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Advanced Eddy current NDE steam generator tubing.

Description: As part of a multifaceted project on steam generator integrity funded by the U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Argonne National Laboratory is carrying out research on the reliability of nondestructive evaluation (NDE). A particular area of interest is the impact of advanced eddy current (EC) NDE technology. This paper presents an overview of work that supports this effort in the areas of numerical electromagnetic (EM) modeling, data analysis, signal processing, and visualization of EC inspection results. Finite-element modeling has been utilized to study conventional and emerging EC probe designs. This research is aimed at determining probe responses to flaw morphologies of current interest. Application of signal processing and automated data analysis algorithms has also been addressed. Efforts have focused on assessment of frequency and spatial domain filters and implementation of more effective data analysis and display methods. Data analysis studies have dealt with implementation of linear and nonlinear multivariate models to relate EC inspection parameters to steam generator tubing defect size and structural integrity. Various signal enhancement and visualization schemes are also being evaluated and will serve as integral parts of computer-aided data analysis algorithms. Results from this research will ultimately be substantiated through testing on laboratory-grown and in-service-degraded tubes.
Date: March 29, 1999
Creator: Bakhtiari, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of eddy current probe response for steam generator tubes

Description: Sample calculations were performed with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element model analysis that describe the response of an eddy current (EC) probe to steam generator (SG) tubing artifacts. Such calculations could be very helpful in understanding and interpreting of EC probe response to complex tube/defect geometries associated with the inservice inspection (ISI) of steam generator (SG) tubing. The governing field equations are in terms of coupled magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials in conducting media and of total or reduced scalar potentials in nonconducting regions. To establish the validity of the model, comparisons of the theoretical and experimental responses of an absolute bobbin probe are given for two types of calibration standard defects. Preliminary results are also presented from a recent theoretical study of the effect of ligament size in axial cracks on EC indications with conventional ISI bobbin probes.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Bakhtiari, S. & Kupperman, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of flaws in a tube bundle mock-up for reliability studies

Description: As part of an assessment of in-service inspection of steam generator tubes, the authors will assemble a steam generator mock-up for round robin studies and use as a test bed in evaluating emerging technologies. Progress is reported on the characterization of flaws that will be part of the mock-up. Eddy current and ultrasonic techniques are being evaluated as a means to characterize the flaws in the mock-up tubes before final assembly. Twenty Inconel 600 tubes with laboratory-grown cracks, typical of those to be used in the mock-up, were provided by Pacific Northwest National Laboratory for laboratory testing. After the tubes were inspected with eddy current and ultrasonic techniques, they were destructively analyzed to establish the actual depths, lengths, and profiles of the cracks. The analysis of the results will allow the best techniques to be used for characterizing the flaws in the mock-up tubes.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Kupperman, D.S. & Bakhtiari, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determining bonding quality in polymer composites with a millimeter wave sensor

Description: Microwave nondestructive testing (NDT) techniques offer alternative solutions to other conventional NDT methods. Microwave/millimeter wave (determined roughly to cover 0.3 to 300 GHz) techniques are particularly useful for examination of dielectric composite materials that their low dielectric losses provide good depth of penetration of electromagnetic radiation in this band. Limitations associated with conventional NDT techniques such as high frequency ultrasonic testing (UT), namely, large variations in elastic properties of low density composite materials cause interpretation of complex UT signals difficult. Further, criticality of coupling of transducer to the sample surface limits the use of such techniques for on-line applications. High frequency microwave (millimeter waves, 30--300 GHz) systems compared to their low frequency counterparts offer higher resolution and sensitivity to variations in dielectric properties of low-loss composites. Further, higher frequencies render utilization of more compact systems which are often important for practical applications. A millimeter wave sensor is described in this work which can be utilized for non-contact NDT of a wide range of thin-sheet dielectric composite materials either as a laboratory-based instrument or for on-line quality control applications. Experimental results are presented on noncontact measurement of bonding quality in polyethylene/carbon composite samples. The w-band monostatic sensor operates based on measurement of the reflection properties of the material under test, which are then used to determine the volumetric uniformity of the joint area. Preliminary experimental results indicate the potential for the use of this sensor in fabrication process control of low-loss dielectric composite materials.
Date: December 1, 1996
Creator: Bakhtiari, S.; Gopalsami, N. & Raptis, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam generator tube integrity program. Semiannual report, August 1995--March 1996

