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Success criteria for the electrometallurgical treatment demonstration.

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is demonstrating the application of electrometallurgical treatment processes to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent nuclear fuel. Begun in June 1996, 100 driver fuel assemblies and 25 blanket fuel assemblies will be conditioned during this demonstration project. In order to validate the technical and economic viability of the technology, the Department of Energy has established four success criteria with specific supporting goals. The results from both laboratory-scale and engineering-scale testing are being used to evaluate the processes, products and equipment against the target goals. The interim results have provided confidence that the integrated electrometallurgical processes will prove to be a viable option for treating problematic spent nuclear fuels for geologic disposal.
Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of super-grade plutonium in spent nuclear fuel

Description: This paper examines the security and safeguards implications of potential management options for DOE's sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the EBR-II and the Fermi-1 fast reactors. The EBR-II fuel appears to be unsuitable for the packaging alternative because of DOE's current safeguards requirements for plutonium. Emerging DOE requirements, National Academy of Sciences recommendations, draft waste acceptance requirements for Yucca Mountain and IAEA requirements for similar fuel also emphasize the importance of safeguards in spent fuel management. Electrometallurgical treatment would be acceptable for both fuel types. Meeting the known requirements for safeguards and security could potentially add more than $200M in cost to the packaging option for the EBR-II fuel.
Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: McFarlane, H. F. & Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

Description: The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Goff, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

Description: The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Benedict, R. W. & Goff, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Actinide recovery techniques utilizing electromechanical processes

Description: Under certain conditions, the separation of actinides using electromechanical techniques may be an effective means of residue processing. The separation of granular mixtures of actinides and other materials discussed in this report is based on appreciable differences in the magnetic and electrical properties of the actinide elements. In addition, the high density of actinides, particularly uranium and plutonium, may render a simultaneous separation based on mutually complementary parameters. Both high intensity magnetic separation and electrostatic separation have been investigated for the concentration of an actinide waste stream. Waste stream constituents include an actinide metal alloy and broken quartz shards. The investigation of these techniques is in support of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) concept currently being developed at Argonne National Laboratory under the auspices of the Department of Energy.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Westphal, B. R. & Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project

Description: For approximately 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory was developed a fast reactor fuel cycle based on dry processing. When the US fast reactor program was canceled in 1994, the fuel processing technology, called the electrometallurgical technique, was adapted for treating unstable spent nuclear fuel for disposal. While this technique, which involves electrorefining fuel in a molten salt bath, is being developed for several different fuel categories, its initial application is for sodium-bonded metallic spent fuel. In June 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved a radiation demonstration program in which 100 spent driver assemblies and 25 spent blanket assemblies from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) will be treated over a three-year period. This demonstrated will provide data that address issues in the National Research Council`s evaluation of the technology. The planned operations will neutralize the reactive component (elemental sodium) in the fuel and produce a low enriched uranium product, a ceramic waste and a metal waste. The fission products and transuranium elements, which accumulate in the electrorefining salt, will be stabilized in the glass-bonded ceramic waste form. The stainless steel cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and insoluble residues from the process will be stabilized in a stainless steel/zirconium alloy. Upon completion of a successful demonstration and additional environmental evaluation, the current plans are to process the remainder of the DOE sodium bonded fuel.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Henslee, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project status

Description: The application of electrometallurgical technology to spent nuclear fuel treatment is being demonstrated by treating 410 kg uranium spent driver fuel and 1,200 kg uranium spent blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent driver and blanket fuel. This fuel is a metallic uranium alloy and contains elemental sodium, which is a reactive material. Since reactive material is considered hazardous by US Environmental Protection Agency regulations, this fuel requires treatment before disposal in a geologic repository. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration conditions this fuel in an integrated process where the fuel is converted into three different products: low enriched uranium (LEU), ceramic waste and metallic waste. This demonstration was initiated in June 1996 and has treated approximately 50% of the driver fuel. The higher throughput equipment that will be used for blanket treatment processes has been installed in the hot cell facility and is being tested with depleted uranium. Metal waste forms have been produced from the irradiated metals from the driver fuel. Ceramic waste process equipment has been built and is being tested before installation in the hot cell facilities. This paper discusses the processes and the current results from the first 20 months of operation.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Henslee, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FCFPYRO simulation of the first year FCF hot operation plan

Description: A simulation study has been successfully completed according to the first year FCF operational plan for the treatment of EBR-II spent fuels. Material flow by nuclides for each processing step and radioactive decays during the process are considered. The FCFPYRO code package is a very useful tool to provide step-by-step information essential to the analysis of operational strategy, process chemistry, heat removal, criticality safety, and radiological health issues in FCF.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Liaw, J.R.; Li, S.X. & Benedict, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

Description: Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Gibbs, K.S. & Benedict, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production electrometallurgical treatment of EBR-II spent fuel.

