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Analyses of residual thermal stresses in ceramic matrix composites

Description: Residual thermal stresses in ceramic matrix composites containing either ellipsoidal inclusions or short fibers (i.e., fibers of finite length) are considered. First, the residual stresses in ellipsoidal inclusions are uniform, and they are analyzed using a modified Eshelby model. Although closed-form analytical solutions are obtained, their formulations are formidable. When the aspect ratio of the ellipsoid is 0, 1, or infinity, simple analytical solutions can be obtained using different models, and they are in excellent agreement with those obtained from the modified Eshelby model. Second, residual stresses in short fibers are nonuniform, and they are analyzed using a modified shear lag model, in which imaginary fibers are introduced to satisfy the continuity condition at the fiber ends. The analytical solutions are compared to the experimental results.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Hsueh, C.H. & Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strong, Tough Ceramics Containing Microscopic Reinforcements: Tailoring In-Situ Reinforced Silicon Nitride Ceramics

Description: Ceramics with their hardness, chemical stability, and refractoriness could be used to design more efficient energy generation and conversion systems as well as numerous other applications. However, we have needed to develop a fundamental understanding of how to tailor ceramics to improve their performance, especially to overcome their brittle nature. One of the advances in this respect was the incorporation of very strong microscopic rod-like reinforcements in the form of whiskers that serve to hold the ceramic together making it tougher and resistant to fracture. This microscopic reinforcement approach has a number of features that are similar to continuous fiber-reinforced ceramics; however, some of the details are modified. For instance, the strengths of the microscopic reinforcements must be higher as they typically have much stronger interfaces. For instance, single crystal silicon carbide whiskers can have tensile strengths in excess of {ge}7 GPa or >2 times that of continuous fibers. Furthermore, reinforcement pullout is limited to lengths of a few microns in the case of microscopic reinforcement due as much to the higher interfacial shear resistance as to the limit of the reinforcement lengths. On the other hand, the microscopic reinforcement approach can be generated in-situ during the processing of ceramics. A remarkable example of this is found in silicon nitride ceramics where elongated rod-like shape grains can be formed when the ceramic is fired at elevated temperatures to form a dense component.
Date: June 27, 1999
Creator: Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

R-curve behavior of whisker-reinforced ceramic composites

Description: Ceramics have attracted great interest for advanced heat engines and industrial applications as a result of their stiffness, light weight, corrosion resistance, and superior performance at high temperatures. However, their utilization in engineering applications is severely limited by their brittleness. One approach toward substantially reducing this brittleness is by incorporating strong whiskers into the ceramic matrix. Studies of whisker-reinforced ceramic composites have shown both rising fracture resistance with crack extension (i.e. R-curve behavior) and a three- to four-fold increase in steady-state toughness. The primary toughening mechanism is bridging of the crack surface by whiskers. This paper discusses the bridging mechanism in detail and presents R-curves for SiC whisker-reinforced Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} composites.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Hsueh, Chun-Hway & Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress-temperature-lifetime response of nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC composites in air

Description: Time-to-failure tests were conducted in four-point flexure and in air as a function of stress levels and temperatures to study the lifetime response of various Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC (designated as Nic/SiC) composites with a graphitic interfacial coating. The results indicated that all of the Nic/SiC composites exhibit a similar stress-dependent failure at applied stress greater than a threshold value. In this case, the lifetimes of the composites increased with decrease in both stress level and test temperature. The lifetime of the composites appeared to be relatively insensitive to the thickness of graphitic interface layer and was enhanced somewhat by the addition of oxidation inhibitors. Electron microscopy and oxidation studies indicated that the life of the Nic/SiC composites was governed by the oxidation of the graphitic interfaces and the on of glass(es) in composites due to the oxidation of the fiber and matrix, inhibitor phases.
Date: February 1996
Creator: Lin, Hua-Tay & Becher, P. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Initial results of a high-power microwave sintering experiment at ORNL

Description: Experiments have recently begun at Oak Ridge National Laboratory to develop microwave sintering techniques suitable for large ceramic parts. Microwave sintering offers the advantages of faster heating rates, more uniform heating, and greater energy efficiency than conventional sintering techniques. We are using 28-GHz, 200-kW cw gyrotrons as the heating source. An untuned cavity is used as the applicator to eliminate geometry sensitivity in coupling efficiency.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Kimrey, H.D.; White, T.L.; Bigelow, T.S. & Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The R-curve response of ceramics with microscopic reinforcements: Reinforcement and additive effects

