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Critical heat flux tests with high pressure water in an internally heated annulus with alternating axial heat flux distribution

Description: Critical heat flux experiments were performed with an alternating heat flux profile in an internally heated annulus. The heated length was 84 inches with a square wave alternating heat flux profile over the last 12 inches having a maximum-to-average heat flux ratio of 1.76. Test data were obtained at pressures from 800 to 2000 psia, mass velocities from 0.25 x 10/sup 6/ to 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ lb/hr-ft/sup 2/ and inlet temperatures ranging from 400 to 600/sup 0/F. Two different electrically heated test sections were employed both with 72 inch uniform and 12 inch alternating heat flux sections. The second test section had a 0.44 inch hot patch with a peak-to-average heat flux ratio of 2.7 superimposed on the alternating flux profile at the exit end. Critical heat flux results with the alternating heat flux profile and with the superimposed hot patch were shown to be equivalent to those obtained in previous tests with a uniform heat flux profile except for several data points at low mass velocity and high enthalpy for which there is an apparent experimental bias in the uniform heat flux results.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Beus, S.G. & Humphreys, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical heat flux experiments in a circular tube with heavy water and light water. (AWBA Development Program)

Description: Experiments were performed to establish the critical heat flux (CHF) characteristics of heavy water and light water. Testing was performed with the up-flow of heavy and of light water within a 0.3744 inch inside diameter circular tube with 72.3 inches of heated length. Comparisons were made between heavy water and light water critical heat flux levels for the same local equilibrium quality at CHF, operating pressure, and nominal mass velocity. Results showed that heavy water CHF values were, on the average, 8 percent below the light water CHF values.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Williams, C.L. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical heat flux experiments in an internally heated annulus with a non-uniform, alternate high and low axial heat flux distribution (AWBA Development Program)

Description: Critical heat flux experiments were performed with an alternate high and low heat flux profile in an internally heated annulus. The heated length was 84 inches (213 cm) with a chopped wave heat flux profile over the last 24 inches (61 cm) having a maximum-to-average heat flux ratio of 1.26. Three test sections were employed: one with an axially uniform heat flux profile as a base case and two with 60 inch (152 cm) uniform and 24 inch (61 cm) alternating high and low heat flux sections. The third test section had a 2.15 inch (5.46 cm) section with a peak-to-average heat flux ratio of 2.19 (hot patch) superimposed at the exit end of the alternating high and low heat flux profile.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Beus, S.G. & Seebold, O.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical heat flux experiments with a local hot patch in an internally heated annulus (LWBR development program)

Description: Critical heat flux experiments were conducted for upflow of water in a vertical 84 inch annular flow channel, 0.303 inch heated I.D. and 0.500 inch unheated O.D. Test data were obtained at pressures from 1200 to 2000 psia, mass velocities from 0.25 x 10/sup 6/ to 2.8 x 10/sup 6/ lb/hr-ft/sup 2/ and inlet temperatures ranging from 200 to 600/sup 0/F. Three different test sections were employed with (1) axially uniform heat flux over the 84 inch length to serve as a no-hot-patch data base, (2) axially uniform heat flux over 82 inches with a 1.5 heat flux ratio hot patch over the last two inches, and (3) axially uniform heat flux over 82 inches with a 2.25 heat flux ratio hot patch over the last two inches.
Date: February 1, 1979
Creator: Mortimore, E.P. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FLASH6 simulation of semiscale blowdown data, NRC Standard Problems 2 and 3: (LWBR Development Program)

Description: FLASH6 computer program calculations are compared with experimental data from two simulated loss-of-coolant accident blowdown tests which are designated as numbers 2 and 3 in the Standard problem Series sponsored by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission for reactor safety assessment. Both tests are isothermal blowdowns smulating a double-ended, cold-leg break and were conducted in the electrically-heated, 1-1/2 Loop Semiscale System at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. The blowdown tests were initiated at nominal conditions of 575/sup 0/F, 2250 psia and 17.3 lbm/sec loop flow rate.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Harris, B.D.; Prelewicz, D.A. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The effect of pressure on annular flow pressure drop in a small pipe

