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Aerodynamic Effects of a Split Flap on the Spinning Characteristics of a Monoplane Model

Description: From Summary: "The investigation described in this report was made to determine the change in aerodynamic forces and moments produced by split flaps in a steady spin. The test were made with the spinning balance in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. A low-wing monoplane model was tested with and without the split flaps in 12 spinning attitudes chosen to cover the probable spinning range. The results obtained indicate that the use of split flaps on an airplane is unlikely, in any case, to have much beneficial effect on a spin, and it might make the spin dangerous."
Date: December 1934
Creator: Bamber, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spinning Characteristics of Wings 2: Rectangular Clark Y Biplane Cellule: 25 Percent Stagger; 0 Degree Decalage; Gap/Chord 1.0

Description: General methods of theoretical analysis of airplane spinning characteristics have been available for some time. Some of these methods of analysis might be used by designers to predict the spinning characteristics of proposed airplane designs if the necessary aerodynamic data were known. The present investigation, to determine the spinning characteristics of wings, is planned to include variations in airfoil sections, plan forms, and tip shapes of monoplane wings and variations in stagger, gap, and decalage for biplane cellules.
Date: April 1935
Creator: Bamber, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Tests of Several Forms of Fixed Wing Slot in Combination With a Slotted Flap on an N.A.C.A. 23012 Airfoil

Description: Note presenting tests of several forms of fixed wing slot in a large-chord NACA 23012 airfoil in the closed-throat 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The airfoil extended completely across the test section so that two-dimensional flow was approximated. The data are presented in the form of tables of important aerodynamic characteristics for each slot tested and as curves of section lift, profile-drag, and pitching-moment coefficients.
Date: April 1939
Creator: Bamber, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of Changes in Aspect Ratio, Side Area, Flight-Path Angle, and Normal Acceleration on Lateral Stability

Description: Report presenting computations made to determine the effect of changes in wing aspect ratio, additional side area, flight-path angle, and normal acceleration on the relation between the fin area and the dihedral angle required for spiral and for oscillatory lateral stability for a hypothetical airplane of the pursuit or fighter categories. The diagrams indicate that the effect of wing aspect ratio on lateral stability is small.
Date: December 1942
Creator: Bamber, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spinning characteristics of wings 1: rectangular Clark Y monoplane wing

Description: "A series of wind tunnel tests of a rectangular Clark Y wing was made with the NACA spinning balance as part of a general program of research on airplane spinning. All six components of the aerodynamic force and moment were measured throughout the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, and values omega b/2v likely to be attained by a spinning airplane; the results were reduced to coefficient form. It is concluded that a conventional monoplane with a rectangular Clark y wing can be made to attain spinning equilibrium throughout a wide range of angles of attack but that provision of a yawing moment coefficient of -0.02 (against the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interferences will insure against attainment of equilibrium in a steady spin" (p. 231).
Date: November 21, 1934
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of stabilizer location upon pitching and yawing moments in spins as shown by tests with the spinning balance

Description: Tests were made with the spinning balance in a 5-foot wind tunnel to study the effect of stabilizer location upon the pitching and yawing moments given by the tail surfaces in spinning attitudes. The tests revealed that the horizontal surfaces, when in a normal location, seriously reduced the effectiveness of the fin and rudder, particularly at angles of attack of 50 degrees or more. The tests also revealed that a more forward or more rearward location gave no consistent or decided improvement; that a lower location greatly increased the shielding so that the yawing moment from the combination was in general less than that given by the bare fuselage; and that a higher location decreased the shielding and gave a favorable interference effect, particularly at the high angles of attack. Additional results regarding the stabilizer and the elevator are given.
Date: November 1933
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The aerodynamic forces and moments on a spinning model of the F4B-2 airplane as measured by the spinning balance

Description: From Introduction: "The tests described in this report were made as part of an investigation of the spinning characteristics of the F4B-2 airplane conducted at the request of the Bureau of Aeronautics, Navy Department."
Date: February 1935
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-tunnel investigation of effect of yaw on lateral-stability characteristics 1: four N.A.C.A. 23012 wings of various plan forms with and without dihedral

Description: Four N.A.C.A. 23012 wings were tested at several angles of yaw in the N.A.C.A. 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. All the wings have rounded tips and, in plan form, one is rectangular and the others are tapered 3:1 with various amounts of sweep. Each wing was tested with two amounts of dihedral and with partial-span split flaps. The coefficients of lift, drag, and pitching moment are given for all the models at zero yaw. The coefficients of rolling moment, yawing moment, and side force are given for the rectangular wing at all values of yaw tested. The rate of change in the coefficients with angle of yaw is given in convenient form for stability calculations.
Date: April 1939
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & House, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spinning Characteristics of Wings 3: A Rectangular and Tapered Clark Y Monoplane Wing with Rounded Tips

