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Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30-Scale Model of the Grumman XF1OF-1 Airplane

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/30 - scale model of the Grumman XFlOF-1 airplane to determine its spin and recovery characteristics. The investigation included erect and inverted spins for both the straight-wing and swept-wing configurations. Tests to determine the optimum size spin-recovery parachutes and the rudder forces required for recovery were also made. The results indicated that in the straight-wing configuration, satisfactory recoveries of the airplane will be obtained from erect and inverted spins by rudder reversal alone. In the swept-wing configuration recoveries will be unsatisfactory from erect spins. Unsweeping the wings during the spin and reversal of the rudder, however, will lead to eventual recovery. The test results also indicated that, if existing small ailerons are made deflectable through large angles, satisfactory recoveries will be obtained from erect spins in the swept-wing configuration by simultaneous movement of the rudder to against the spin and movement of the ailerons to with the spin. Normal-size ailerons deflected through a normal range would also be effective. Satisfactory recoveries by rudder reversal will be obtained from inverted spins in the swept-wing configuration. In the straight-wing configuration a 14.2-foot tail parachute or a 5.0-foot wing-tip parachute opened on the outer wing tip will effect satisfactory recovery of the airplane by parachute action alone; a 30.0-foot tail parachute or a 10.0-foot wing-tip parachute will be required for the swept-wing configuration. The forces required to fully reverse the rudder should be within the capabilities of the pilot.
Date: December 14, 1950
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/20-Scale Model of the McDonnell XF2H-1 Airplane

Description: A spin-recovery investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 20-scale model modified to represent the McDonnell XF2H-1 airplane. The project included tests both with tip tanks installed and with the tanks removed. The results indicated that the recovery characteristics of the airplane would be satisfactory for all loadings by normal recovery technique (full reversal of the rudder, followed 1/2 turn later by movement of the elevator down). The rudder pedal and the elevator stick forces likely to be encountered in a spin should be within the capabilities of the pilot.
Date: June 17, 1949
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Curtiss-Wright XP-87 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape, are presented in this report. The characteristics were estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XP-87 dimensional and mass characteristics were considered to be noncritical and because data were available from model tests of several similar airplanes. The study indicated that the recovery characteristics of the airplane will be satisfactory for all loadings if the controls are reversed fully and rapidly. The control forces, however, will probably be beyond the capabilities of the pilot unless some additional balance or a booster is used. A 6-foot tail parachute or a 3.5-foot wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory, emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations. If it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: May 26, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Free-Spinning-Tunnel Investigation of a 1/30-Scale Model of the Grumman XF10F-1 Airplane in the Swept-Wing Configuration with Slats Extended

Description: A supplementary investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel of a 1/30 -scale model of the Grumman XFlOF-1 airplane to determine what effect full-span slats would have on the spin-recovery characteristics of the swept-wing version of the XFlOF-1 airplane, which had previously been indicated as possessing undesirable spin-recovery characteristics without slats. The effects of extended nose-wheel doors and of fairing the air-duct inlets were also determined. The results indicated that, with slats fully extended, satisfactory recovery could be obtained by rudder reversal provided it was accompanied by movement of the trimmer ailerons to full with the spin (only up-going spoiler operative), Extension of the nose-wheel doors or fairing of the air-duct inlets did not improve the recovery characteristics.
Date: July 24, 1951
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin and Recovery Characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 Airplane

Description: The spin and recovery characteristics of the Northrop XF-89 airplane, as well as the spin-recovery parachute requirements, the control forces that would be encountered in the spin, and the best method for the crew to attempt an emergency escape are presented in this report. The characteristics were mainly estimated rather than determined by model tests because the XF-89 dimensional and mass characteristics were such as to make this airplane similar to several others, models of which have previously been tested. Brief tests were made on an available model of similar design to augment the estimation. The results indicate that the recovery characteristics will be satisfactory for all airplane loadings if recovery is attempted by use of rudder followed by moving the elevator down. The rudder pedal forces will be within the capabilities of the pilot but the elevator stick forces will be beyond the pilot's capabilities unless a trim tab, or a booster is used. A 9.5-foot-diameter flat-type tail parachute or a 5.0-foot-diameter flat-type wing-tip parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 will be a satisfactory emergency spin-recovery device for spin demonstrations and if it is necessary for the crew to abandon the spinning airplane, they should leave from the outboard side of the cockpit.
Date: February 28, 1949
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of Model and Full-Scale Spin Test Results for 60 Airplane Designs

Description: Note presenting the results of spin-tunnel investigations compared with corresponding full-scale results for 60 different airplane designs. The purpose of the comparison was to determine the reliability of the model results in predicting full-scale spin and recovery characteristics. Results regarding the recovery characteristics, angle of attack, rate of rotation, altitude loss per revolution, angle of wing tilt, and emergency spin-recovery parachutes are provided.
Date: July 1950
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-spinning-tunnel tests of a 1/26th scale model of the Douglas XTB2D-1 airplane