Description: New experimental data was obtained for pressure drop and entrainment for annular up-flow in a vertical pipe. The 9.5 mm. pipe has an L/D ratio of 440 to insure fully developed annular flow. The pressure ranged from 140 kPa to 660 kPa. Therefore the density ratio was varied by a factor of four approximately. This allows the investigation of the effect of pressure on the interfacial shear models. Gas superficial velocities between 25 and 126 m/s were tested. This extends the range of previous data to higher gas velocities. The data were compared with well known models for interfacial shear that represent the state of the art. Good results were obtained when the model by Asali, Hanratty and Andreussi was modified for the effect of pressure. Furthermore an equivalent model was obtained based on the mixing length theory for rough pipes. It correlates the equivalent roughness to the film thickness.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: de Bertodano, M.A.L.; Beus, S.G. & Shi, Jian-Feng
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial Friction in Gas-Liquid Annular Flow: Analogies to Full and Transition Roughness

Description: New film thickness and pressure gradient data were obtained in a 5.08 by 101.6 mm duct for nitrogen and water in annular flow. Pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and temperatures of 38 and 93 C were used to vary the gas density and liquid viscosity. These data are used to compute interfacial shear stresses and interfacial friction factors for comparison with several accepted literature correlations. These comparisons are reasonable for small values of the relative film thickness. However, the new data cover conditions not approached by the data used to construct those correlations. By combining the current data with the results of two other comprehensive modern experimental studies, a new correlation for the interfacial friction factor has been developed. This correlation adds elements of transition roughness to Wallis' fully-rough analogy to better predict interfacial friction factors over a wide range of gas Reynolds numbers and liquid film thicknesses.
Date: March 1, 1999
Creator: Bauer, R.C.; Beus, S.G. & Fore, L.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Droplet entrainment correlation for high pressure annular two-phase flow

Description: The amount of entrainment in annular flow is essential to predict the point of dryout. Most of the entrainment correlations available in the literature are obtained from air-water low pressure data. However many important industrial applications involve high pressure annular flows. There are very few correlations applicable in this range and they are solely based on empirical data fits. Comparing the low pressure entrainment data of Cousins and Hewitt (1968) and the high pressure data of Keeys et. al. (1970) and Wurtz (1978) with existing correlations, the agreement at high pressure is generally poor, except for the empirical correlation of Nigmatulin and Krushenok (1989) which depends on a Weber number that includes the droplet concentration. We propose a new semi-mechanistic entrainment correlation for fully developed annular flow conditions: E = (0.9642)/(1 + (3836/We{sub C})). It is developed based on the droplet continuity equation and the entrainment rate model of Dallman et. al. (1979). This model is then modified to introduce a Weber number that includes the droplet concentration, We{sub C}. This Weber number is shown to scale the available high and low pressure air-water and steam-water data better than the other definitions. Because the new correlation is based on a model of entrainment rate it may be used as a starting point in the development of a correlation for this process applicable to high pressure water-steam annular flows. A correlation is suggested pending validation with high pressure entrainment rate data. 12 refs., 11 figs.
Date: January 1, 1996
Creator: Lopez de Betodano, M.A.; Jan, Cheng-Shiun & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow with two-point conductivity probe. Brief communication

Description: Kataoka, Ishii and Serizawa analyzed the measurements of the local time-averaged interfacial area concentration in two-phase flow with a two-point conductivity probe. They considered the influence of the bubble velocity fluctuation on the measurement and directly transferred the mathematics concept of the local time-averaged interfacial area concentration into the measurable parameters. In the end of the derivation, however, the expression of the interfacial area concentration was inappropriate due to the over-simplification to the integration limits of the probability distributions. Consequently, the resultant interfacial area concentration may be significantly lower than the actual value. Since the formula is very important for the interpretation of experimental data, we feel it is necessary to provide a correction to the original work.
Date: February 1, 1997
Creator: Wu, Q.; Zheng, D.; Ishii, M. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-group interfacial area transport in vertical air-water bubbly flow