Description: Using direct observations with the scanning electron and optical microscopes, simultaneous measurements of fracture resistance versus crack length (R-curve behavior) and crack interactions with microstructural features at the crack tip and in its wake were made. Selecting whisker-reinforced aluminas and self-reinforced silicon nitrides, one can examine the effects of systematic modifications of microstructure and composition on the R-curve response and the mechanisms giving rise to it. Specifically, increases in whisker content and size can increase the R-Curve response, even for short crack lengths. In the self-reinforced silicon nitrides, changes in alumina: yttria additive ratios also modify the R-curve. Modeling of the R-curve response allows one to verify toughening mechanisms and, with experimental studies, to optimize the R-curve behavior in ceramics containing microscopic reinforcements, e.g., whiskers and elongated grain structures.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Becher, P.F.; Sun, E.Y.; Plucknett, K,P. & Hsueh, C.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elevated temperature static fatigue of a Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC composite

Description: Static fatigue tests of a Nicalon fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite were conducted in four-point bending over a temperature range of 425 to 1,150 C in air at selected stress levels. The composite consisted of a Nicalon cloth with a 0.3 {mu}m graphite interfacial coating and a Forced Chemical Vapor Infiltration (FCVI) SiC matrix composite; samples were tested with or without a final protective SiC seal coat. The results indicated that the fatigue life of the Nicalon-SiC composite decreased with an increase in either applied stresses or test temperatures. However, the composite exhibited a fatigue limit of {approximately} 100 MPa at temperatures < 950 C which decreased to {approximately} 70 MPa at 1,150 C. Both electron microscopy and thermogravimetric studies suggested that the lifetime of the composites was dictated by the oxidation of graphite interfacial layer at temperatures {le} 700 C and by oxidation of graphite coating accompanied by formation of silicate interfacial layer via oxidation of the Nicalon fiber (and the SiC matrix) at temperatures {ge} 950 C. Use of a SiC seal coat effectively retarded the oxidation reactions and increased the lifetime by at least one order of magnitude at 425 C. On the other hand, the SiC seal coat made little (if any) difference in fatigue life at 950 C.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F. & Tortorelli, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial debonding versus fiber fracture in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

Description: Toughening of fiber-reinforced ceramic composites by fiber pullout relies on debonding at the fiber/matrix interface prior to fiber fracture when composites are subjected to tensile loading. The criterion of interfacial debonding versus crack penetration has been analyzed for two semi-infinite elastic plates bonded at their interface. When a crack reaches the interface, the crack either deflects along the interface or penetrates into the next layer depending upon the ratio of the energy release rate for debonding versus that for crack penetration. This criterion has been used extensively to predict interfacial debonding versus fiber fracture for a crack propagating in a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite. Two modifications were considered in the present study to address the debonding/fracture problem. First, the authors derived the analysis for a strip of fiber, which had a finite width and was sandwiched between two semi-infinite plates of matrix. It was found that the criterion of interfacial debonding versus fiber fracture depended on the fiber width. Second, a bridging fiber behind the crack tip was considered where the crack tip initially circumvented the fiber. Subsequent to this, either the interface debonded or the fiber fractured. In this case, the authors have considered a bridging-fiber geometry to establish a new criterion.
Date: November 1, 1998
Creator: Hsueh, C.H.; Becher, P.F. & He, M.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analyses of interfacial shear debonding in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites

Description: An important toughening mechanism in fiber-reinforced ceramic composites is pullout of fibers from the matrix during matrix cracking. This relies on mode II (i.e., shear) debonding at the fiber/matrix interface which can be analyzed using either the strength-based or the energy-based criterion. In the strength-based approach, debonding occurs when the maximum interfacial shear stress induced by the applied load reaches the interfacial shear strength, {tau}{sub s}. In the energy-based approach, a mode II crack propagating along the interface is considered, and debonding occurs when the energy release rate due to crack propagation reaches the interface debond energy, {Gamma}{sub 1}. Based on the above two criteria, the applied stress on the fiber to initiate debonding (i.e., the initial debond stress), {sigma}{sub d}, can be derived. The first issue considered in the present study is the relation between {tau}{sub s} and {Gamma}{sub 1}. Also, for a monolithic ceramic, the tensile strength can be related to its defect size based on the Griffith theory. A question is hence raised as to whether the initial debond stress for fiber pullout in a fiber-reinforced ceramic composite can be related to any defect at the interface.
Date: February 1, 1998
Creator: Hsueh, C.H. & Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Processing and properties of FeAl-bonded composites

Description: Iron aluminides are thermodynamically compatible with a wide range of ceramics such as carbides, borides, oxides, and nitrides, which makes them suitable as the matrix in composites or cermets containing fine ceramic particulates. For ceramic contents varying from 30 to 60 vol.%, composites of Fe-40 at. % Al with WC, TiC, TiB{sub 2}, and ZrB{sub 2} were fabricated by conventional liquid phase sintering of powder mixtures. For ceramic contents from 70 to 85 vol.%, pressureless melt infiltration was found to be a more suitable processing technique. In FeAl-60 vol.% WC, flexure strengths of up to 1.8 GPa were obtained, even though processing defects consisting of small oxide clusters were present. Room temperature fracture toughnesses were determined by flexure testing of chevron-notched specimens. FeAl/WC and FeAl/TiC composites containing 60 vol.% carbide particles exhibited K{sub Q} values around 20 MPa m{sup 1/2}. Slow crack growth measurements carried out in water and in dry oxygen suggest a relatively small influence of water-vapor embrittlement. It appears therefore that the mechanical properties of iron aluminides in the form of fine ligaments are quite different from their bulk properties. Measurements of the oxidation resistance, dry wear resistance, and thermal expansion of iron aluminide composites suggest many potential applications for these new materials.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Schneibel, J.H.; Subramanian, R.; Alexander, K.B. & Becher, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ductile intermetallic toughened carbide matrix composites

Description: Ductile Ni{sub 3}Al alloys have been used as binder phase for fabrication of TiC and WC matrix composites. Ni{sub 3}Al has good corrosion resistance to aqueous acidic environments, and its yield strength increases with temperature to a max at 700-800 C; this combined with high tensile ductilities (up to 50% strain) make Ni{sub 3}Al attractive for replacing Co in cemented carbides. Materials have been fabricated by both hot pressing and vacuum sintering, with Ni{sub 3}Al contents of 15 to 95 vol%. Vacuum sintering cycles, similar to those used for WC/Co and TiC/Ni (1450-1600 C), resulted in sintered densities >95% theoretical. WC/Ni{sub 3}Al materials showed an order of magnitude improvement in corrosion resistance over WC/Co, in sulfuric/nitric acid. These materials also had improved high temperature strength retention compared to WC/Co cermets, though initial RT strengths were lower. Fracture toughness varied between 8 and 25 MPa.m{sup 1/2} and depended primarily on Ni{sub 3}Al content and composition.
Date: August 1, 1996
Creator: Plucknett, K.P.; Tiegs, T.N.; Becher, P.F.; Waters, S.B. & Menchhofer, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Verification of creep performance of a ceramic gas turbine blade

Description: Tensile creep tests were carried out on a Norton NT164 silicon nitride ceramic turbine blade containing 4 wt. % Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} sintering additive at 1,370 C in air under selected stress levels. The objective of this study was to measure the creep properties of test specimens extracted from a complex shaped ceramic gas turbine blade to verify the response of actual components. The creep results indicated that specimens from both the airfoil and dovetail sections exhibited creep rates that were about 4 to 100 times higher than those obtained from both the buttonhead and dogbone creep specimens machined from the developmental billets fabricated with the same composition and processing procedures. Electron microscopy analyses suggested that high creep rates and short lifetimes observed in specimens extracted from the turbine blade resulted from a higher glassy phase(s) content and smaller number density of elongated grain microstructure. Silicon nitride ceramics with an in-situ reinforced elongated microstructure have been the primary candidates for both advanced automotive and land-based gas turbine engine applications.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Lin, H.T.; Becher, P.F.; Ferber, M.K. & Parthasarathy, V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lifetime Response of a Hi-Nicalon Fiber-Reinforced Melt-Infiltrated SiC Matrix Composites

