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Extrinsic germanium photoconductors for far-IR astronomy: Research results and works in progress

Description: The authors report on Ge:Ga and Ge:Sb photoconductor materials and detectors that are under development. The best unstressed Ge:Ga devices exhibit dark currents lower than 200 electrons per second with a concurrent responsivity of 2 A/W and detective quantum efficiency (DQE) of 5%. For higher backgrounds an operating temperature of 3 K can be used. This increases the DQE to 7% and the responsivity to 4.5 A/W. The figures of merit are roughly the same for stressed Ge:Ga operated at 1.5 K and 2 K. Recently the authors began investigating n-type Ge:Sb as an alternative photoconductor material. Two crystals of Ge:Sb were grown and a number of test detectors were fabricated and evaluated. A t2 K the best device produced dark currents of less than 100 e{sup {minus}}/s with concurrent responsivity of 1 A/W and DQE of 4%. At 3 K the dark current increases to 10{sup 5} e{sup {minus}}/s, the DQE rises to 7% and responsivity to 4 A/W. Using p-type Ge:Ga crystals the authors are in the process of constructing 2-D monolithic photoconductor arrays. The monolithic approach should afford low cost array fabrication and sensitivity similar to cavity-mounted devices.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Beeman, J.W.; Hansen, W.L. & Haller, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Long-wavelength germanium photodetectors by ion implantation

Description: Extrinsic far-infrared photoconductivity in thin high-purity germanium wafers implanted with multiple-energy boron ions has been investigated. Initial results from Fourier transform spectrometer(FTS) measurements have demonstrated that photodetectors fabricated from this material have an extended long-wavelength threshold near 192{mu}m. Due to the high-purity substrate, the ability to block the hopping conduction in the implanted IR-active layer yields dark currents of less than 100 electrons/sec at temperatures below 1.3 K under an operating bias of up to 70 mV. Optimum peak responsivity and noise equivalent power (NEP) for these sensitive detectors are 0.9 A/W and 5 {times} 10{sup {minus}16} W/Hz{sup 1/2} at 99 {mu}m, respectively. The dependence of the performance of devices on the residual donor concentration in the implanted layer will be discussed. 12 refs., 4 figs.
Date: November 1, 1990
Creator: Wu, I.C.; Beeman, J.W.; Luke, P.N.; Hansen, W.L. & Haller, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron transmutation doped (Ntd) germanium thermistors for sub-Mm bolometer applications

Description: The authors report on recent advances in the development of Neutron Transmutation Doped (NTD) semiconductor thermistors fabricated from germanium of natural and controlled isotopic composition. The near ideal doping uniformity which can be achieved with the NTD process, the device simplicity of NTD Ge thermistors and the high performance of cooled junction field effect transistor (FET) preamplifiers have led to the widespread acceptance of these thermal sensors in many radiotelescopes operating on the ground, on high altitude aircraft and on spaceborne satellites. These features also have made possible the development of efficient bolometer arrays which are beginning to produce exciting results.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Haller, E.E.; Itoh, K.M. & Beeman, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Giant negative piezoresistance effect in copper-doped germanium

Description: We have observed a stress-induced decrease of over ten orders of magnitude in the low-temperature electrical resistivity of copper- doped germanium single crystals. The application of large uniaxial stresses in a <001> direction leas to a change in the copper ground- state wavefunction from the highly localized (1s){sup 3} to the much more extended (1s){sup 2}(2s){sup 1} configuration. We attribute the decrease in the resistivity to impurity band conduction by the 2s - holes of the high pressure configuration.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Dubon, O.D.; Haller, E.E.; Walukiewicz, W. & Beeman, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs forblocked-impurity-band far-infrared detectors

Description: GaAs Blocked-Impurity-Band (BIB) photoconductor detectors have the potential to become the most sensitive, low noise detectors in the far-infrared below 45.5 cm{sup -1} (220 {micro}m). We have studied the characteristics of liquid phase epitaxial GaAs films relevant to BIB production, including impurity band formation and the infrared absorption of the active section of the device. Knowledge of the far-infrared absorption spectrum as a function of donor concentration combined with variable temperature Hall effect and resistivity studies leads us to conclude that the optimal concentration for the absorbing layer of a GaAs BIB detector lies between 1 x 10{sup 15} and 6.7 x 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}. At these concentrations there is significant wavefunction overlap which in turn leads to absorption beyond the 1s ground to 2p bound excited state transition of 35.5 cm{sup -1} (282 {micro}m). There still remains a gap between the upper edge of the donor band and the bottom of the conduction band, a necessity for proper BIB detector operation.
Date: April 7, 2004
Creator: Cardozo, B.L.; Reichertz, L.A.; Beeman, J.W. & Haller, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis and optical properties of II-O-VI highly mismatched alloys