Description: In the two-fluid model for two-phase flows, interfacial area concentration is one of the most important closure relations that should be obtained from careful mechanistic modeling. The objective of this study is to develop a one-group interfacial area transport equation together with the modeling of the source and sink terms due to bubble breakage and coalescence. For bubble coalescence, two mechanisms are considered to be dominant in vertical two-phase bubbly flow. These are the random collisions between bubbles due to turbulence in the flow field, and the wake entrainment process due to the relative motion of the bubbles in the wake region of a seeding bubble. For bubble breakup, the impact of turbulent eddies is considered. These phenomena are modeled individually, resulting in a one-group interfacial area concentration transport equation with certain parameters to be determined from experimental data. Compared to the measured axial distribution of the interfacial area concentration under various flow conditions, these parameters are obtained for the reduced one-group, one-dimensional transport equation. The results indicate that the proposed models for bubble breakup and coalescence are appropriate.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Wu, Q.; Kim, S.; Ishii, M. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The limit of the film extraction technique for annular two-phase flow in a small tube

Description: The limit of the liquid film extraction technique was identified in air-water and Freon-113 annular two-phase flow loops. The purpose of this research is to find the limit of the entrainment rate correlation obtained by Lopez de Bertodano et. al. (1998). The film extraction technique involves the suction of the liquid film through a porous tube and has been widely used to obtain annular flow entrainment and entrainment rate data. In these experiments there are two extraction probes. After the first extraction the entrained droplets in the gas core deposit on the tube wall. A new liquid film develops entirely from liquid deposition and a second liquid film extraction is performed. While it is assumed that the entire liquid film is removed after the first extraction unit, this is not true for high liquid flow. At high liquid film flows the interfacial structure of the film becomes frothy. Then the entire liquid film cannot be removed at the first extraction unit, but continues on and is extracted at the second extraction unit. A simple model to characterize the limit of the extraction technique was obtained based on the hypothesis that the transition occurs due to a change in the wave structure. The resulting dimensionless correlation agrees with the data.
Date: July 1, 1999
Creator: Helm, D.E.; Lopez de Bertodano, M. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Dry patch stability of shear driven liquid film

Description: The breakdown of the liquid film at the wall in annular gas-liquid flow may lead to the formation of a stable dry patch. For the case of heat transfer surfaces this causes a hot spot, The dry patch is a partial area on the solid surface that is non-wetted due to a local disturbance of the flow and is sustained by surface tension. Dry patch stability is dependent on a balance of body and surface forces. In the present study the interfacial shear force drives the film and the gravity force is negligible. A new computational fluid dynamics (CFD) solution of the flow field in the film around the dry patch has been obtained. The CFD results confirm Murgatroyd's shear force model (1965), although the details are more complex. Furthermore, there is agreement between the CFD solution and the experimental value of the characteristic length scale, L, for the shear force. In addition new experimental data have been taken for adiabatic upward annular air-water and air-ethylene glycol flows at room temperature in a 9.5 mm diameter tube. They provide validation of Murgatroyd's model over a wider range of the film's Reynolds number than previous data.
Date: May 1, 2000
Creator: Penn, D.G.; Bertodano, M.L. de; Lykoudis, P. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of interfacial area transport and sensitivity analysis for air-water bubbly flow

