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Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 325 Radiochemical Processing Laboratory

Description: This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 325 Building Radiochemical Processing Laboratory (RPL) at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Order 5400.1, ''General Environmental Protection Programs.'' This FEMP has been prepared for the RPL primarily because it has a ''major'' (potential to emit >0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. This section summarizes the airborne and liquid effluents and the inventory based NESHAP assessment for the facility. The complete monitoring plan includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.
Date: April 20, 2001
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Radionuclide Air Emission Stack Sampling Systems

Description: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of research and development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy at the Hanford Site, Washington. These facilities are subject to Clean Air Act regulations that require sampling of radionuclide air emissions from some of these facilities. A revision to an American National Standards Institute (ANSI) standard on sampling radioactive air emissions has recently been incorporated into federal and state regulations and a re-evaluation of affected facilities is being performed to determine the impact. The revised standard requires a well-mixed sampling location that must be demonstrated through tests specified in the standard. It also carries a number of maintenance requirements, including inspections and cleaning of the sampling system. Evaluations were performed in 2000 – 2002 on two PNNL facilities to determine the operational and design impacts of the new requirements. The evaluation included inspection and cleaning maintenance activities plus testing to determine if the current sampling locations meet criteria in the revised standard. Results show a wide range of complexity in inspection and cleaning activities depending on accessibility of the system, ease of removal, and potential impact on building operations (need for outages). As expected, these High Efficiency Particulate Air (HEPA)-filtered systems did not show deposition significant enough to cause concerns with blocking of the nozzle or other parts of the system. The tests for sampling system location in the revised standard also varied in complexity depending on accessibility of the sample site and use of a scale model can alleviate many issues. Previous criteria to locate sampling systems at eight duct diameters downstream and two duct diameters upstream of the nearest disturbances is no guarantee of meeting criteria in the revised standard. A computational fluid dynamics model was helpful in understanding flow and contaminant mixing in an exhaust system ...
Date: December 16, 2002
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for the 331 Complex

Description: This Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan (FEMP) has been prepared for the 331 Building Life Sciences Laboratory and associated support facilities at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) to meet the requirements in DOE Order 5400.1, "General Environmental Protection Programs." This FEMP has been prepared for the 331 Complex primarily because it has a ?major? (potential to emit > 0.1 mrem/yr) emission point for radionuclide air emissions according to the annual National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP) assessment performed. The FEMP includes characterization of effluent streams, monitoring/sampling design criteria, a description of the monitoring systems and sample analysis, and quality assurance requirements.
Date: October 20, 2002
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

Description: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (Pacific Northwest) operates a number of Research and Development facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. According to DOE Order 5400.1, a written environmental monitoring plan is required for each site, facility, or process that uses, generates, releases, or manages significant pollutants or hazardous materials. Facility Effluent Monitoring Plans (FEMPs) have been developed on the Hanford Site to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of Pacific Northwest's R and D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling; thus, individual FEMPs have been developed for these facilities. Because no definition of ''significant'' is provided in DOE Order 5400.1 or the accompanying regulatory guide DOE/EH?0173T, this FEMP was developed to describe monitoring requirements in the DO E-owned, Pacific Northwest-operated facilities that do not have individual FEMPs. These facilities are referred to as Balance-of-Plant (BOP) facilities.
Date: January 22, 2001
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y & Shields, Keith D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Facility Effluent Monitoring Plan for Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Balance-of-Plant Facilities

Description: The Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) operates a number of Research & Development (R&D) facilities for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) on the Hanford Site. Facility effluent monitoring plans (FEMPs) have been developed to document the facility effluent monitoring portion of the Environmental Monitoring Plan (DOE 2000) for the Hanford Site. Three of PNNL’s R&D facilities, the 325, 331, and 3720 Buildings, are considered major emission points for radionuclide air sampling, and individual FEMPs were developed for these facilities in the past. In addition, a balance-of-plant (BOP) FEMP was developed for all other DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site. Recent changes, including shutdown of buildings and transition of PNNL facilities to the Office of Science, have resulted in retiring the 3720 FEMP and combining the 331 FEMP into the BOP FEMP. This version of the BOP FEMP addresses all DOE-owned, PNNL-operated facilities at the Hanford Site, excepting the Radiochemical Processing Laboratory, which has its own FEMP because of the unique nature of the building and operations. Activities in the BOP facilities range from administrative to laboratory and pilot-scale R&D. R&D activities include both radioactive and chemical waste characterization, fluid dynamics research, mechanical property testing, dosimetry research, and molecular sciences. The mission and activities for individual buildings are described in Appendix A. Potential radioactive airborne emissions in the BOP facilities are estimated annually using a building inventory-based approach provided in federal regulations. Sampling at individual BOP facilities is based on a potential-to-emit assessment. Some of these facilities are considered minor emission points and thus are sampled routinely, but not continuously, to confirm the low emission potential. One facility, the 331 Life Sciences Laboratory, has a major emission point and is sampled continuously. Sampling systems are located downstream of control technologies and just before discharge to the atmosphere. The need ...
Date: November 15, 2004
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y. & Gervais, Todd L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the Losses Due to Self Absorption by Mass Loading on Radioactive Particulate Air Stack Sample Filters