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of that program in August 1995 through March 1996. The program is divided into five tasks, namely (1) Assessment of Inspection Reliability, (2) Research on ISI (in-service-inspection) Technology, (3) Research on Degradation Modes and Integrity, (4) Development of Methodology and Technical Requirements for Current and Emerging Regulatory Issues, and (5) Program Management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation (NDE) techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate burst pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Under Task 2, results are reported on closed-form solutions and finite element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe response for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. Under Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe accident conditions. In addition, crack behavior and stability are being modeled to provide guidance on test facility design, to develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and to predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the cracking and failure of tubes that have been repaired by sleeving, and with a review of literature on this subject.
Date: April 1997
Creator: Diercks, D. R.; Bakhtiari, S. & Chopra, O. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near-field millimeter - wave imaging of nonmetallic materials

Description: A near-field millimeter-wave (mm-wave) imaging system has been designed and built in the 94-GHz range for on-line inspection of nonmetallic (dielectric) materials. The imaging system consists of a transceiver block coupled to an antenna that scans the material to be imaged; a reflector plate is placed behind the material. A quadrature IF mixer in the transceiver block enables measurement of in-phase and quadrature-phase components of reflected signals with respect to the transmitted signal. All transceiver components, with the exception of the Gunn-diode oscillator and antenna, were fabricated in uniform blocks and integrated and packaged into a compact unit (12.7 x 10.2 x 2.5 cm). The objective of this work is to test the applicability of a near-field compact mm-wave sensor for on-line inspection of sheetlike materials such as paper, fabrics, and plastics. This paper presents initial near-field mm-wave images of paper and fabric samples containing known artifacts.
Date: December 31, 1996
Creator: Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S. & Raptis, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Open-path millimeter-wave spectroscopy in the 225--315 GHz range

Description: This paper discusses the development of an open-path millimeter-wave (mm-wave) spectroscopy system in the 225--315 GHz atmospheric window. The new system is primarily a monostatic swept-frequency radar consisting of a mm-wave sweeper, hot-electron-bolometer or Schottky detector, and trihedral reflector. The heart of the system is a Russian backward-wave oscillator (BWO) tube that is tunable over 225--350 GHz. A mm-wave sweeper has been built with the BWO tube to sweep the entire frequency range within 1 s. The chemical plume to be detected is situated between the transmitter/receiver and the reflector. Millimeter-wave absorption spectra of chemicals in the plume are determined by measuring swept-frequency radar signals with and without the plume in the beam path. Because of power supply noise and thermal instabilities within the BWO structure over time, the BWO frequencies fluctuate between sweeps and thus cause errors in baseline subtraction. To reduce this frequency-jitter problem, a quasi-optical Fabry-Perot cavity is used in conjunction with the radar for on-line calibration of sweep traces, allowing excellent baseline subtraction and signal averaging. Initial results of the new system are given for open-path detection of chemicals.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S. & Raptis, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An application of wavelet transforms and neural networks for decomposition of millimeter-wave spectroscopic signals

Description: This paper reports on wavelet-based decomposition methods and neural networks for remote monitoring of airborne chemicals using millimeter wave spectroscopy. Because of instrumentation noise and the presence of untargeted chemicals, direct decomposition of the spectra requires a large number of training data and yields low accuracy. A neural network trained with features obtained from a discrete wavelet transform is demonstrated to have better decomposition with faster training time. Results based on simulated and experimental spectra are presented to show the efficacy of the wavelet-based methods.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Gopalan, K.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S. & Raptis, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam generator mock-up for assessment of inservice inspection technology.