Description: The interfacial area transport equation applicable to the bubbly flow is presented. The model is evaluated against the data acquired by the state-of-the-art miniaturized double-sensor conductivity probe in an adiabatic air-water co-current vertical test loop under atmospheric pressure condition. In general, a good agreement, within the measurement error of plus/minus 10%, is observed for a wide range in the bubbly flow regime. The sensitivity analysis on the individual particle interaction mechanisms demonstrates the active interactions between the bubbles and highlights the mechanisms playing the dominant role in interfacial area transport. The analysis employing the drift flux model is also performed for the data acquired. Under the given flow conditions, the distribution parameter of 1.076 yields the best fit to the data.
Date: September 2000
Creator: Kim, S.; Sun, X.; Ishii, M. & Beus, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial structures of confined air-water two-phase bubbly flow

Description: The interfacial structure of the two-phase flows is of great importance in view of theoretical modeling and practical applications. In the present study, the focus is made on obtaining detailed local two-phase parameters in the air-water bubbly flow in a rectangular vertical duct using the double-sensor conductivity probe. The characteristic wall-peak is observed in the profiles of the interracial area concentration and the void fraction. The development of the interfacial area concentration along the axial direction of the flow is studied in view of the interfacial area transport and bubble interactions. The experimental data is compared with the drift flux model with C{sub 0} = 1.35.
Date: August 2000
Creator: Kim, S.; Ishii, M.; Wu, Q.; McCreary, D. & Beus, S. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Visual Measurements of Droplet Size in Gas Liquid Annular Flow

Description: Drop size distributions have been measured for nitrogen-water annular flow in a 9.67 mm hydraulic diameter duct, at system pressures of 3.4 and 17 atm and a temperature of 38 C. These new data extend the range of conditions represented by existing data in the open literature, primarily through an increase in system pressure. Since most existing correlations were developed from data obtained at lower pressures, it should be expected that the higher-pressure data presented in this paper would not necessarily follow those correlations. The correlation of Tatterson, et al. (1977) does not predict the new data very well, while the correlation of Kataoka, et al. (1983) only predicts those data taken at the lower pressure of 3.4 atm. However, the maximum drop size correlation of Kocamustafaogullari, et al. (1994) does predict the current data to a reasonable approximation. Similarly, their correlation for the Sauter mean diameter can predict the new data, provided the coefficient in the equation is adjusted.
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Fore, L.B.; Ibrahim, B.B. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annular flow entrainment rate experiment in a vertical pipe

Description: An air-water experiment has been performed to measure the entrainment rate in a small pipe. The current data extend the available database in the literature to higher gas and liquid flows and also to higher pressures. The ranges covered are 8.1 {times} 10{sup 2} kg/m{sup 2}s {lt} (gas flux rate) {lt} 4.5 {times} 10{sup 4} kg/m{sup 2}s, 5.5 kg/m{sup 2}s {lt} (liquid flux rate) {lt} 2.9 {times} 10{sup 2}s and 140 CPU {lt} PP {lt} 660 CPU. The test section has an internal diameter of 9.5 mm and an L/D ratio of 440. The measurements were made by extracting the liquid film at two locations establishing fully developed annular flow. The data were validated by visual observation and comparisons with the data of Cousins and Hewitt. A mechanism for the entrainment rate in terms of Taylor`s ripple instability is proposed. The theory is modified to include the effect of the inertia of the droplets in the gas stream. The model results in a dimensionless group that includes the Weber number based on the droplet concentration and the liquid film Reynolds number. Kataoka and Ishii`s correlation (1982) is modified in light of this model and the new correlation scales the present data and Cousins and Hewitt`s data very well. 19 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: June 1, 1996
Creator: Lopez de Bertodano, M.A.; Jan, C.-S. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Interfacial Structure in a Confined Air-Water Cap-Turbulent and Churn-Turbulent Flow

