam emittance measurements in the drift space downstream the RF gun. Recent results on laser pulse shaping show the feasibility of producing 10 ps flat-top laser pulses in the UV with rise time below 1 ps. First FEL experiments have been proposed, using SASE, seeding and non-linear resonant harmonics.
Date: January 25, 2006
Creator: Alesini, D.; Bertolucci, S.; Bellaveglia, M.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SuperB Accelerator: Overview and Lattice Studies

Description: SuperB aims at the construction of a very high luminosity (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}) asymmetric e{sup +}e{sup -} Flavour Factory, with possible location at the campus of the University of Rome Tor Vergata, near the INFN Frascati National Laboratory. In this paper the basic principles of the design and details on the lattice are given. SuperB is a new machine that can exploit novel very promising design approaches: (1) large Piwinski angle scheme will allow for peak luminosity of the order of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1}, well beyond the current state-of-the-art, without a significant increase in beam currents or shorter bunch lengths; (2) 'crab waist' sextupoles will be used for suppression of dangerous resonances; (3) the low beam currents design presents reduced detector and background problems, and affordable operating costs; (4) a polarized electron beam can produce polarized {tau} leptons, opening an entirely new realm of exploration in lepton flavor physics. SuperB studies are already proving useful to the accelerator and particle physics communities. The principle of operation is being tested at DAFNE. The baseline lattice, based on the reuse of all PEP-II hardware, fits in the Tor Vergata University campus site, near Frascati. A CDR is being reviewed by an International Review Committee, chaired by J. Dainton (UK). A Technical Design Report will be prepared to be ready by beginning of 2010.
Date: November 22, 2011
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S.; Preger, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Super-B Project Accelerator Status

Description: The SuperB project is an international effort aiming at building in Italy a very high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} (10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1}) asymmetric collider at the Y(4S) energy in the CM. The accelerator design has been extensively studied and changed during the past year. The present design, based on the new collision scheme, with large Piwinski angle and the use of 'crab waist' sextupoles already successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF Frascati, provides larger flexibility, better dynamic aperture and spin manipulation sections in the Low Energy Ring (LER) for longitudinal polarization of the electron beam at the Interaction Point (IP). The Interaction Region (IR) has been further optimized in terms of apertures and reduced backgrounds in the detector. The injector complex design has been also updated. A summary of the project status will be presented in this paper. The SuperB collider can reach a peak luminosity of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} sec{sup -1} with beam currents and bunch lengths similar to those of the past and present e{sup +}e{sup -} Factories, through the use of smaller emittances and new scheme of crossing angle collision. The beams are stored in two rings at 6.7 GeV (HER) and 4.2 GeV (LER). Unique features of the project are the polarization of the electron beam in the LER and the possibility to decrease the energies for running at the {tau}/charm threshold. The option to reuse the PEP-II B-Factory (SLAC) hardware will allow reducing costs. The SuperB facility will require a big complex of civil infrastructure. The main construction, which will house the final part of the LINAC, the injection lines, the damping rings, and the storage rings, will be mainly underground. Two sites have been considered: the campus of Tor Vergata University near Frascati, and the INFN Frascati Laboratory. ...
Date: August 17, 2011
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Alesini, D.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposal of An Experiment on Bunch Length Modulation in DAFNE

Description: Obtaining very short bunches is an issue especially for colliders but also for CSR sources. The modulation of the bunch length in a strong rf focusing regime had been proposed, corresponding to a high value of the synchrotron tune. A ring structure where the function R56 along the ring oscillates between large positive and negative values will produce bunch length modulation. The synchrotron frequency can be tuned both by the rf power and by the integral of the function R56, up to the limit of zero value corresponding to the isochronicity condition. The proposal of a bunch length modulation along the ring in DA{Phi}NE is here described. DA{Phi}NE lattice can be tuned to positive or negative momentum compaction values, or to structures in which the two arcs are respectively set to positive/negative integrals of the R56 function. With the installation of an extra rf system at 1.3 GHz, experiments on bunch length modulation both in the regime of high and low synchrotron tune can be realized.
Date: January 20, 2006
Creator: Biscari, C.; Alesini, D.; Benedetti, G.; Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DAFNE Status Report

Description: The operation of DAPHNE, the 1.02 GeV c.m. e{sup +}e{sup -} collider of the Frascati National Laboratory with the KLOE experimental detector was successfully concluded in March 2006. Since April 2004 it delivered a luminosity > 2 fb{sup -1} on the peak of the {Phi} resonance, > 0.25 fb{sup -1} off peak and a high statistics scan of the resonance. The best peak luminosity obtained during this run was 1.5 10{sup 32} cm{sup -2}s{sup -1}, while the maximum daily integrated luminosity was {approx}10 pb{sup -1}. The KLOE detector has been removed from one of the two interaction regions and its low beta section substituted with a standard magnetic structure allowing for an easy vertical separation of the beams, while the FINUDA detector has been moved onto the second interaction point. Several improvements on the rings have also been implemented and are described together with the results of machine studies aimed at improving the collider efficiency and testing new operating conditions.
Date: September 1, 2006
Creator: Gallo, A.; Alesini, D.; Biagini, M.E.; Biscari, C.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of a 10**36 CM-2 S-1 Super-B Factory