Description: An investigation was made to determine the spinning characteristics of Clark Y monoplane wings with different plan forms. A rectangular wing and a wing tapered 5:2, both with rounded tips, were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. Also included is an estimate of the yawning moment that must be furnished by the parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moment for spinning equilibrium. The effects on the spin of changes in plan form and of variations of some of the important parameters are discussed and the results are compared with those for a rectangular wing with square tips. It is concluded that for a conventional monoplane using Clark Y wing the sideslip will be algebraically larger for the wing with the rounded tip than for the wing with the square tip and will be largest for the tapered wing. The effect of plan form on the spin will vary with the type of airplane; and the provision of a yawing-moment coefficient of -0.025 (i.e., opposing the spin) by the tail, fuselage, and interference effects will insure against the attainment of equilibrium on a steady spin for any of the plan forms tested and for any of the parameters used in the analysis.
Date: September 1937
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & House, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spinning characteristics of the XN2Y-1 airplane obtained from the spinning balance and compared with results from the spinning tunnel and from flight tests

Description: Report presents the results of tests of a 1/10-scale model of the XN2Y-1 airplane tested in the NACA 5-foot vertical wind tunnel in which the six components of forces and moments were measured. The model was tested in 17 attitudes in which the full-scale airplane had been observed to spin, in order to determine the effects of scale, tunnel, and interference. In addition, a series of tests was made to cover the range of angles of attack, angles of sideslip, rates of rotation, and control setting likely to be encountered by a spinning airplane. The data were used to estimate the probable attitudes in steady spins of an airplane in flight and of a model in the free-spinning tunnel. The estimated attitudes of steady spin were compared with attitudes measured in flight and in the spinning tunnel. The results indicate that corrections for certain scale and tunnel effects are necessary to estimate full-scale spinning attitudes from model results.
Date: April 16, 1937
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & House, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spinning characteristics of wings 5: N.A.C.A. 0009, 23018, and 6718 monoplane wings

Description: Three rectangular monoplane wings having rounded tips were tested on the N.A.C.A. spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical wind tunnel. The airfoil sections used were the N.A.C.A. 0009, 23018, and 6718. The aerodynamic characteristics of the models and a prediction of the angles of sideslip for steady spins are given. There is included an estimate of the yawing moment that must be furnished by parts of the airplane to balance the inertia couples and wing yawing moments for spinning equilibrium. The predicted angles of sideslip and yawing moments required for spinning equilibrium for a Clark Y wing with the same form are included for comparison.
Date: January 1938
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & House, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary investigation on boundary layer control by means of suction and pressure with the U.S.A. 27 airfoil

Description: The tests described in this report constitute a preliminary investigation of airfoil boundary layer control, as carried out in the atmospheric wind tunnel of the Langley Memorial Aeronautical Laboratory, from February to August, 1927. Tests were made on a U.S.A. 27 airfoil section with various slot shapes and combinations, and at various amounts of pressure or suction on the slots. The lift of airfoils can be increased by removing or by accelerating the boundary layer. Removing the boundary layer by suction is more economical than to accelerate it by jet action. Gauze-covered suction slots apparently give the best results. When not in operation, all suction slots tested had a detrimental effect upon the aerodynamic characteristics of the airfoil which was not apparent with the backward-opening pressure slots. Thick, blunt-nose airfoils would seem to give best results with boundary layer control.
Date: May 1928
Creator: Reid, E. G. & Bamber, M. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Aerodynamic Forces and Moments Exerted on a Spinning Model of the NY-1 Airplane as Measured by the Spinning Balance

Description: From Summary: "A preliminary investigation of the effects of changes in the elevator and rudder settings and of small changes in attitude upon the aerodynamic forces and moments exerted upon a spinning airplane was undertaken with the spinning balance in the 5-foot vertical tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics. The tests were made on a 1/12-scale model of the "NY-1" airplane. Data by which to fix the attitude, the radius of spin, and the rotational and air velocities were taken from recorded spins of the full-scale airplane."
Date: February 7, 1933
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & Zimmerman, C. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wind-Tunnel Investigation of Effect of Yawing on Lateral-Stability Characteristics 2: Rectangular N.A.C.A. 23012 Wing with a Circular Fuselage and a Fin

Description: Note presenting testing of an N.A.C.A. 23012 rectangular wing with rounded tips in combination with a fuselage of circular cross section at several angles of yaw in the NACA 7- by 10-foot wind tunnel. The model was tested as a high-wing, a midwing, and a low-wing monoplane; for each wing location, tests were made with two amounts of dihedral and with partial-span split flaps. Results regarding the wing and fuselage, fin and fuselage, and wing, fuselage, and fin are provided.
Date: September 1939
Creator: Bamber, M. J. & House, R. O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department