Description: From Summary: "A spin-tunnel investigation of a 1/26 scale model of the Douglas XTB2D-1 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect- and inverted-spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for various loading conditions. Tests were also performed to determine the effects of various tail modifications. The investigation included emergency spin-recovery parachute tests as well as crew-escape and rudder- and elevator-force tests. All tests were performed at an equivalent spin altitude of 20,000 feet."
Date: December 5, 1946
Creator: Stone, Ralph W., Jr. & Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Spin and Recovery Characteristics of a 0.057-Scale Model of the Modified Chance Vought XF7U-1 Airplane. TED No. NACA DE 311

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of a 0.057-scale model of the modified Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The primary change in the design from that previously tested was a revision of the twin vertical tails. Tests were also made to determine the effect of installation of external wing tanks. The results indicated that the revision in the vertical tails did not greatly alter the spin and recovery characteristics of the model and recovery by normal use of controls (fill rapid rudder reversal followed approximately one-half turn later by movement of the stick forward of neutral) was satisfactory. Adding the external wing tanks to cause the recovery characteristics to become critical and border on an unsatisfactory condition; however, it was shown that satisfactory recovery could be obtained by jettisoning the tanks, followed by normal recovery technique.
Date: May 29, 1950
Creator: Berman, Theodore & Pumphrey, Norman E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the Trim Characteristics of a 1/20-Scale Model of the Fleetwings XBTK-1 Airplane over a Wide Range of Angles of Attack

Description: Tests of a 1/20-scale model of the Fleetwings XBTK-1 airplane have been performed in the Langley 15-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the trim tendencies of the airplane at attitudes above the stall. The results of the tests indicated that the model would trim longitudinally only in the normal range of angles of attack and that the yaw trim tendencies for such longitudinal trim conditions were normal. Although wide oscillations in yaw were noted for some conditions, they occurred at angles of attack larger than those indicated as possible for longitudinal trim and spin equilibrium. It appears, therefore, that the oscillatory motions reported for the airplane may have been the direct result of control movements rather than the result of inherent oscillatory tendencies.
Date: March 5, 1947
Creator: Stone, Ralph W., Jr. & Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supplementary Investigation in the Langley 20-Foot Free-Spinning Tunnel of the Spin and Recovery Characteristics of a 0.057-Scale Model of the Chance Vought XFU-1 Airplane, Ted No. NACA DE 311

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the effects of decreasing the rudder deflection, of decreasing the rudder span, and of differential rudder movements on the spin and recovery characteristics of a 0.057-scale model of the Chance Vought XF7U-1 airplane. The results indicated that decreasing the rudder span or the rudder deflections, individually or jointly, did not seriously alter the spin or recovery characteristics of the model; and recovery by normal use of controls (full rapid rudder reversal followed l/2 to 1 turn later by movement of the stick forward of neutral) remained satisfactory. Linking the original rudders so that the inboard rudder moves from full with the spin to neutral while the outboard rudder moves from neutral to full against the spin will also result in satisfactory spin and recovery characteristics. Calculations of rudder-pedal forces for recovery showed that the expected forces would probably be within the capabilities of a pilot but that it would be advisable to install some type of boost in the control system to insure easy and rapid movement of the rudders.
Date: 1948
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane with Wing-Tip Tanks Installed

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane with wing-tip tanks installed has been conducted-in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect spin and recovery characteristics of the model for a range of possible loadings of the tip tanks were determined. Spin and recovery characteristics without tanks were determined in a previous investigation. The model results indicated that the airplane spins will generally be oscillatory and that recoveries will be satisfactory for all loadings by normal recovery technique (full rudder reversal followed approximately one-half turn later by moving the elevator down). The rudder force necessary for recovery should be within the physical capability of the pilot but the elevator force may be excessive so that some type of balance or booster might be necessary, or it might be necessary to jettison the wing-tip tanks.
Date: January 1, 1948
Creator: Berman, Theodore & Wilson, Jack H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-88 Airplane with a Conventional Tail

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the McDonnell XP-88 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model in the normal loading were determined. Tests of the model in the long-range loading also were made. The investigation included tail-modification, spin-recovery parachute, pilot-escape, and rudder-pedal-force tests. Recoveries were generally satisfactory for spins in the normal loading provided the ailerons were not held against the spin. Satisfactory recoveries were obtained regardless of the aileron setting when the leading-edge flaps were deflected and normal recovery technique was used or when the horizontal tail was raised 70 inches, full scale. Recoveries were rapid from all inverted spins obtained. In the long-range loading with tanks on, it may be necessary to jettison the tanks in order to obtain recovery. A 12.0-foot spin-recovery parachute at the tail or a 4.0-foot parachute opened on the outer wing tip (drag coefficient of 0.66) was found to be effective for recoveries from demonstration spins. Test results showed that in an emergency the pilot should attempt to escape from the outboard side of the spinning airplane. The rudder-pedal forces in a spin were indicated to be within the capabilities of the pilot.
Date: September 4, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the McDonnell XP-88 Airplane with a VEE Tail