Description: We have synthesized ternary and quaternary diluted II-VI oxides using the combination of O ion implantation and pulsed laser melting. CdO{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} thin films with x up to 0.015, and the energy gap reduced by 150 meV were formed by O{sup +}-implantation in CdTe followed by pulsed laser melting. Quaternary Cd{sub 0.6}Mn{sub 0.4}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} and Zn{sub 0.88}Mn{sub 0.12}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} with mole fraction of incorporated O as high as 0.03 were also formed. The enhanced O incorporation in Mn-containing alloys is believed to be due to the formation of relatively strong Mn-O bonds. Optical transitions associated with the lower (E{sub -}) and upper (E{sub +}) conduction subbands resulting from the anticrossing interaction between the localized O states and the extended conduction states of the host are clearly observed in these quaternary diluted II-VI oxides. These alloys fulfill the criteria for a multiband semiconductor that has been proposed as a material for making high efficiency, single-junction solar cells.
Date: January 20, 2004
Creator: Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Shan, W.; Wu, J.; Beeman, J.W.; Scarpulla, M.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correlation between structure and electrical transport in ion-irradiated graphene grown on Cu foils

Description: Graphene grown by chemical vapor deposition and supported on SiO2 and sapphire substrates was studied following controlled introduction of defects induced by 35 keV carbon ion irradiation. Changes in Raman spectra following fluences ranging from 1012 cm-2 to 1015 cm-2 indicate that the structure of graphene evolves from a highly-ordered layer, to a patchwork of disordered domains, to an essentially amorphous film. These structural changes result in a dramatic decrease in the Hall mobility by orders of magnitude while, remarkably, the Hall concentration remains almost unchanged, suggesting that the Fermi level is pinned at a hole concentration near 1x1013 cm-2. A model for scattering by resonant scatterers is in good agreement with mobility measurements up to an ion fluence of 1x1014 cm-2.
Date: November 4, 2010
Creator: Buchowicz, G.; Stone, P.R.; Robinson, J.T.; Cress, C.D.; Beeman, J.W. & Dubon, O.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Implanted Ge:B Far Infrard Blocked Impurity BandDetectors

Description: Ge Blocked Impurity Band (BIB) photoconductors have the potential to replace stressed Ge:Ga photoconductors for far-infrared astronomical observations. A novel planar BIB device has been fabricated in which ion-implanted boron is used to form the blocking and absorbing layers of necessary purity and compensation. The effect of doping in the infrared active layer on the far-infrared photoconductive response has been studied, and the optimum doping concentration is found to be {approx} 4 x 10{sup 16} cm{sup -3}. Devices doped near this concentration show good blocking characteristics with low dark currents. The spectral response extends to {approx} 45 cm{sup -1}, clearly showing the formation of an impurity band. Under low background testing conditions these devices attain a responsivity of 0.12 A/W and NEP of 5.23 x 10{sup -15} W/Hz{sup -1/2}.
Date: June 12, 2006
Creator: Beeman, J. W.; Goyal, S.; Reichertz, L. A. & Haller, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Metal-insulator transition by isovalent anion substitution in Ga1-xMnxAs: Implications to ferromagnetism

Description: We have investigated the effect of partial isovalent anion substitution in Ga1-xMnxAs on electrical transport and ferromagnetism. Substitution of only 2.4percent of As by P induces a metal-insulator transition at a constant Mn doping of x=0.046 while the replacement of 0.4 percent As with N results in the crossover from metal to insulator for x=0.037. This remarkable behavior is consistent with a scenario in which holes located within an impurity band are scattered by alloy disorder in the anion sublattice. The shorter mean free path of holes, which mediate ferromagnetism, reduces the Curie temperature TC from 113 K to 60 K (100 K to 65 K) upon the introduction of 3.1 percent P (1percent N) into the As sublattice.
Date: February 7, 2008
Creator: Stone, P. R.; Alberi, K.; Tardif, S. K. Z.; Beeman, J. W.; Yu, K. M.; Walukiewicz, W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-magnetic compensation in ferromagnetic Ga1-xMnxAs and Ga1-xMnxP synthesized by ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting

Description: The electronic and magnetic effects of intentional compensation with non-magnetic donors are investigated in the ferromagnetic semiconductors Ga1-xMnxAs and Ga1-xMnxP synthesized using ion implantation and pulsed-laser melting (II-PLM). It is demonstrated that compensation with non-magnetic donors and MnI have similarqualitative effects on materials properties. With compensation TC decreases, resistivity increases, and stronger magnetoresistance and anomalous Hall effect attributed to skew scattering are observed. Ga1-xMnxAs can be controllably compensated with Te through a metal-insulator transition through which the magnetic and electrical properties vary continuously. The resistivity of insulating Ga1-xMnxAs:Te can be described by thermal activation to the mobility edge and simply-activated hopping transport. Ga1-xMnxP doped with S is insulating at all compositions but shows decreasing TC with compensation. The existence of a ferromagnetic insulating state in Ga1-xMnxAs:Te and Ga1-xMnxP:S having TCs of the same order as the uncompensated materials demonstrates that localized holes are effective at mediating ferromagnetism in ferromagnetic semiconductors through the percolation of ferromagnetic 'puddles' which at low temperatures.
Date: February 5, 2008
Creator: Scarpulla, M. A.; Stone, P. R.; Sharp, I. D.; Haller, E. E.; Dubon, O. D.; Beeman, J. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mn l3,2 x-ray absorption spectroscopy and magnetic circulardichroism in ferromagnetic ga1-xmnxp

Description: We have measured the X-ray absorption (XAS) and X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (XMCD) at the Mn L{sub 3,2} edges in ferromagnetic Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P films for 0.018 {le} x {le} 0.042. Large XMCD asymmetries at the L{sub 3} edge indicate significant spin-polarization of the density of states at the Fermi energy. The spectral shapes of the XAS and XMCD are nearly identical with those for Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As indicating that the hybridization of Mn d states and anion p states is similar in the two materials. Finally, compensation with sulfur donors not only lowers the ferromagnetic Curie temperature but also reduces the spin polarization of the hole states.
Date: July 26, 2007
Creator: Stone, P.R.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Farshchi, R.; Sharp, I.D.; Beeman,J.W.; Yu, K.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, Construction, and Operation of a Laboratory Scale Reactorfor the Production of High-Purity, Isotopically Enriched Bulksilicon

Description: The design and operation of a recirculating flow reactor designed to convert isotopically enriched silane to polycrystalline Si with high efficiency and chemical purity is described. The starting material is SiF{sub 4}, which is enriched in the desired isotope by a centrifuge method and subsequently converted to silane. In the reactor, the silane is decomposed to silicon on the surface of a graphite starter rod (3 mm diameter) heated to 700-750 C. Flow and gas composition (0.3-0.5% silane in hydrogen) are chosen to minimize the generation of particles by homogeneous nucleation of silane and to attain uniform deposition along the length of the rod. Growth rates are 5 {micro}m/min, and the conversion efficiency is greater than 95%. A typical run produces 35 gm of polycrystalline Si deposited along a 150 mm length of the rod. After removal of the starter rod, dislocation-free single crystals are formed by the floating zone method. Crystals enriched in all 3 stable isotopes of Si have been made: {sup 28}Si (99.92%), {sup 29}Si (91.37%), and {sup 30}Si (88.25%). Concentrations of electrically active impurities (P and B) are as low as mid-10{sup 13} cm{sup -3}. Concentrations of C and O lie below 10{sup 16} and 10{sup 15} cm{sup -3}, respectively.
Date: December 20, 2004
Creator: Ager, J. W., III; Beeman, J. W.; Hansen, W. L. & Haller, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Band anticrossing in highly mismatched group II-VI semiconductor alloys

Description: We have successfully synthesized highly mismatched Cd{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys by high dose implantation of O ions into Cd{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te crystals. In crystals with y &gt; 0.02, incorporation of O causes a large decrease in the band gap. The band gap reduction increases with y; the largest value observed is 190 meV in O-implanted Cd{sub 0.38}Mn{sub 0.62}Te. The results are consistent with the band anticrossing model which predicts that a repulsive interaction between localized states of O located above the conduction band edge and the extended states of the conduction band causes the band gap reduction. A best fit of the measured band gap energies of the O ion synthesized Cd{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}O{sub x}Te{sub 1-x} alloys using the band anticrossing model for y &lt; 0.55 suggests an activation efficiency of only {approx}5% for implanted O in Cd{sub 1-y}Mn{sub y}Te.
Date: October 3, 2001
Creator: Yu, K.M.; Wu, J.; Walukiewicz, W.; Beeman, J.W.; Ager, J.W.; Haller, E.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Germanium Nanocrystals Embedded in Sapphire