Description: Parameters have been studied for a high luminosity e{sup +}e{sup -} collider operating at the Upsilon 4S that would deliver a luminosity of 1 to 4 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. This collider, called a Super-B Factory, would use a combination of linear collider and storage ring techniques. In this scheme an electron beam and a positron beam are stored in low-emittance damping rings similar to those designed for a Linear Collider (LC) or the next generation light source. A LC style interaction region is included in the ring to produce sub-millimeter vertical beta functions at the collision point. A large crossing angle (+/- 24 mrad) is used at the collision point to allow beam separation. A crab-waist scheme is used to reduce the hourglass effect and restore peak luminosity. Beam currents of 1.8 A at 4 x 7 GeV in 1251 bunches can produce a luminosity of 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s with upgrade possibilities. Such a collider would produce an integrated luminosity of about 10,000 fb{sup -1} (10 ab{sup -1}) in a running year (10{sup 7} sec) at the {gamma}(4S) resonance. Further possibilities include having longitudinally polarized e- at the IR and operating at the J/Psi and Psi beam energies.
Date: October 24, 2011
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SuperB: a Linear High-Luminosity B Factory

Description: This paper is based on the outcome of the activity that has taken place during the recent workshop on ''SuperB in Italy'' held in Frascati on November 11-12, 2005. The workshop was opened by a theoretical introduction of Marco Ciuchini and was structured in two working groups. One focused on the machine and the other on the detector and experimental issues.. The present status on CP is mainly based on the results achieved by BABAR and Belle. Establishment of the indirect CP violation in B sector in 2001 and of the direct CP violation in 2004 thanks to the success of PEP-II and KEKB e{sup +}e{sup -} asymmetric B Factories operating at the center of mass energy corresponding to the mass of the {Upsilon}(4S ). With the two B Factories taking data, the Unitarity Triangle is now beginning to be over constrained by improving the measurements of the sides and now also of the angles {alpha}, and {gamma}. We are also in presence of the very intriguing results about the measurements of sin2{beta} in the time dependent analysis of decay channels via penguin loops, where b {yields} s{bar s}s and b {yields} s{bar d}d. {tau} physics, in particular LFV search, as well as charm and ISR physics are important parts of the scientific program of a SuperB Factory. The physics case together with possible scenarios for the high luminosity SuperB Factory based on the concepts of the Linear Collider and the related experimental issues are discussed.
Date: February 8, 2006
Creator: Albert, J.; Bettarini, S.; Biagini, M.; Bonneaud, G.; Cai, Y.; Calderini, G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The SPARX Project: R & D Activity Towards X-Rays FEL Sources

Description: SPARX is an evolutionary project proposed by a collaboration among ENEA-INFN-CNR-Universita di Roma Tor Vergata aiming at the construction of a FELSASE X-ray source in the Tor Vergata Campus. The first phase of the SPARX project, funded by Government Agencies, will be focused on R&D activity on critical components and techniques for future X-ray facilities as described in this paper.
Date: August 5, 2005
Creator: Alesini, D.; Bellaveglia, M.; Bertolucci, S.; Biagini, M. E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Super-B Project Overview

Description: The SuperB project aims at the construction of an asymmetric very high luminosity B-Factory on the Frascati/Tor Vergata (Italy) area, providing a uniquely sensitive probe of New Physics in the flavour sector of the Standard Model. The luminosity goal of 10{sup 36} cm{sup -2} s{sup -1} can be reached with a new collision scheme with 'large Piwinski angle' (LPA) and the use of 'crab waist sextupoles' (CW). A LPA&CW Interaction Region (IR) has been successfully tested at the DA{Phi}NE {Phi}-Factory at LNF-Frascati in 2008. The LPA&CW scheme, together with very low {beta}*, will allow for operation with relatively low beam currents and reasonable bunch length, comparable to those of PEP-II and KEKB. In the High Energy Ring (HER), two spin rotators will bring longitudinally polarized beams into collision at the IP. The lattice has been designed with a very low intrinsic emittance and is quite compact, less than 2 km long. The tight focusing requires the final doublet quadrupoles to be very close to the IP and very compact. A Conceptual Design Report was published in March 2007, and beam dynamics and collective effects R&D studies are in progress in order to publish a Technical Design Report by the end of 2010.
Date: August 26, 2010
Creator: Biagini, M.E.; Boni, R.; Boscolo, M.; Demma, T.; Drago, A.; Guiducci, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress of the PEP-II-B-factory

Description: PEP-II is an e{sup +}e{sup -} B-Factory Collider located at SLAC operating at the Upsilon 4S resonance. PEP-II has delivered, over the past five years, an integrated luminosity to the BaBar detector of over 139 fb{sup -1} and has reached a luminosity of 6.58 x 10{sup 36}/cm{sup 2}/s. Steady progress is being made in reaching higher luminosity. The goal over the next several years is to reach a luminosity of at least 2 x 10{sup 34}/cm{sup 2}/s. The accelerator physics issues being addressed in PEP-II to reach this goal include the electron cloud instability, beam-beam effects, parasitic beam-beam effects, high RF beam loading, shorter bunches, lower beta y*, interaction region operation, and coupling control. A view of the PEP-II tunnel is shown in Figure 1. The present parameters of the PEP-II B-Factory are shown in Table 1 compared to the design. The present peak luminosity is 219% of design and the best integrated luminosity per month is 7.4 fb{sup -1} that is 225% of design. The best luminosity per month is shown in Figure 2. The integrated luminosity over a month is shown in Figure 3 and the total integrated luminosity in shown in Figure 4. The progress in luminosity has come from correcting the orbits, adding specific orbit bumps to correct coupling and dispersion issues, lowering the beta y* in the LER, and moving the fractional horizontal tunes in both rings to just above the half integer (<0.52).
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Seeman, J.; Browne, M.; Cai, Y.; Colocho, W.; Decker, F.-J.; Donald, M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department