Description: Lifetime studies in four-point flexure were performed on a Hi-Nicalon<sup>TM</sup> fiber-reinforced SiC matrix composite over a temperature range of 700 degrees to 1150 degrees C in air. The composite consisted of ~40 vol. % Hi-Nicalon<sup>TM</sup> fiber (8-harness weave) with a 0.5 Mu-m BN fiber coating and a melt-infiltration SiC matrix wand was tested with as-machined surfaces. Lifetime results indicated that the composite exhibited a stress-dependent lifetime at stress levels above an apparent fatigue limit, similar to the trend observed in CG-Nicalon<sup>TM</sup> fiber reinforced CVI SiC matrix composites. At less than or equal to 950 degrees C, the lifetimes of Hi-Nicalon/MI SiC composites decreased with increasing applied stress level and test temperature. However, the lifetimes were extended as test temperature increased from 950 degees to 1150 degrees C as a result of surface crack sealing due to glass formation by the oxidation of Mi SiC matrix. The lifetime governing processes were, in general, attributed to the progressive oxidation of BN fiber coating and formation of glassy phase, which formed a strong bond between fiber and matrix, resulting in embrittlement of the composite with time.
Date: April 25, 1999
Creator: Becher, P.F.; Lin, H.T. & Singh, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

R-curve response of silicon carbide whisker-reinforced alumina: Microstructural influence

Description: Rising fracture resistance with crack extension (R-curve response) can lead to improvements in the mechanical reliability of ceramics. To understand how microstructures influence the R-curve behavior, direct observations of crack interactions with microstructural features were conducted on SiC whisker-reinforced alumina. The contribution of the dominant toughening mechanisms to the R-curve behavior of these composites is discussed using experimental and theoretical studies.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Sun, E. Y.; Hsueh, C. H. & Becher, P. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental aging degradation in continuous fiber ceramic composites

Description: The thermal stability of two-continuous fiber ceramic composites (CFCC`s) has been assessed. A Nicalon/CaO-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-SiO{sub 2} (CAS) glass-ceramic composite has been subjected to unstressed, oxidation heat treatments between 375 and 1200{degrees}C, after which the material was tested in flexure at room temperature. The static fatigue behavior of a chemical vapor infiltrated (CVI) Nicalon/SiC ceramic matrix composite has been assessed in air, between 425 and 1150{degrees}C, both with and without protective seal coating. Severe property degradation was observed due to oxidation of the graphite fiber/matrix interlayer in both CFCC`s.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Plucknett, K. P.; Lin, H. T.; Braski, D. N. & Becher, P. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Control of interface fracture in silicon nitride ceramics: influence of different rare earth elements

Description: The toughness of self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics is improved by enhancing crack deflection and crack bridging mechanisms. Both mechanisms rely on the interfacial debonding process between the elongated {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} grains and the intergranular amorphous phases. The various sintering additives used for densification may influence the interfacial debonding process by modifying the thermal and mechanical properties of the intergranular glasses, which will result in different residual thermal expansion mismatch stresses; and the atomic bonding structure across the {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} glass interface. Earlier studies indicated that self-reinforced silicon nitrides sintered with different rare earth additives and/or different Y{sub 2}O{sub 3}:AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} ratios could exhibit different fracture behavior that varied from intergranular to transgranular fracture. No studies have been conducted to investigate the influence of sintering additives on the interfacial fracture in silicon nitride ceramics. Because of the complexity of the material system and the extremely small scale, it is difficult to conduct quantitative analyses on the chemistry and stress states of the intergranular glass phases and to relate the results to the bulk properties. The influence of different sintering additives on the interfacial fracture behavior is assessed using model systems in which {Beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}whiskers are embedded in SIAIRE (RE: rare-earth) oxynitride glasses. By systematically varying the glass composition, the role of various rare-earth additives on interfacial fracture has been examined. Specifically, four different additives were investigated: Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}, Y{sub 2}0{sub 3}, La{sub 2}O{sub 3}, and Yb{sub 2}O{sub 3}. In addition, applying the results from the model systems, the R- curve behavior of self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics sintered with different Y{sub 2}0{sub 3}:AI{sub 2}0{sub 3} ratios was characterized.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Sun, E. Y.; Becher, P. F.; Waters, S. B.; Hsueh, Chun-Hway; Plucknett, K. P. & Hoffmann, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interfacial composition analysis of silicon nitride whisker reinforced oxynitride glass systems

