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Success criteria for the electrometallurgical treatment demonstration.

Description: Argonne National Laboratory is demonstrating the application of electrometallurgical treatment processes to Experimental Breeder Reactor-II spent nuclear fuel. Begun in June 1996, 100 driver fuel assemblies and 25 blanket fuel assemblies will be conditioned during this demonstration project. In order to validate the technical and economic viability of the technology, the Department of Energy has established four success criteria with specific supporting goals. The results from both laboratory-scale and engineering-scale testing are being used to evaluate the processes, products and equipment against the target goals. The interim results have provided confidence that the integrated electrometallurgical processes will prove to be a viable option for treating problematic spent nuclear fuels for geologic disposal.
Date: May 4, 1998
Creator: Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Management of super-grade plutonium in spent nuclear fuel

Description: This paper examines the security and safeguards implications of potential management options for DOE's sodium-bonded blanket fuel from the EBR-II and the Fermi-1 fast reactors. The EBR-II fuel appears to be unsuitable for the packaging alternative because of DOE's current safeguards requirements for plutonium. Emerging DOE requirements, National Academy of Sciences recommendations, draft waste acceptance requirements for Yucca Mountain and IAEA requirements for similar fuel also emphasize the importance of safeguards in spent fuel management. Electrometallurgical treatment would be acceptable for both fuel types. Meeting the known requirements for safeguards and security could potentially add more than $200M in cost to the packaging option for the EBR-II fuel.
Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: McFarlane, H. F. & Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project

Description: For approximately 10 years, Argonne National Laboratory was developed a fast reactor fuel cycle based on dry processing. When the US fast reactor program was canceled in 1994, the fuel processing technology, called the electrometallurgical technique, was adapted for treating unstable spent nuclear fuel for disposal. While this technique, which involves electrorefining fuel in a molten salt bath, is being developed for several different fuel categories, its initial application is for sodium-bonded metallic spent fuel. In June 1996, the Department of Energy (DOE) approved a radiation demonstration program in which 100 spent driver assemblies and 25 spent blanket assemblies from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) will be treated over a three-year period. This demonstrated will provide data that address issues in the National Research Council`s evaluation of the technology. The planned operations will neutralize the reactive component (elemental sodium) in the fuel and produce a low enriched uranium product, a ceramic waste and a metal waste. The fission products and transuranium elements, which accumulate in the electrorefining salt, will be stabilized in the glass-bonded ceramic waste form. The stainless steel cladding hulls, noble metal fission products, and insoluble residues from the process will be stabilized in a stainless steel/zirconium alloy. Upon completion of a successful demonstration and additional environmental evaluation, the current plans are to process the remainder of the DOE sodium bonded fuel.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Henslee, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration project status

Description: The application of electrometallurgical technology to spent nuclear fuel treatment is being demonstrated by treating 410 kg uranium spent driver fuel and 1,200 kg uranium spent blanket fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) spent driver and blanket fuel. This fuel is a metallic uranium alloy and contains elemental sodium, which is a reactive material. Since reactive material is considered hazardous by US Environmental Protection Agency regulations, this fuel requires treatment before disposal in a geologic repository. The EBR-II spent fuel treatment demonstration conditions this fuel in an integrated process where the fuel is converted into three different products: low enriched uranium (LEU), ceramic waste and metallic waste. This demonstration was initiated in June 1996 and has treated approximately 50% of the driver fuel. The higher throughput equipment that will be used for blanket treatment processes has been installed in the hot cell facility and is being tested with depleted uranium. Metal waste forms have been produced from the irradiated metals from the driver fuel. Ceramic waste process equipment has been built and is being tested before installation in the hot cell facilities. This paper discusses the processes and the current results from the first 20 months of operation.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Henslee, S.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FCFPYRO simulation of the first year FCF hot operation plan

Description: A simulation study has been successfully completed according to the first year FCF operational plan for the treatment of EBR-II spent fuels. Material flow by nuclides for each processing step and radioactive decays during the process are considered. The FCFPYRO code package is a very useful tool to provide step-by-step information essential to the analysis of operational strategy, process chemistry, heat removal, criticality safety, and radiological health issues in FCF.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Liaw, J.R.; Li, S.X. & Benedict, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Automatic inspection for remotely manufactured fuel elements