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24-scale model of the McDonnell XP-88 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-ft free-spinning tunnel. Results of tests with a conventional tail have been previously reported; the results presented herein are for the model with a vee tail installed. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model. In the normal loading were determined. Tests of the model in the long-range loading also were made. The investigation included leading-edge-flap, spin-recovery-parachute, and rudder-pedal-force tests. The recovery characteristics of the model were satisfactory for the normal loading. Deflecting the leading-edge flaps improved recoveries. The results indicated that with the external wing tanks installed (long-range loading) recoveries may be poor and, therefore, if a spin is inadvertently entered in this condition the tanks should be jettisoned if recovery does not appear imminent immediately after it is attempted. A 10-foot spin-recovery tail parachute with a towline 40 feet long and a drag coefficient of 0.63 was found to be effective for spin recovery. The rudder pedal force required for spin recovery was indicated to be within the capabilities of the pilot.
Date: November 28, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman XTB3F-1 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE304

Description: In accordance with a request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department, tests were performed in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of a 1/24 scale model of the Grumman XTB3F-1 airplane. The airplane is a two-place, midwing torpedo bomber equipped with a tractor propeller and an auxiliary jet engine. The effect of control setting and movement on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the normal loading. Brief tests with mass extended slightly along the fuselage were also made, however, in order to determine the effect of such a mass variation on elevator effectiveness. Tests were performed to determine the size of emergency spin-recovery tail and wing-tip parachutes required for satisfactory recovery by parachute action alone. The investigation also included emergency pilot-escape tests and tests to determine the rudder pedal and elevator stick forces necessary to move the rudder and elevator for recovery.
Date: May 9, 1947
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the North American XP-86 Airplane

Description: A spin investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on a 1/24-scale model of the North American XP-86 airplane. The effects of control settings and movements upon the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined for the design gross weight loading. The long-range loading was also investigated and the effects of extending slats and dive flaps were determined. In addition, the investigation included the determination of the size of spin-recovery parachute required for emergency recovery from demonstration spins, the rudder force required to move the rudder for recovery, and the best method for the pilot to escape if it should become necessary to do so during a spin. The results of the investigation indicated that the XP-86 airplane will probably recover satisfactorily from erect and inverted spins for all possible loadings. It was found that fully extending both slats would be beneficial but that extending the dive brakes would cause unsatisfactory recoveries. It was determined that a 10.0-foot-diameter tail parachute with a drag coefficient of 0.7 and with a towline 30.0 feet long attached below the jet exit or a 6.0-foot-diameter wingtip parachute opened on the outer wing tip with a towline 6.0 feet long would insure recoveries from any spins obtainable. The rudder-pedal force necessary to move the rudder for satisfactory recovery was found to be within the physical capabilities of the pilot.
Date: May 17, 1948
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spin Tests of 1/20-Scale Models of the Chance Vought Revised XF6U-1 and F6U-1 Airplanes, TED No. NACA 2390

Description: An investigation has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel on the 1/20-scale model of the Chance Vought XF6U-1 airplane altered to represent the XF6U-1 airplane as it will be spin-tested in flight, and also altered to represent the F6U-1 airplane as it will be produced for service use. Spin tests were made to determine the effects of control settings and movements at the normal loading. The results show that the spins obtained on the revised XF6U-1 airplane will be oscillatory in roll and yaw and that recoveries by rudder reversal will be rapid. Model test results indicate that the F6U-1 airplane will probably not spin. Inasmuch as the results of this investigation show that the new designs are as good as or better than the original XF6U-1 design in regard to spin recovery, it is felt that the conclusions and recommendations reached for the original design can be applied to the new designs for all loading conditions.
Date: June 28, 1948
Creator: Klinar, Walter J. & Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning-Tunnel Tests of a 1/24-Scale Model of the Grumman XF9F-2 Airplane, TED No. NACA DE 317

Description: An investigation of the spin and recovery characteristics of a scale model of the Grumman XF9F-2 airplane has been conducted in the Langley 20-foot free-spinning tunnel. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model in the flight loading were determined. The investigation also included spin-recovery-parachute, pilot-escape, and rudder-pedal- . force tests. The recovery characteristics of the model were satisfactory for all configurations tested. Spins for the normal control configuration were oscillatory in roll and yaw. Deflecting the leading-edge flaps or the dive brakes did not change the spin and recovery characteristics of the model noticeably. A 10.0-foot tail parachute or a 6.0-foot wing-tip parachute (drag coefficient of 0.75) was found to be effective for recoveries from demonstration spins. The rudder forces in the spin appeared to be within the capabilities of the pilot.
Date: February 4, 1948
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Free-Spinning Tunnel Tests of a 1/20-Scale Model of the McDonnell XF3H-1 Airplane : TED No. NACA DE 343

Description: Memorandum presenting an investigation conducted in the 20-foot free-spinning tunnel with a scale model to determine the spin and recovery characteristics of the McDonnell XF3H-1 airplane. The effects of control settings and movements on the erect and inverted spin and recovery characteristics of the model were determined. Results regarding design gross weight loading, variation of loading, spin-recovery parachutes, pilot escape, landing condition, control forces, and recommended recovery technique are provided.
Date: September 8, 1950
Creator: Berman, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department