Description: This report discusses the effect of mass loading of a membrane filter on the self absorption of radioactive particles. A relationship between mass loading and percent loss of activity is presented. Sample filters were collected from Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) facilities in order to analyze the current self absorption correction factor of 0.85 that is being used for both alpha and beta particles. Over an eighteen month period from February 2009 to July 2010, 116 samples were collected and analyzed from eight different building stacks in an effort coordinated by the Effluent Management group. Eleven unused filters were also randomly chosen to be analyzed in order to determine background radiation. All of these samples were collected and analyzed in order to evaluate the current correction factor being used.
Date: January 18, 2011
Creator: Smith, Brian M.; Barnett, J. M. & Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Facility Radionuclide Emission Points and Sampling Systems

Description: Battelle—Pacific Northwest Division operates numerous research and development laboratories in Richland, Washington, including those associated with the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Department of Energy’s Hanford Site that have the potential for radionuclide air emissions. The National Emission Standard for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP 40 CFR 61, Subparts H and I) requires an assessment of all effluent release points that have the potential for radionuclide emissions. Potential emissions are assessed annually. Sampling, monitoring, and other regulatory compliance requirements are designated based upon the potential-to-emit dose criteria found in the regulations. The purpose of this document is to describe the facility radionuclide air emission sampling program and provide current and historical facility emission point system performance, operation, and design information. A description of the buildings, exhaust points, control technologies, and sample extraction details is provided for each registered or deregistered facility emission point. Additionally, applicable stack sampler configuration drawings, figures, and photographs are provided.
Date: April 8, 2009
Creator: Barfuss, Brad C.; Barnett, J. M. & Ballinger, Marcel Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Potential Impact Categories for Radiological Air Emission Monitoring

Description: In 2002, the EPA amended 40 CFR 61 Subpart H and 40 CFR 61 Appendix B Method 114 to include requirements from ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances from the Stack and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities for major emission points. Additionally, the WDOH amended the Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247 Radiation protection-air emissions to include ANSI/HPS N13.1-1999 requirements for major and minor emission points when new permitting actions are approved. A result of the amended regulations is the requirement to prepare a written technical basis for the radiological air emission sampling and monitoring program. A key component of the technical basis is the Potential Impact Category (PIC) assigned to an emission point. This paper discusses the PIC assignments for the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) Integrated Laboratory emission units; this revision includes five PIC categories.
Date: June 5, 2012
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L. & Barnett, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2003

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the assessment performed in 2003.
Date: December 5, 2003
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L. & Edwards, Daniel L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2007

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP – U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection – Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2007.
Date: January 1, 2008
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Barfuss, Brad C. & Gervais, Todd L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2010

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants ([NESHAP]; U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40, Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these NESHAP assessments, potential unabated off-site doses were evaluated for emission locations at buildings that are part of the consolidated laboratory campus of the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. This report describes the inventory-based methods and provides the results for the NESHAP assessment performed in 2010.
Date: May 13, 2011
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Gervais, Todd L. & Barnett, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.
Date: September 28, 2001
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y; Sula, Monte J; Gervais, Todd L; Shields, Keith D & Edwards, Daniel R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sampling Point Compliance Tests for 325 Building at Set-Back Flow Conditions