Description: Two classification techniques, standard control charts and artificial neural networks, are studied as a means for automating the visual inspection of the welding of end plugs onto the top of remotely manufactured reprocessed nuclear fuel element jackets. Classificatory data are obtained through measurements performed on pre- and post-weld images captured with a remote camera and processed by an off-the-shelf vision system. The two classification methods are applied in the classification of 167 dummy stainless steel (HT9) fuel jackets yielding comparable results.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Reifman, J.; Vitela, J.E.; Gibbs, K.S. & Benedict, R.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production electrometallurgical treatment of EBR-II spent fuel.

Description: Following the successful demonstration of electrometallurgical treatment, the Spent Fuel Treatment Program was established at Argonne National Laboratory * (ANL) to treat sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel. The treatment of 24,750 kg of heavy metal is included in this program. Production treatment operations begin in September 2000. The program also includes additional research and development activities to increase process throughput and to obtain final qualification of the resulting high-level waste. Through two years, all Department of Energy (DOE) milestones established for the program have been met or exceeded.
Date: August 20, 2002
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Teske, G. M. & Johnson, T. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Technical feasibility of krypton-85 storage in sodalite

Description: Based on these experimental results, the process that is technically feasible for a reference 2000 metric ton of heavy metal (MTHM) per year reprocessing plant producing approx. 17 MCi or approx. 190 m/sup 3/ at STP would encapsulate krypton at approx. 20 cm/sup 3//g from krypton at temperatures greater than 575/sup 0/C and pressures greater than 1600 atm with one batch a day in a 58-L high pressure vessel. Based on preliminary measurements at 500/sup 0/C, the same process also would be feasible for a 70% krypton and 30% xenon mixture. 7 figures.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Benedict, R.W.; Christensen, A.B.; Del Debbio, J.A.; Keller, J.H. & Knecht, D.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transuranic material recovery in the Integral Fast Reactor fuel cycle demonstration

Description: The Integral Fast Reactor is an innovative liquid metal reactor concept that is being developed by Argonne National Laboratory. It takes advantage of the properties of metallic fuel and liquid metal cooling to offer significant improvements in reactor safety, operation, fuel cycle economics, environmental protection, and safeguards. The plans for demonstrating the IFR fuel cycle, including its waste processing options, by processing irradiated fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II fuel in its associated Fuel Cycle Facility have been developed for the first refining series. This series has been designed to provide the data needed for the further development of the IFR program. An important piece of the data needed is the recovery of TRU material during the reprocessing and waste operations.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Benedict, R.W. & Goff, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrochemical Dissolution of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel in Molten Salt Electrolyte

Description: Pyrochemical processing is a promising technology for closing the nuclear fuel cycle for next generation nuclear reactors. At Idaho National Laboratory (INL), such a pyrochemical process has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor (EBR-II). A successful demonstration of the technology was performed from 1996 to 1999 for the Department of Energy (DOE). Since 2002, processing of the spent fuel and associated research and development activities have been carried out under DOE’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) program. Electrorefining is considered to be the signature or central technology for pyrochemical processing. This paper summarizes recent experience and results in electrorefining, specifically focusing on electrochemical dissolution of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mark-IV (Mk-IV) electrorefiner (ER).
Date: June 1, 2006
Creator: Li, S. X.; Vaden, D.; Benedict, R. W. & Goff, K. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel treatment and mineral waste form development at Argonne National Laboratory-West

Description: At Argonne National Laboratory-West (ANL-West) there are several thousand kilograms of metallic spent nuclear fuel containing bond sodium. This fuel will be treated in the Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) at ANL-West to produce stable waste forms for storage and disposal. Both mineral and metal high-level waste forms will be produced. The mineral waste form will contain the active metal fission products and the transuranics. Cold small-scale waste form testing has been on-going at Argonne in Illinois. Large-scale testing is commencing at ANL-West.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Goff, K.M.; Benedict, R.W.; Bateman, K.; Lewis, M.A.; Pereira, C. & Musick, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advanced control system for the Integral Fast Reactor fuel pin processor