Description: Scanning transmission electron microscopy combined with energy-dispersive x-ray spectroscopy and parallel-detection electron energy-loss spectroscopy was used to analyze the composition at interfaces in {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4} whisker reinforced oxynitride glass systems.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Sun, E. Y.; Alexander, K. B.; Becher, P. F. & Hwang, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Role of Intergranular Films in Toughened Ceramics

Description: Self-reinforced silicon nitride ceramics rely the generation of elongated grains that act as reinforcing elements to gain increases in fracture toughness. However, the size and number of the reinforcing grains must be controlled, along with the matrix grain size, to optimize the fracture toughness and strength. Furthermore, the toughening processes of crack bridging are dependent upon retention of these reinforcing grains during crack extension by an interfacial debonding process. Both the debonding process and the resultant toughening effects are found to be influenced by the composition of the sintering aids which typical are incorporated into the amorphous intergranular films found in these ceramics. Specifically, it is shown that the interface between the intergranular glass and the reinforcing grains is strengthened in the presence of an epitaxial SiAlON layer. In addition, the interface strength increases with the Al and 0 content of the SiAlON layer. Micromechanics modeling indicates that stresses associated with thermal expansion mismatch are a secondary factor in interfacial debonding in these specific systems. On the other hand, first principles atomic cluster calculations reveal that the debonding behavior is consistent with the formation of strong Si-0 and Al-O bonds across the glass-crystalline interface.
Date: May 10, 1999
Creator: Becher, P.F.; Hsueh, C.H.; More, K.L.; Painter, G.S. & Sun, E.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Intermetallic bonded ceramic matrix composites

Description: A range of carbide and oxide-based cermets have been developed utilizing ductile nickel aluminide (Ni{sub 3}Al) alloy binder phases. Some of these, notably materials based upon tungsten and titanium carbides (WC and TiC respectively), offer potential as alternatives to the cermets which use cobalt binders (i.e. WC/Co). Samples have been prepared by blending commercially available Ni{sub 3}Al alloy powders with the desired ceramic phases, followed by hot-pressing. Alumina (Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}) matrix materials have also been prepared by pressurized molten alloy infiltration. The microstructure, flexure strength and fracture toughness of selected materials are discussed.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Plucknett, K. P.; Tiegs, T. N.; Alexander, K. B.; Becher, P. F.; Schneibel, J. H.; Waters, S. B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface-Roughness Induced Residual Stresses in Thermal Barrier Coatings: Computer Simulations

Description: Adherence of plasma-sprayed thermal barrier coatings (TBC'S} is strongly dependent on mechanical interlocking at the interface between the ceramic coating and the underlying metallic bond coat. Typically, a rough bond-coat surface topology is required to achieve adequate mechanical bonding. However, the resultant interfacial asperities modify the residual stresses that develop in the coating system due to thermal expansion differences, and other misfit strains, and generate stresses that can induce progressive fracture and eventual spallation of the ceramic coating. For a flat interface the principal residual stress is parallel to the interface as the stress normal to the interface is zero. However, the residual stress normal to the interface becomes non-zero, when the interface has the required interlocking morphology. In the present study, an actual microstructure of a plasma-sprayed TBC system was numerically simulated and analyzed with a recently developed, object-oriented finite element analysis program, OOF, to give an estimate of the localized residual stresses in a TBC system. Additionally, model TBC rnicrostructures were examined to evaluate the manner in which the topology of interfacial asperities influences residual stresses. Results are present for several scenarios of modifying interfacial roughness.
Date: October 26, 1998
Creator: Becher, P.F.; Carter, C.; Fuller, E.R., Jr.; Hsueh, C.H. & Langer, S.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ceramic composites with a ductile Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase

Description: Composites using B-doped ductile Ni{sub 3}Al alloys were produced with both non-oxide (WC, TiC) and oxide (Al{sub 2}0{sub 3}) ceramic powders. Typical powder processing techniques were used to fabricate materials with ceramic contents from 0-95 vol. %. The microstructural morphology of the composites depends primarily on the wetting behavior between the alloys and the ceramic powders. The non-oxide ceramic powders wet well and the Ni{sub 3}Al alloys form a semi-continuous intergranular phase. On the other hand, the Ni{sub 3}Al alloys do not wet the oxide powders well and tend to form discrete ``islands`` of the metallic phase. Wetting in these materials can be improved by the addition of non-oxide particles, such as TiC. Results on the mechanical properties showed ambient temperature flexural strength similar to other Ni-based hardmetals. In contrast to the WC-Co materials, the flexural strength is retained to temperatures of at least 800 C. The fracture toughness and hardness were found to be equal or higher than comparable Co-based hardmetal systems. Initial corrosion tests showed excellent resistance to acid solutions.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Tiegs, T.N.; Alexander, K.B.; Plucknett, K.P.; Menchhofer, P.A.; Becher, P.F. & Waters, S.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tailoring the intergranular phases in silicon nitride for improved toughness

Description: Intergranular glass phases can have a significant influence on fracture resistance (R-curve behavior) of Si nitride ceramics and appears to be related to debonding of the {beta}-Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}/oxynitride-glass interfaces. Applying the results from {beta}- Si{sub 3}N{sub 4}-whisker/oxynitride-glass model systems, self- reinforced Si nitrides with different sintering additive ratios were investigated. Si nitrides sintered with a lower Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}: Y{sub 2}O{sub 3} additive ratio exhibited higher stead-state fracture toughness together with a steeply rising R-curve. Analytical electron microscopy suggested that the different fracture behavior is related to the Al content in the SiAlON growth band on the elongated grains, which could result in differences in interfacial bonding structures between the grains and the intergranular glass.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Sun, E. Y.; Becher, P. F.; Plucknett, K. P.; Waters, S. B.; Hirao, K. & Brito, M. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Toughening behavior in ceramics and cermets

Description: The development of high strength ({ge} 1 GPa), high toughness ({ge} 10 MPa {radical}m) ceramic systems is being examined using two approaches. In silicon nitride, toughening is achieved by the introduction of large prismatic shaped grains dispersed in a fine grain matrix. For the system examined herein, both the microstructure and the composition must be controlled. A distinctly bimodal distribution of grain diameters combined with controlled yttria to alumina ratio in additives to promote interfacial debonding is required. Using a cermet approach, ductile Ni{sub 3}Al-bonded TiC exhibited toughening due to plastic deformation within the Ni{sub 3}Al binder phase assisted by interfacial debonding and cleavage of TiC grains. The TiC-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets have toughness values equal to those of the WC-Co cermets. Furthermore, the TiC-Ni{sub 3}Al cermets exhibit high strengths that are retained in air to temperatures of {approximately} 1,000 C.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Becher, P.F.; Sun, E.Y.; Hsueh, C.H.; Plucknett, K.P.; Kim, H.D.; Hirao, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department


Description: Eltron Research Inc., and team members CoorsTek, McDermott Technology, inc., Sued Chemie, Argonne National Laboratory, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory are developing an environmentally benign, inexpensive, and efficient method for separating hydrogen from gas mixtures produced during industrial processes, such as coal gasification. This project was motivated by the National Energy Technology Laboratory (NETL) Vision 21 initiative which seeks to economically eliminate environmental concerns associated with the use of fossil fuels. This objective is being pursued using dense membranes based in part on Eltron-patented ceramic materials with a demonstrated ability for proton and electron conduction. The technical goals are being addressed by modifying single-phase and composite membrane composition and microstructure to maximize proton and electron conductivity without loss of material stability. Ultimately, these materials must enable hydrogen separation at practical rates under ambient and high-pressure conditions, without deactivation in the presence of feedstream components such as carbon dioxide, water, and sulfur.
Date: April 30, 2002
Creator: Roark, Shane E.; Sammells, Anthony F.; Mackay, Richard A.; Pitzman, Lyrik Y.; Zirbel, Thomas A.; Barton, Thomas F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department