Description: {sup 74}Ge nanocrystals are formed in a sapphire matrix by ion implantation followed by damage. Embedded nanocrystals experience large compressive stress relative to bulk, as embedded in sapphire melt very close to the bulk melting point (Tm = 936 C) whereas experience considerably lower stresses. Also, in situ TEM reveals that nanocrystals ion-beam-synthesized nanocrystals embedded in silica are observed to be spherical and measured by Raman spectroscopy of the zone center optical phonon. In contrast, reveals that the nanocrystals are faceted and have a bi-modal size distribution. Notably, the matrix remains crystalline despite the large implantation dose and corresponding thermal annealing. Transmission electron microscopy (TEM) of as-grown samples those embedded in silica exhibit a significant melting point hysteresis around T{sub m}.
Date: April 15, 2005
Creator: Xu, Q.; Sharp, I. D.; Liao, C. Y.; Yi, D. O.; Ager, J. W., III; Beeman, J. W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photo-oxidation of Ge Nanocrystals: Kinetic Measurements by InSitu Raman Spectroscopy

Description: Ge nanocrystals are formed in silica by ion beam synthesis and are subsequently exposed by selective HF etching of the silica. Under ambient conditions, the exposed nanocrystals are stable after formation of a protective native oxide shell of no more than a few monolayers. However, under visible laser illumination at room temperature and in the presence of O{sub 2}, the nanocrystals rapidly oxidize. The oxidation rate was monitored by measuring the Raman spectra of the Ge nanocrystals in-situ. The intensity ratio of the anti-Stokes to the Stokes line indicated that no significant laser-induced heating of illuminated nanocrystals occurs. Therefore, the oxidation reaction rate enhancement is due to a photo-chemical process. The oxidation rate varies nearly linearly with the logarithm of the laser intensity, and at constant laser intensity the rate increases with increasing photon energy. These kinetic measurements, along with the power dependencies, are described quantitatively by an electron active oxidation mechanism involving tunneling of optically excited electrons through the forming oxide skin and subsequent transport of oxygen ions to the Ge nanocrystal surface.
Date: November 22, 2006
Creator: Sharp, I.D.; Xu, Q.; Yuan, C.W.; Beeman, J.W.; Ager III, J.W.; Chrzan, D.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compositional tuning of ferromagnetism in Ga1-xMnxP

Description: We report the magnetic and transport properties of Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P synthesized via ion implantation followed by pulsed laser melting over a range of x, namely 0.018 to 0.042. Like Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P displays a monotonic increase of the ferromagnetic Curie temperature with x associated with the hole-mediated ferromagnetic phase while thermal annealing above 300 C leads to a quenching of ferromagnetism that is accompanied by a reduction of the substitutional fraction of Mn. However, contrary to observations in Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}As, Ga{sub 1-x}Mn{sub x}P is non-metallic over the entire composition range. At the lower temperatures over which the films are ferromagnetic, hole transport occurs via hopping conduction in a Mn-derived band; at higher temperatures it arises from holes in the valence band which are thermally excited across an energy gap that shrinks with x.
Date: May 23, 2006
Creator: Farshchi, R.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Stone, P.R.; Yu, K.M.; Sharp,I.D.; Beeman, J.W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of GaNxAs1-x thin films by pulsed laser melting andrapid thermal annealing (PLM-RTA) of N+-implanted GaAs

Description: We present a systematic investigation on the formation of the highly mismatched alloy GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} using N{sup +}-implantation followed by a combination of pulsed laser melting and rapid thermal annealing. Thin films of GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} with x as high as 0.016 and an activation efficiency of the implanted N up to 50% have been synthesized with structural and optical properties comparable to films grown by epitaxial deposition techniques with similar substitutional N content. The effects of N{sup +} implantation dose, laser energy fluence and rapid thermal annealing temperature on the N incorporation as well as optical and structural properties of the GaN{sub x}As{sub 1-x} films are discussed.
Date: March 11, 2003
Creator: Yu, K.M.; Walukiewicz, W.; Scarpulla, M.A.; Dubon, O.D.; Wu, J.; Jasinski, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department