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Assessment of environmental control technology for coal conversion aqueous wastes

Description: A hydrocarbonization process has been studied to assess environmental control technology for coal conversion wastewaters. Fifteen major wastewater streams were identified; 2 present serious environmental problems not routinely encountered in industry. These are the hydrocarbonization condensate and the ash sluicing waste from the gasifier. The hydrocarbonization product water is high in phenolics, ammonia, cyanide, thiocyanate, and other sulfur compounds. This stream will present a significant wastewater treatment problem unless the stream can be recycled internally. The gasifier-ash sluicing water will probably be similar to ash sluicing water from coal-fired power generating plants. However, the large quantity of toxic trace elements may be more easily dissolved from ash produced at the lower-temperature and reducing conditions encountered in gasification. A number of cleanup technologies relevant to the cleanup of coal conversion aqueous effluents have ben assessed for their adaptability to the specific pollutants found in coal hydrocarbonization wastewater. A summary of these processes lists the potential applicability, economics, raw material requirements, process compatibility, operating conditions, state of development, environmental problems, energy requirements, and availability of each. Indications are that almost any level of removal can be achieved if one is willing to pay the cost. The optimum amount of cleanup will require much future interaction between industry, environmental control technology developers, human and environmental effects assessors, and federal effluent regulations administrators.
Date: July 1, 1978
Creator: Klein, J.A. & Barker, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Remotely operated organic liquid waste incinerator for the fuels and materials examination facility

Description: The search for a practical method for the disposal of small quantities of oraganic liquid waste, a waste product of metallographic sample preparation at the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility has led to the design of an incinerator/off-gas system to burn organic liquid wastes and selected organic solids. The incinerator is to be installed in a shielded inert-atmosphere cell, and will be remotely operated and maintained. The off-gas system is a wet-scrubber and filter system designed to release particulate-free off-gas to the FMEF Building Exhaust System.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Sales, W.L.; Barker, R.E. & Hershey, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioactivity in consumer products

Description: Papers presented at the conference dealt with regulations and standards; general and biological risks; radioluminous materials; mining, agricultural, and construction materials containing radioactivity; and various products containing radioactive sources.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Moghissi, A.A.; Paras, P.; Carter, M.W. & Barker, R.F. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HYDRGN - a computerized technique for the analysis of thermochemical water-splitting cycles

Description: The HYDRGN computer program was designed to analyze closed thermochemical cycles for the production of hydrogen from water. This report includes the basic theory, assumptions, and methods of calculation used in this analysis along with a description of the program and its use. The source program and necessary data bank are available from the University of Kentucky. These may be obtained by sending a magnetic tape (minimum length 1200 ft) and a written request specifying the type of computer and recording characteristics of the tape. A small fee is charged for the recording and handling of the tape.
Date: June 1, 1977
Creator: Carty, R. H.; Conger, W. L.; Funk, J. E. & Barker, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Open Circular Holes on Tensile Strength and Elongation of Sheet Specimens of a Magnesium Alloy

Description: Note presenting an investigation of the effect of open circular holes on the tensile strength and elongation of sheet specimens of magnesium alloy AM-C52S in both the annealed and hard-rolled condition. Tests were made to study the effect of variable ratio of hole diameter to total specimen width and the effect of spacing and arrangement of the holes.
Date: June 1952
Creator: Barker, R. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pressurized carbonization of coal liquefaction by-product materials: Fluor Advanced Liquefaction and Parsons' POGO processes

Description: Experiments were performed to determine the results of carbonization under pressure of three coal liquefaction product (or by-product) materials and thus supply data needed as a design base for two concepts for advanced coal liquefaction plants. Solid-liquid separation underflow (SLSU) and solvent from a hydroextraction process were carbonized at 900/sup 0/F in an inert atmosphere at pressures up to 400 psig. Vacuum still bottoms from the H-Coal process were pyrolyzed at 1100/sup 0/F in a methane atmosphere at 400 psig. Results from carbonization of hydroextraction solvent and SLSU show that (1) only 1 to 7 percent of the solvent is degraded during carbonization at 900/sup 0/F and 400 psig, (2) the heavier fraction of the residue contributed the most toward coke formation, and (3) increased pressure increases the degree of coking of the heavier fractions. Results from pyrolysis of the vacuum still bottoms material at 1100/sup 0/F and 400 psig indicated that (1) small amounts of liquid are produced, (2) a significant quality of gas is produced, and (3) higher temperature will probably be required to produce free-flowing char.
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Barker, R.E.; Hightower, J.R. Jr.; Gibson, J.B. III & Gibson, S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of the FMEF and material handling systems

Description: Final design is over half complete on the Fuels and Materials Examination Facility (FMEF), the hot cell facility for destructive and nondestructive examination of irradiated fuels and materials tested in the Fast Flux Test Facility (FFTF). The overall facility is generally described with detailed information given on systems for transferring fuels and materials for examinations, for solid and liquid radioactive waste, and for equipment maintenance and repair.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Doman, D. R.; Rogers, G. J.; Trego, A. L.; Barker, R. E.; Clark, H. E. & Peschel, W. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hydrocarbonization research: completion report