Description: Following the successful demonstration of electrometallurgical treatment, the Spent Fuel Treatment Program was established at Argonne National Laboratory * (ANL) to treat sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. The treatment of 24,750 kg of heavy metal is included in this program. Production treatment operations begin in September 2000. The program also includes additional research and development activities to increase process throughput and to obtain final qualification of the resulting high-level waste. Through two years, all Department of Energy (DOE) milestones established for the program have been met or exceeded.
Date: August 20, 2002
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Teske, G. M. & Johnson, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical feasibility of krypton-85 storage in sodalite

Description: Based on these experimental results, the process that is technically feasible for a reference 2000 metric ton of heavy metal (MTHM) per year reprocessing plant producing approx. 17 MCi or approx. 190 m/sup 3/ at STP would encapsulate krypton at approx. 20 cm/sup 3//g from krypton at temperatures greater than 575/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 1600 atm with one batch a day in a 58-L high pressure vessel. Based on preliminary measurements at 500/sup 0/C, the same process also would be feasible for a 70% krypton and 30% xenon mixture. 7 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Benedict, R.W.; Christensen, A.B.; Del Debbio, J.A.; Keller, J.H. & Knecht, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

Description: A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W. & Levinskas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel treatment at ANL-West

Description: At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. The treatment operations will employ a pyrochemical process that also has applications for treating most of the fuel types within the Department of Energy complex. The treatment equipment is in its last stage of readiness, and operations will begin in the Fall of 1994.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W. & Levinskas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration and waste management practices

Description: Over the past few years, Argonne National Laboratory has been preparing for the demonstration of the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety and operations, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle, which will be demonstrated at Argonne-West in Idaho, employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The required facility modifications and process equipment for the demonstration are nearing completion. Their status and the results from initial fuel fabrication work, including the waste management aspects, are presented. Additionally, estimated compositions of the various process waste streams have been made, and characterization and treatment methods are being developed. The status of advanced waste processing equipment being designed and fabricated is described.
Date: July 1, 1994
Creator: Benedict, R. W.; Goff, K. M. & McFarlane, H. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel cycle facility control system for the Integral Fast Reactor Program

Description: As part of the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) Fuel Demonstration, a new distributed control system designed, implemented and installed. The Fuel processes are a combination of chemical and machining processes operated remotely. To meet this special requirement, the new control system provides complete sequential logic control motion and positioning control and continuous PID loop control. Also, a centralized computer system provides near-real time nuclear material tracking, product quality control data archiving and a centralized reporting function. The control system was configured to use programmable logic controllers, small logic controllers, personal computers with touch screens, engineering work stations and interconnecting networks. By following a structured software development method the operator interface was standardized. The system has been installed and is presently being tested for operations.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Benedict, R. W. & Tate, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

Description: A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface.
Date: March 1, 1993
Creator: Lau, L. D.; Randall, P. F.; Benedict, R. W. & Levinskas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Dissolution of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel in Molten Salt Electrolyte

Description: Pyrochemical processing is a promising technology for closing the nuclear fuel cycle for next generation nuclear reactors. At Idaho National Laboratory (INL), such a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). A successful demonstration of the technology was performed from 1996 to 1999 for the Department of Energy (DOE). Since 2002, processing of the spent fuel and associated research and development activities have been carried out under DOE’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program. Electrorefining is considered to be the signature or central technology for pyrochemical processing. This paper summarizes recent experience and results in electrorefining, specifically focusing on electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mark-IV (Mk-IV) electrorefiner (ER).
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Li, S. X.; Vaden, D.; Benedict, R. W. & Goff, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

Description: At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Bateman, K.; Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C. & Musick, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Small-scale irradiated fuel electrorefining

Description: In support of the metallic fuel cycle development for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), a small scale electrorefiner was built and operated in the Hot Fuel Examination Facility (HFEF) at Argonne National Laboratory-West. The initial purpose of this apparatus was to test the single segment dissolution of irradiated metallic fuel via either direct dissolution in cadmium or anodic dissolution. These tests showed that 99.95% of the uranium and 99.99% of the plutonium was dissolved and separated from the fuel cladding material. The fate of various fission products was also measured. After the dissolution experiments, the apparatus was upgraded to stady fission product behavior during uranium electrotransport. Preliminary decontamination factors were estimated for different fission products under different processing conditions. Later modifications have added the following capabilities: Dissolution of multiple fuel segments simultaneously, electrotransport to a solid cathode or liquid cathode and actinide recovery with a chemical reduction crucible. These capabilities have been tested with unirradiated uranium-zirconium fuel and will support the Fuel Cycle Demonstration program.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Benedict, R. W.; Krsul, J. R.; Mariani, R. D.; Park, K. & Teske, G. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criticality safety strategy for the Fuel Cycle Facility electrorefiner at Argonne National Laboratory, West