Description: A computerized control system has been developed for the remotely-operated fuel pin processor used in the Integral Fast Reactor Program, Fuel Cycle Facility (FCF). The pin processor remotely shears cast EBR- reactor fuel pins to length, inspects them for diameter, straightness, length, and weight, and then inserts acceptable pins into new sodium-loaded stainless-steel fuel element jackets. Two main components comprise the control system: (1) a programmable logic controller (PLC), together with various input/output modules and associated relay ladder-logic associated computer software. The PLC system controls the remote operation of the machine as directed by the OCS, and also monitors the machine operation to make operational data available to the OCS. The OCS allows operator control of the machine, provides nearly real-time viewing of the operational data, allows on-line changes of machine operational parameters, and records the collected data for each acceptable pin on a central data archiving computer. The two main components of the control system provide the operator with various levels of control ranging from manual operation to completely automatic operation by means of a graphic touch screen interface.
Date: January 1, 1993
Creator: Lau, L.D.; Randall, P.F.; Benedict, R.W. & Levinskas, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrorefining Experience For Pyrochemical Reprocessing of Spent EBR-II Driver Fuel

Description: Pyrochemical processing has been implemented for the treatment of spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II) at Idaho National Laboratory since 1996. This report summarizes technical advancements made in electrorefining of spent EBR-II driver fuel in the Mk-IV electrorefiner since the pyrochemical processing was integrated into the AFCI program in 2002. The significant advancements include improving uranium dissolution and noble metal retention from chopped fuel segments, increasing cathode current efficiency, and achieving co-collection of zirconium along with uranium from the cadmium pool.
Date: October 1, 2005
Creator: Li, S. X.; Johnson, T. A.; Westphal, B. R.; Goff, K. M. & Benedict, R. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycles

Description: An integrated efficiency test was conducted with sodium bonded, spent EBR-II drive fuel elements. The major equipment involved in the test were the element chopper, Mk-IV electrorefiner, cathode processor, and casting furnace. Four electrorefining batches (containing 54.4 kg heavy metal) were processes under the fixed operating parameters that have been developed for this equipment based on over a decade’s worth of processing experience. A mass balance across this equipment was performed. Actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies were established based on the mass balance and chemical analytical results of various samples taken from process streams during the integrated efficiency test.
Date: September 1, 2007
Creator: Li, S. X.; Vaden, D.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, T. A.; Westphal, B. R. & Frederickson, Guy L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrated Electrorefining Efficiency Test for Pyrochemical Fuel Cycle

Description: Pyrochemical processing plays an important role in the development of next generation nuclear reactors and closed nuclear fuel cycle technology. The Idaho National Laboratory (INL) has implemented a pyrochemical process for the treatment of sodium-bonded spent fuel from the Experimental Breeder Reactor-II (EBR-II). A successful demonstration of the technology was performed from 1996 to 1999 for the Department of Energy (DOE) [1]. Processing of the spent fuel and associated research and development activities have been integrated into DOE’s Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiatives (AFCI) program since 2003. Electrorefining can be considered to be the signature or central technology for pyrochemical processing. In order to assess the efficiencies involved in the electrorefining process, an integrated electrorefining efficiency test was performed in the Mk-IV electrorefiner. This paper summarizes the observations and results obtained from the test. EXPERIMENT AND RESULTS The primary goal of the integrated processing efficiency test is to demonstrate the integrated actinide dissolution and recovery efficiencies typical for the fixed operating parameters that have been applied to Mk-IV electrorefiner (ER) and cathode processor (CP) to treat spent EBR-II driver fuel during the last three years. The findings are of importance for scaling-up the pyroprocess to recover and recycle valuable actinides from spent nuclear fuel. The test was performed in the Mk-IV electrorefiner. The ER is located in the hot cell of the Fuel Conditioning Facility at the Materials and Fuels Complex. Descriptions of the major components of the ER and the process in general have been provided elsewhere [2]. Salt and cadmium levels were measured, and multiple samples were obtained prior to performing the integrated test to establish an ER baseline for assessing the test results. The test consisted of four electrorefining batches of spent driver fuel with approximately 50 kg heavy metal. Typically, three to four ER runs are required ...
Date: November 1, 2006
Creator: Li, S. X.; Johnson, T. A.; Benedict, R. W.; Vaden, D. & Westphal, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Material accountancy in an electrometallurgical Fuel Conditioning Facility