Description: The objective of the present work is to study and model the interfacial structure development of air-water two-phase flow in a confined test section. Experiments of a total of 9 flow conditions in a cap-turbulent and churn-turbulent flow regimes are carried out in a vertical air-water upward two-phase flow experimental loop with a test section of 20-cm in width and 1-cm in gap. The miniaturized four-sensor conductivity probes are used to measure local two-phase parameters at three different elevations for each flow condition. The bubbles captured by the probes are categorized into two groups in view of the two-group interfacial area transport equation, i.e., spherical/distorted bubbles as Group 1 and cap/churn-turbulent bubbles as Group 2. The acquired parameters are time-averaged local void fraction, interfacial velocity, bubble number frequency, interfacial area concentration, and bubble Sauter mean diameter for both groups of bubbles. Also, the line-averaged and area-averaged data are presented and discussed. The comparisons of these parameters at different elevations demonstrate the development of interfacial structure along the flow direction due to bubble interactions.
Date: October 31, 2001
Creator: Sun, X.; Kim, S.; Cheng, L.; Ishii, M. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of interfacial area concentration in two-phase bubbly flow

Description: Interfacial area concentration is an important parameter in the two-fluid model for two-phase flow analysis, which is defined as the total interface area per unit mixture volume and has the following local time-averaged expression: {bar a}{sup t} = 1/{Delta}T {Sigma}{sub j}(1/{vert_bar}V{sub i} {center_dot} n{sub i}{vert_bar}){sub j}, where j denotes the j-th interface that passes the point of interest in a time interval {Delta}T. V{sub i} and n{sub i} refer to the bubble interface velocity and surface normal vector, respectively. To measure this parameter, the double-sensor probe technique is commonly used. Due to the influences of the bubble lateral motions, however, the measurement results should be interpreted via a certain statistic approach. Recently, to take into account the effects of the probe spacing, Wu and Ishii provided the following new formula to correlate the measurable values to the interfacial area concentration: {bar a}{sub i}{sup t} = 2N{sub b}/{Delta}T ({Delta}{bar t}/{Delta}s) [2 + (1.2{sigma}{sub {Delta}t}/{Delta}{bar t}){sup 2.25}], for D = 1.2 {approximately} 2.8 {Delta}s, where N{sub b} refers to the number of the bubbles that hit the probe front tip during time interval {Delta}T, {Delta}s denotes the distance between the two probe tips, D is the bubble diameter, {Delta}{bar t} represents the measured average time interval for an interface to travel through the two probe tips, and {sigma}{sub {Delta}t} is the standard deviation of {Delta}t. The theoretical accuracy of this formula is within {+-} 5% if the sample size is sufficiently large. The purpose of this study is to evaluate this method experimentally using an image processing method.
Date: December 31, 1997
Creator: Wu, Q.; Kim, S.; McCreary, D.; Ishii, M. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Entrainment measurements in annular flow

Description: Air/water and vapor/freon were utilized to scale and simulate annular two-phase flow for high pressure steam/water conditions. A unique vapor/liquid Freon loop was built to obtain the high pressure data. The results were compared with two correlations available in the open literature. The Ishii and Mishima dimensionless group was able to scale the data remarkably well even for vapor/liquid Freon. However, the correlation needs to be adjusted for high Weber numbers of the gas phase.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Assad, A.; Jan, C.; Bertodano, M. de & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Entrainment rate of droplets in the ripple-annular regime for small vertical tubes

Description: Two-fluid model predictions of film dryout in annular flow are limited by the uncertainties in the constitutive relations for the entrainment rate of droplets from the liquid film. The main cause of these uncertainties is the lack of separate effects experimental data in the range of the operating conditions in nuclear power reactors. Air/water and Freon-113 entrainment rate data have been obtained in 10 mm tubes using the film extraction technique. These experiments have been scaled to approach high pressure steam-water flow conditions. The effects of surface tension and density ratio, missing from most previous data sets, have been systematically tested. The entrainment rate mechanism is assumed to be a Kelvin-Helmholtz instability. Based on this analysis and two previous correlations, a new correlation is proposed that is valid for low viscosity fluids in small ducts in the ripple annular regime.
Date: June 1, 1998
Creator: Lopez de Bertodano, M.A.; Assad, A. & Beus, S.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department