Description: The stack sampling system at the 325 Building (Radiochemical Processing Laboratory [RPL]) was constructed to comply with the American National Standards Institute’s (ANSI’s) Guide to Sampling Airborne Radioactive Materials in Nuclear Facilities (ANSI N13.1-1969). This standard provided prescriptive criteria for the location of radionuclide air-sampling systems. In 1999, the standard was revised (Sampling and Monitoring Releases of Airborne Radioactive Substances From the Stacks and Ducts of Nuclear Facilities [ANSI/Health Physics Society [HPS] 13.1-1999]) to provide performance-based criteria for the location of sampling systems. Testing was conducted for the 325 Building stack to determine whether the sampling system would meet the updated criteria for uniform air velocity and contaminant concentration in the revised ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 standard under normal operating conditions (Smith et al. 2010). Measurement results were within criteria for all tests. Additional testing and modeling was performed to determine whether the sampling system would meet criteria under set-back flow conditions. This included measurements taken from a scale model with one-third of the exhaust flow and computer modeling of the system with two-thirds of the exhaust flow. This report documents the results of the set-back flow condition measurements and modeling. Tests performed included flow angularity, uniformity of velocity, gas concentration, and particle concentration across the duct at the sampling location. Results are within ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests. These tests are applicable for the 325 Building stack under set-back exhaust flow operating conditions (980 - 45,400 cubic feet per minute [cfm]) with one fan running. The modeling results show that criteria are met for all tests using a two-fan configuration exhaust (flow modeled at 104,000 cfm). Combined with the results from the earlier normal operating conditions, the ANSI/HPS 13.1-1999 criteria for all tests are met for all configurations: one, two, or three fans (normal).
Date: May 31, 2011
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Glissmeyer, John A.; Barnett, J. M.; Recknagle, Kurtis P. & Yokuda, Satoru T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of Unabated Facility Emission Potentials for Evaluating Airborne Radionuclide Monitoring Requirements at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory - 2001

Description: Assessments were performed to evaluate compliance with the airborne radionuclide emission monitoring requirements in the National Emission Standards for Hazardous Air Pollutants (NESHAP - U.S. Code of Federal Regulations, Title 40 Part 61, Subpart H) and Washington Administrative Code (WAC) 246-247: Radiation Protection - Air Emissions. In these assessments, potential unabated offsite doses were evaluated for emission locations at facilities owned by the U.S. Department of Energy and operated by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) on the Hanford Site. This report describes the inventory-based methods, and provides the results, for the assessment performed in 2001.
Date: September 28, 2001
Creator: Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Sula, Monte J.; Gervais, Todd L.; Shields, Keith D. & Edwards, Daniel R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Results of Self-Absorption Study on the Versapor 3000 Filters for Radioactive Particulate Air Sampling

Description: Since the mid-1980s, Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) has used a value of 0.85 as the correction factor for self absorption of activity for particulate radioactive air samples collected from building exhaust for environmental monitoring. This value accounts for activity that cannot be detected by direct counting of alpha and beta particles. Emissions can be degraded or blocked by filter fibers for particles buried in the filter material or by inactive dust particles collected with the radioactive particles. These filters are used for monitoring air emissions from PNNL stacks for radioactive particles. This paper describes an effort to re-evaluate self-absorption effects in particulate radioactive air sample filters (Versapor® 3000, 47 mm diameter) used at PNNL. There were two methods used to characterize the samples. Sixty samples were selected from the archive for acid digestion to compare the radioactivity measured by direct gas-flow proportional counting of filters to the results obtained after acid digestion of the filter and counting again by gas-flow proportional detection. Thirty different sample filters were selected for visible light microscopy to evaluate filter loading and particulate characteristics. Mass-loading effects were also considered. Filter ratios were calculated by dividing the initial counts by the post-digestion counts with the expectation that post-digestion counts would be higher because digestion would expose radioactivity embedded in the filter in addition to that on top of the filter. Contrary to expectations, the post digestion readings were almost always lower than initial readings and averaged approximately half the initial readings for both alpha and beta activity. Before and after digestion readings appeared to be related to each other, but with a low coefficient of determination (R^2) value. The ratios had a wide range of values indicating that this method did not provide sufficient precision to quantify self-absorption effects. The microscopy analysis compares different filter ...
Date: February 17, 2009
Creator: Barnett, J. M.; Cullinan, Valerie I.; Barnett, Debra S.; Trang-Le, Truc LT; Bliss, Mary; Greenwood, Lawrence R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011

Description: The PNNL Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2011 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2011 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Duncan, Joanne P.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Stegen, Amanda; Barnett, J. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest National Laboratory Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012

Description: The PNNL Annual Site Environmental Report for Calendar Year 2012 was prepared pursuant to the requirements of Department of Energy (DOE) Order 231.1B, "Environment, Safety and Health Reporting" to provide a synopsis of calendar year 2012 information related to environmental management performance and compliance efforts. It summarizes site compliance with federal, state, and local environmental laws, regulations, policies, directives, permits, and orders and environmental management performance.
Date: September 1, 2013
Creator: Duncan, Joanne P.; Ballinger, Marcel Y.; Fritz, Brad G.; Tilden, Harold T.; Stoetzel, Gregory A.; Barnett, J. M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department