Description: The Fuel Conditioning Facility (FCF) treats spent nuclear fuel using an electrometallurgical process that separates the uranium from the fission products, sodium thermal bond and cladding materials. Material accountancy is necessary at FCF for two reasons: first, it provides a mechanism for detecting a potential loss of nuclear material for safeguards and security; second, it provides a periodic check of inventories to ensure that processes and material are under control. By weighing material entering and leaving a process, and using sampling results to determine composition, an inventory difference (ID) results when the measured inventory is compared to the predicted inventory. The ID and its uncertainty, based on error propagation, determines the degree of assurance that an operation proceeded according to expectations. FCF uses the ID calculation in two ways: closeout, which is the ID and uncertainty for a particular operational step, and material accountancy, which determines an ID and its associated uncertainty for a material balance area through several operational steps. Material accountancy over the whole facility for a specified time period assists in detecting diversion of nuclear material. Data from depleted uranium operations are presented to illustrate the method used in FCF.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Vaden, D.; Benedict, R.W.; Goff, K.M.; Keyes, R.W.; Mariani, R.D.; Bucher, R.G. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hot startup experience with electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel

Description: The treatment of spent metal fuel from the EBR-II fast reactor commenced in June of 1996 at the Fuel Conditioning Facility on the Argonne-West site in Idaho, USA. During the first year of hot operations, 20 fuel assemblies entered processing and 6 low enrichment uranium product ingots were produced. Results are presented for the various process steps with decontamination factors achieved and equipment operational history reported.
Date: October 1, 1997
Creator: Benedict, R. W.; Lineberry, M. J.; McFarlane, H. F. & Rigg, R. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electrometallurgical treatment demonstration at ANL-West

Description: Electrometallurgical treatment (EMT) was developed by Argonne National Laboratory (ANL) to ready sodium-bonded spent nuclear fuel for geological disposal. A demonstration of this technology was successfully completed in August 1999. EMT was used to condition irradiated EBR-II driver and blanket fuel at ANL-West. The results of this demonstration, including the production of radioactive high-level waste forms, are presented.
Date: March 20, 2000
Creator: Goff, K. M.; Benedict, R. W.; Johnson, S. G.; Mariani, R. D.; Simpson, M. F. & Westphal, B. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interim waste storage for the Integral Fast Reactor

Description: The Integral Fast Reactor (IFR), which Argonne National Laboratory is developing, is an innovative liquid metal breeder reactor that uses metallic fuel and has a close coupled fuel recovery process. A pyrochemical process is used to separate the fission products from the actinide elements. These actinides are used to make new fuel for the reactor. As part of the overall IFR development program, Argonne has refurbished an existing Fuel Cycle Facility at ANL-West and is installing new equipment to demonstrate the remote reprocessing and fabrication of fuel for the Experimental Breeder Reactor II (EBR-II). During this demonstration the wastes that are produced will be treated and packaged to produce waste forms that would be typical of future commercial operations. These future waste forms would, assuming Argonne development goals are fulfilled, be essentially free of long half-life transuranic isotopes. Promising early results indicate that actinide extraction processes can be developed to strip these isotopes from waste stream and return them to the IFR type reactors for fissioning. 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Benedict, R.W.; Phipps, R.D. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (USA)) & Condiff, D.W. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

IFR fuel cycle demonstration in the EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility

Description: The next major milestone of the IFR program is engineering-scale demonstration of the pyroprocess fuel cycle. The EBR-II Fuel Cycle Facility has just entered a startup phase which includes completion of facility modifications, and installation and cold checkout of process equipment. This paper reviews the design and construction of the facility, the design and fabrication of the process equipment, and the schedule and initial plan for its operation. 5 refs., 4 figs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Lineberry, M.J.; Phipps, R.D.; Rigg, R.H.; Benedict, R.W.; Carnes, M.D. (Argonne National Lab., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Herceg, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department