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Report on Carbon-14 generation and release at some of the Hanford reactors

Description: The Hanford graphite-moderated reactors have an enclosed gas circulation system to maintain control of the composition of gas atmosphere in the graphite stack. This investigation was undertaken to answer several questions concerning the generation and release of Carbon-14 in the operation of these graphite moderated reactors. The principle question was: Will an increase in the nitrogen content of the reactor atmosphere increase the release of Carbon-14 sufficiently to create a health hazard. Other questions were: (1) What are the main sources and the main release routes. (2) How much does carbon-14 build up in the graphite in the reactor stack. and (3) Is the total release of carbon-14 to the atmosphere sufficient to enhance the /sup 14/C levels in the vegetation surrounding the reactors.
Date: December 14, 1964
Creator: Barton, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of a standard Pu solution by the control laboratories in 231 and 234-5 Buildings

Description: A solution of Pu was prepared for use in a re-investigation of the present 49 titration method. Three 500 microliter portions of the sample were dried and ignited to PuO{sub 2}. From the weight of the residue and the impurity analysis, the concentration, in g/l, of the solution was found to be 222.2, 221.5, and 222.5; average of 222.0. The six samples submitted to the control laboratory in Bldg. 231 were reported as: 219.3, 223.6, 221.5, 220.9, 222.3, and 228.2 (re-run 229.3); average of 222.6 g/l. The 234-5 Laboratory reported: 228.2, 233.3, 220.2, 236.1, 225.2 (re-run 220.6), and 227.9; average of 227.3 g/l. Since the standardization was carried out on April 13, the 231 Lab received its samples on May 11, and the 234-5 Lab received their samples on May 23, a correction for increase in concentration due to decomposition of the water by alpha particles and evaporation was calculated. It was determined that the results reported by the 231 Lab were very consistent (except for one determination) and that the average value agreed with the gravimetric determination. The average results from the 234-5 Lab are 2% higher than the gravimetric results. Further studies are being made on the chemical method for plutonium to resolve the difficulty.
Date: July 14, 1950
Creator: Barton, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analytical results on leachings from Nutsche Filters

Description: This report describes results of an investigation to determine whether plutonium nitrates and lanthanum compounds were being entrained on the filter aid and filter block of the Nutsche Filters in Cell 2 of Bldg. 231. Leach samples were analyzed for La, Pu, phosphate, fluoride, Pu{sup 240}, and Am. From the data the authors concluded that the holdup on the Nutsche Filter is due to insoluble plutonium compounds either filtered from solution, or more likely, formed on the filter. These compounds would have a relatively low solubility in 25% nitric acid and would dissolve slowly, thus permitting a gradual buildup of material on the filter which was not detected until leaching with 60% nitric acid was instituted.
Date: July 2, 1951
Creator: Barton, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status report: Carbon-14 in the condensate from the silica gel dryers of the production reactors

Description: Volatile compounds containing C{sup 14} produced in the cooling gas systems of Hanford reactors can be lost from the cooling gas by two routes. These are (a) escape via the reactor stacks through leaks in the cooling gas system and (b), adsorption with water vapor on the silica gel of the dryers for the cooling gas with subsequent regeneration of the silica gel and condensation of the water for disposal. Information relative to the release rates by the stack gas route was reported in HW-75618. The present report provides data relative to the C{sup 14} loss rates through the condensate obtained from regeneration of the silica gel dryers of the reactor gas cooling systems. The C{sup 14} containing compounds in the reactor gas are produced by n,{gamma} reaction on the nitrogen in the coolant gas, an n,{gamma} reaction on carbon in the CO{sub 2} component of the coolant gas, or an n,{gamma} reaction on the graphite moderator with subsequent volatilization. Studies are presently under way to determine the contribution of graphite ``burnout`` to the C{sup 14} containing volatile compounds in the coolant gas. Upon completion of these studies a topical formal report will be Issued which will include the findings on the graphite ``burnout``, the stack gas losses, and the condensate losses.
Date: March 14, 1963
Creator: Barton, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GAS CHROMATOGRAPHIC SYSTEM FOR FFTF FAILED FUEL DETECTION AND LOCATION - STATE-OF-THE-ART REPORT

Description: A review of the present state-of-the-art in the areas of gas chromatography, radiochemical counting and inert cover gas sampling reveals that : 1, The chromatographic approach to fuel failure detection and locatlon is technically feasible and holds promise of having distinct advantages over existing methods. 2, Considerable knowledge which is directly applicable to the problem exists and therefore the research and development costs required will be modest, 3. Existfng knowledge indicates that there is a high probability that a successful failed fuel locator can be constructed based on gas chromatographic separation of the rare gases followed by radiochemical counting . 4, Sample selection and conditioning will pose a major problem in any failure location system which is based on the measurement of fission gas concentration in individual cover gas channels.
Date: April 26, 1969
Creator: Barton, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a modified diffusion type carbon activity meter for liquid sodium

Description: A high sensitivity automated carbon activity meter has been developed by combining elements of technology used in other instruments. The basic principle is the diffusion of carbon through an iron membrane driven by the concentration gradient between the sodium being measured and the sweep gas. The membrane used is similar to that used by Harwell workers, i.e., a coil of small diameter iron tubing with an oxide coating on the inner surface. A sweep gas of helium is used to pick up the carbon oxides generated by the reaction of carbon and iron oxide. The carbon oxides are converted to carbon dioxide in a copper oxide bed and measured with a gas chromatograph employing a helium ionization detector. This measuring system has an excellent signal-to-noise ratio and requires fewer gases than the flame ionization detector usually employed. The concentration of CO/sub 2/ in the sweep gas was in the range of 0.2 to 2 ppM when measuring carbon activity in a stainless steel system.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Barton, G.B.; Cook, W.V. & McCauley, D.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxygen-hydrogen meter assembly for use in remote sodium sampling systems

Description: An assembly of an electrolytic oxygen meter and a diffusion type hydrogen meter was designed to fit into the Multipurpose Sampler hardware already installed and operating on the four FFTF sodium systems. One of the key elements in this assembly is a ceramic-metal sealed oxygen sensor which allows use of a metal tube to extend the 51 cm (20 in.) between the sampler top and the flowing sodium region.
Date: February 1, 1980
Creator: Barton, G.B.; Bohringer, A.P. & Yount, J.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Determination of Total Plutonium in the Presence of Aluminum

Description: Introduction: "The adoption of aluminum nitrate as salting agent in the Redox process made it imperative that a method be available for determining plutonium in the presence of aluminum. However, large amounts of aluminum have been found to interfere with the determination of plutonium by the lanthanum fluoride procedure. Previous attempts to increase the accuracy of the lanthanum fluoride method, by precipitating LaF3 from 4 M HF (rather than 2 M), have been successful only when the initial plutonium level was high."
Date: February 10, 1950
Creator: Burns, R. E. & Barton, G. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department