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Air-cooled CWS warm air furnace. Final report

Description: Thermo Power Corporation, Tecogen Division, has developed coal water slurry (CWS) combustion technologies specifically tailored to meet the space heating needs of the residential, commercial, and industrial market sectors. This furnace was extensively tested and met all the design and operating criteria of the development program, which included combustion efficiencies in excess of 99%, response to full load from a cold start in less than 5 minutes, and steady-state thermal efficiencies as high as 85%. While this furnace design is extremely versatile, versatility came at the expense of system complexity and cost. To provide a more cost effective CWS-based option for the residential market sector, Tecogen, developed a totally air-cooled CWS-fired residential warm air heating system. To minimize system cost and to take advantage of industry manufacturing practices and experience, a commercially available oil/gas solid fuel-fired central furnace, manufactured by Yukon Energy Corporation, was used as the platform for the CWS combustor and related equipment. A prototype furnace was designed, built, and tested in the laboratory to verify system integrity and operation. This unit was then shipped to the PETC to undergo demonstration operation and serve as a showcase of the CWS technology. An in-depth Owners Manual was prepared and delivered with the furnace. This Owners Manual, which is included as Appendix A of this report, includes installation instructions, operating procedures, wiring diagrams, and equipment bulletins on the major components. It also contains coal water slurry fuel specifications and typical system operating variables, including key temperatures, pressures, and flowrates.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Litka, A.F. & Becker, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-fired residential warm-air heating system. Quarterly report, January 22, 1987--April 30, 1987

Description: The objective of this project is the development of a coal water slurry burning residential furnace. A literature survey has been performed. Also, the preliminary testing of prototype components was carried out. Design criteria and specifications are discussed.
Date: May 1, 1987
Creator: Becker, F.E.; Smolensky, L.A. & McPeak, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

Description: During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E. & Smolensky, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications

Description: A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Patch, K.D.; DiBella, F.A. & Becker, F.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System

Description: Objective of the Coal/Water Slurry (CWS) Fired Warm-Air Heating System program is the development of a reliable, efficient, compact and safe CWS-burning residential furnace. This report summarizes results of the fourth quarter of the first phase of the program effort carried out by Tecogen Inc. During the first phase ,Tecogen is developing several key components of the furnace, which may be grouped into: components directly related to combustion processes; a heat exchanger that transfers sensible heat from the flue gases to a circulating water loop, and a gas cleanup system. During the fourth quarter, work continued on, Testing and Development of Initial Prototype Components. It was found that the entire furnace system, including the combustor, peristaltic pump, Y-jet atomizer, and heat exchanger performed reliably. The combustor, which is best denoted as an Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) because it uses radial forces to detain particles, achieved a carbon conversion efficiency of over 96%.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F.E. & Smolensky, L.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

District Heating and Cooling Technology Development Program: Phase 2, Investigation of reduced-cost heat-actuated desiccant cooling systems for DHC applications. Final report, August 20, 1990--January 1, 1992

Description: A detailed assessment has been completed of the use of desiccant-based customer-sited heat-actuated cooling for District Heating and Cooling (DHC) systems, showing that introduction of a reduced-cost desiccant cooling system would result in widespread market penetration. This program consisted of three principal components: a market study of existing and future reduced-cost liquid desiccant cooling (LDC) systems; an examination of the installed costs of these existing and reduced-cost LDC systems; and four detailed case studies. Both the installed cost and equivalent chilled water cost of existing large LDC systems were found to be quite competitive with district chilled water, while the high capital cost of small LDC systems made them more expensive than district chilled water. Potential total system sales in this existing large-scale LDC market are quite low, since most of the market for DHC space conditioning is in smaller equipment sizes. Cost savings realized from producing a reduced-cost LDC system would result in small LDC systems (sized well below 6,000 cfm) becoming competitive with the current range of district chilled water costs.
Date: February 1, 1992
Creator: Patch, K. D.; DiBella, F. A. & Becker, F. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, November 1, 1988--January 31, 1989