Description: The Integral Fast Reactor being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal-cooled reactors and a closed fuel cycle. Presently, the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) at ANL-West in Idaho Falls, Idaho is being modified to recycle spent metallic fuel from Experimental Breeder Reactor II as part of a demonstration project sponsored by the Department of Energy. A key component of the FCF is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the electrorefining process, the metal fuel is anodically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt and refined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. In this report, the criticality safety strategy for the FCF ER is summarized. FCF ER operations and processes formed the basis for evaluating criticality safety and control during actinide metal fuel refining. In order to show criticality safety for the FCF ER, the reference operating conditions for the ER had to be defined. Normal operating envelopes (NOES) were then defined to bracket the important operating conditions. To keep the operating conditions within their NOES, process controls were identified that can be used to regulate the actinide forms and content within the ER. A series of operational checks were developed for each operation that wig verify the extent or success of an operation. The criticality analysis considered the ER operating conditions at their NOE values as the point of departure for credible and incredible failure modes. As a result of the analysis, FCF ER operations were found to be safe with respect to criticality.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Mariani, R. D.; Benedict, R. W.; Lell, R. M.; Turski, R. B. & Fujita, E. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Simulated first operating campaign for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

Description: This report discusses the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR) which is an innovative liquid-metal-cooled reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid-metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle-economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. Over the next few years, the IFR fuel cycle will be demonstrated at Argonne-West in Idaho. Spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II) win be processed in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) using a pyrochemical method that employs molten salts and liquid metals in an electrorefining operation. As part of the preparation for the fuel cycle demonstration, a computer code, PYRO, was developed at Argonne to model the electrorefining operation using thermodynamic and empirical data. This code has been used extensively to evaluate various operating strategies for the fuel cycle demonstration. The modeled results from the first operating campaign are presented. This campaign is capable of processing more than enough material to refuel completely the EBR-II core.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Mariani, R. D.; Benedict, R. W.; Park, K. H. & Ackerman, J. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criticality safety evaluation of the fuel cycle facility electrorefiner

Description: The integral Fast Reactor (IFR) being developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) combines the advantages of metal-fueled, liquid-metal cooled reactors and a closed-loop fuel cycle. Some of the primary advantages are passive safety for the reactor and resistance to diversion for the heavy metal in the fuel cycle. in addition, the IFR pyroprocess recycles all the long-lived actinide activation products for casting into new fuel pins so that they may be burned in the reactor. A key component in the Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF) recycling process is the electrorefiner (ER) in which the actinides are separated from the fission products. In the process, the metal fuel is electrochemically dissolved into a high-temperature molten salt, and electrorefined uranium or uranium/plutonium products are deposited at cathodes. This report addresses the new and innovative aspects of the criticality analysis ensuing from processing metallic fuel, rather than metal oxide fuel, and from processing the spent fuel in batch operations. in particular, the criticality analysis employed a mechanistic approach as opposed to a probabilistic one. A probabilistic approach was unsuitable because of a lack of operational experience with some of the processes, rendering the estimation of accident event risk factors difficult. The criticality analysis also incorporated the uncertainties in heavy metal content attending the process items by defining normal operations envelopes (NOES) for key process parameters. The goal was to show that reasonable process uncertainties would be demonstrably safe toward criticality for continuous batch operations provided the key process parameters stayed within their NOES. Consequently the NOEs became the point of departure for accident events in the criticality analysis.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Lell, R. M.; Mariani, R. D.; Fujita, E. K.; Benedict, R. W. & Turski, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safeguards operations in the integral fast reactor fuel cycle

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is currently demonstrating the fuel cycle for the Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), an advanced reactor concept that takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel-cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The IFR fuel cycle employs a pyrometallurgical process using molten salts and liquid metals to recover actinides from spent fuel. The safeguards aspects of the fuel cycle demonstration must be approved by the United States Department of Energy, but a further goal of the program is to develop a safeguards system that could gain acceptance from the Nuclear Regulatory Commission and International Atomic Energy Agency. This fuel cycle is described with emphasis on aspects that differ from aqueous reprocessing and on its improved safeguardability due to decreased attractiveness and diversion potential of all process streams, including the fuel product.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Brumbach, S. B.; Dickerman, C. E. & Tompot, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrorefining Experience For Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel

Description: Pyrochemical processing has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. This report summarizes technical advancements made in electrorefining of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mk-IV electrorefiner since the pyrochemical processing was integrated into the AFCI program in 2002. The significant advancements include improving uranium dissolution and noble metal retention from chopped fuel segments, increasing cathode current efficiency, and achieving co-collection of zirconium along with uranium from the cadmium pool.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Li, S. X.; Johnson, T. A.; Westphal, B. R.; Goff, K. M. & Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department