Description: Hydrocarbonization is a relatively simple process used for producing oil, substitute natural gas, and char by heating coal under a hydrogen-rich atmosphere. This report describes studies that were performed in a bench-scale hydrocarbonization system at Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) during the period 1975 to 1978. The results of mock-up studies, coal metering valve and flowmeter development, and supporting work in an atmospheric hydrocarbonization system are also described. Oil, gas, and char yields were determined by hydrocarbonization of coal in a 0.1-m-diam fluidized-bed reactor operated at a pressure of 2170 kPa and at temperatures ranging from 694 to 854 K. The nominal coal feed rate was 4.5 kg/h. Wyodak subbituminous coal was used for most of the experiments. A maximum oil yield of approx. 21% based on moisture- and ash-free (maf) coal was achieved in the temperature range of 810 to 840 K. Recirculating fluidized-bed, uniformly fluidized-bed, and rapid hydropyrolysis reactors were used. A series of operability tests was made with Illinois No. 6 coal to determine whether caking coal could be processed in the recirculating fluidized-bed reactor. These tests were generally unsuccessful because of agglomeration and caking problems; however, these problems were eliminated by the use of chemically pretreated coal. Hydrocarbonization experiments were carried out with Illinois No. 6 coal that had been pretreated with CaO-NaOH, Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/, and CaO-Na/sub 2/CO/sub 3/. Oil yields of 14, 24, and 21%, respectively, were obtained from the runs with treated coal. Gas and char yield data and the composition of the oil, gas, and char products are presented.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Youngblood, E.L.; Cochran, H.D. Jr.; Westmoreland, P.R.; Brown, C.H. Jr.; Oswald, G.E. & Barker, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Whither Deterrence?'' Final Report of the 2001 Futures Project

Description: This study began in April of 2001 to address the question of what deterrence should look like in the future. This section presents a brief synopsis of the study--a longer, more comprehensive report follows. This study presents four futures as a tool for planners who must think ahead fifteen years or more, rather than a prediction of the future. None of the four futures will emerge in just the way that has been described. Fifteen years from now, some mix of these futures is more likely, or perhaps we will see a trend toward one future, but with the possibility that any of the other three could appear, perhaps quite swiftly.
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nacht, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

''Whither Deterrence?'' A Brief Synopsis May, 2002

Description: To most audiences, deterrence has been interconnected with nuclear weapons whose purpose had been to deter a Soviet attack. But, the Soviet Union has been gone for almost a decade. President George W. Bush has stated that Russia is not an enemy of the US and the numbers of nuclear weapons can be dramatically reduced. It is important to note that deterrence has always transcended nuclear weapons. The US' first line of deterrence has been its formidable conventional warfare capability, designed to prevent conflict and win wars if necessary. The role of nuclear weapons has been to deter the,use of nuclear weapons and other weapons of mass destruction against U.S. interests during the conduct of conventional warfare and to ensure our ability to inflict massive destruction on any who would use nuclear weapons, or other weapons of mass destruction, against us. With regard to the Soviet Union, the threat of the use of nuclear weapons was a critical component of our deterrent to prevent massive Soviet conventional attack against our allies in Europe. However, the events of September 11, 2001 make clear that we have not convinced all who seek to harm us that we will be able to respond in a manner to make them wish they had not even tried. The September 11 attacks, as well as other past conflicts, do not mean that deterrence has failed-it remains effective against the threats for which it was designed. We have known there are other threats for which we did not have a credible deterrent. The challenge is to sustain deterrence against the classic threats as they evolve in technical sophistication while remaining alert to the need to evaluate continuously our ability to deter previously unforeseen challenges. How then should we be looking at deterrence as we consider fifteen or ...
Date: May 29, 2002
Creator: Poppe, C; Vergino, E; Barker, R; Brown, P; Gilmartin, T J; Nach, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal Behavior of Floor Tubes in a Kraft Recovery Boiler

Description: The temperatures of floor tubes in a slope-floored black liquor recovery boiler were measured using an array of thermocouples located on the tube crowns. It was found that sudden, short duration temperature increases occurred with a frequency that increased with distance from the spout wall. To determine if the temperature pulses were associated with material falling from the convective section of the boiler, the pattern of sootblower operation was recorded and compared with the pattern of temperature pulses. During the period from September, 1998, through February, 1999, it was found that more than 2/3 of the temperature pulses occurred during the time when one of the fast eight sootblowers, which are directed at the back of the screen tubes and the leading edge of the first superheater bank, was operating.
Date: September 12, 1999
Creator: Barker, R.E.; Choudhury, K.A.; Gorog, J.P.; Hall, L.M.; Keiser, J.R. & Sarma, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department