Description: Work continued on life-cycle testing, optimization, and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly as well as the auxiliary subsystems. Emphasis of combustor testing was to determine optimum size and location of air inlets in primary combustion chambers; it was found that using a single air inlet about 70 degrees upsteam from the agglomeration site produces a combustion efficiency of 99.0% while producing no agglomeration. The test of the fouling effect on heat exchanger performance showed a steady decrease in time of the overall heat transfer coefficient. Particle size distribution of fly ash in the baghouse showed 50% of the particles smaller than 11.2 microns.
Date: March 1, 1989
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1988--April 30, 1988

Description: During this quarter, work continued on testing and development of initial prototype components; it was found that the entire furnace system, including the combustor, peristaltic pump, Y-jet atomizer, and heat exchanger, performed reliably. The IRIS (Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation) achieved a carbon conversion efficiency of > 97%. Work also continued on fabrication and assembly of a second- generation, Proof-of-Concept system. This new unit incorporates a water-cooled combustor in please of the air-cooled one. Also, a heat exchanger with larger gas passages was built. 13 figs, 1 table.
Date: June 1, 1988
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, February 1, 1989--April 30, 1989

Description: During the report period, work continued on the life-cycle testing, optimization and refining of the second-generation furnace assembly, which comprises all the major furnace components: The combustor, heat exchanger, and baghouse, as well as the auxiliary subsystems. The furnace has operated for about 90 hours, and has burned 1,000 pounds of CWS. During testing, the only maintenance that was performed on the system was to clean the bag filters to obtain ash samples for analysts. Concurrent with testing the second-generation furnace, fabrication and assembly of the third-generation furnace was completed, and a life-cycle testing and optimization process for this furnace has started. In contrast to the second-generation furnace, which was designed more as an experimental unit, the third-generation furnace is a stand-alone heating unit Incorporating the standard air handling system, blower, pump, and control box as part of the furnace. During the report period, the third-generation furnace operated for a total of 35 hours, and burned more than 300 pounds of CWS, with average tests lasting 6 hours. During the next quarter, life-cycle testing of the third-generation furnace will continue to identify areas needing further development.
Date: July 1, 1989
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, May 1, 1989--August 15, 1989

Description: Life testing of the third-generation furnace was completed. The furnace was operated for 200 h on slurry, and burned 1,758 pounds CWS (coal-water slurry), translating into an average input rate of 87,200 Btu/h. Combustion efficiency ranged from 98.2 to 99.1%. During life testing, peak emissions on the order of 0.68 pound of NO{sub x} per million Btu fired and 0.5 pound SO{sub 2} per mission Btu fired were recorded. The heat exchanger exhibits a rapid rate of fouling initially, but this tends to level off.
Date: September 1, 1989
Creator: Balsavich, J. C.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, August 1, 1988--October 31, 1988

Description: Objective is to develop an economically viable coal-water slurry fueled furnace that is competitive with current oil and natural gas systems. During this period, which is the first quarter of Phase II, testing and evaluation of the second-generation furnace assembly continued. Emphasis was placed on integrated system performance and value engineering. Work also began on design and fabrication of a third-generation prototype furnace. A preliminary cost evaluation was accomplished.
Date: December 1, 1988
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, November 1, 1987--January 31, 1988

Description: Objective of the Coal/Water Slurry (CWS) Fired Warm-Air Heating System program is the development of a reliable, efficient, compact and safe CWS-burning residential furnace. This report summarizes results of the fourth quarter of the first phase of the program effort carried out by Tecogen Inc. During the first phase ,Tecogen is developing several key components of the furnace, which may be grouped into: components directly related to combustion processes; a heat exchanger that transfers sensible heat from the flue gases to a circulating water loop, and a gas cleanup system. During the fourth quarter, work continued on, Testing and Development of Initial Prototype Components. It was found that the entire furnace system, including the combustor, peristaltic pump, Y-jet atomizer, and heat exchanger performed reliably. The combustor, which is best denoted as an Inertial Reactor with Internal Separation (IRIS) because it uses radial forces to detain particles, achieved a carbon conversion efficiency of over 96%.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Balsavich, J.; Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CWS-Fired Residential Warm-Air Heating System. Quarterly report, May 1, 1987--July 31, 1987

Description: Objective is the development of a reliable, efficient, compact and safe coal-water slurry burning residential furnace. The tasks of system analysis and of component analysis and design were completed, and the preliminary component design package was developed. Figs, table.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Becker, F. E. & Smolensky, L. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department