Description: A steam generator mock-up has been assembled for round-robin studies of the effectiveness of currently practiced inservice inspection (ISI) technology for detection of current-day flaws. The mock-up will also be used to evaluate emerging inspection technologies. The 3.66-m (12-ft.)-tall mock-up contains 400 tube openings, each consisting of 9 test sections that can be used to simulate current-day field-induced flaws and artifacts. Included in the mock-up are simulations of tube support plate (TSP) intersections and the tube sheet (TS). Cracks are present at the TSP, TS, and in the free span sections of the mock-up. For initial evaluation of the round-robin results, various eddy current methods, as well as multivariate models for data analysis techniques, are being used to estimate the depth and length of defects in the mock-up. To ensure that the round-robin is carried out with procedures as close as possible to those implemented in the field, input was obtained from industry experts on the protocol and procedures to be used for the exercise. One initial assembly of the mock-up with a limited number of flaws and artifact has been completed and tested. A second completed configuration with additional flaw and artifacts simulations will be used for the round-robin.
Date: September 11, 1999
Creator: Bakhtiari, S.; Kupperman, D. S. & Muscara, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a millimeter-wave sensor for environmental monitoring

Description: A millimeter-wave (mm-wave) sensor in the frequency range of 225-315 GHz is being developed for continuous emission monitoring of airborne effluents from industrial sites for environmental compliance monitoring and process control. Detection of chemical species is based on measuring the molecular rotational energy transitions at mm-wave frequencies. The mm-wave technique offers better transmission properties compared to optics in harsh industrial environments with smoke, dust, aerosols, and steam, as well as in adverse atmospheric conditions. The laboratory measurements indicate that polar molecules can be measured with a sensitivity of tens of parts-per-million-meter using this technology. Proof of principle of the open-path system was tested by releasing and detecting innocuous chemicals in the open air. It uses a monostatic radar configuration with transmitter and receiver on one side and a comer cube on tire other side of the plume to be measured. A wide-band swept frequency mm-wave signal is transmitted through the plume and return signal from the comer cube is detected by a hot-electron-bolometer. Absorption spectra of plume gases are measured by comparing the return signals with and without the plume in the beam path. Using signal processing based on deconvolution, high specificity of detection has been shown for resolving individual chemicals from a mixture. This technology is applicable for real-time measurement of a suite of airborne gases/vapors emitted from vents and stacks of process industries. A prototype sensor is being developed for wide-area monitoring of industrial sites and in-place monitoring of stack gases.
Date: June 1, 1995
Creator: Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S. & Raptis, A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling of eddy current NDE probe for steam generator tubes.

Description: Calculations were performed with a three-dimensional (3-D) finite-element model to describe the response of an eddy current (EC) probe to defects in steam generator (SG) tubing of a nuclear reactor. Such calculations could be very helpful in understanding and interpreting the EC probe response to complex tube/defect geometries associated with longitudinal inner/outer notches, roll transitions, sludge, and through-wall holes in SG tubes. The governing field equations are derived in terms of coupled magnetic vector and electric scalar potentials in the conducting media and total or reduced scalar potentials in the non-conducting regions. To assess the validity of the model, we compared the signal responses for two numerical approaches, stored-energy-and-power-loss approach and magnetic-flux approach for various tube/defect geometries. Simulation results are also presented on the tube/defect geometries for the pancake coil response and the transmitter/receiver (T/R) probe response. The results indicate that the eddy-current NDE modeling is capable of predicting EC probe response to flaws in steam generator tubes.
Date: January 29, 2003
Creator: Chang, F. C.; Bakhtiari, S. & Kupperman, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computer-aided analysis of eddy current rotating probe data.

Description: Eddy current (EC) estimate of flaw size obtained from inservice inspection is often the primary means of assessing the structural integrity of steam generator tubes. Reliable prediction of failure pressure and leak rate in tubes with complex cracking requires more detailed information about the geometry and extent of degradation than is generally available from conventional bobbin coil examinations. High-resolution inspections with EC rotating probes are thus carried out on selected regions of tubing to provide the more extensive nondestructive evaluation (NDE) information that is needed to better assess flaw size and distribution. Interpretation of signals from complex cracking that are often distorted by coherent and incoherent noise can be a challenging NDE task. Studies at Argonne National Laboratory have demonstrated that computer-aided data analysis can be used for more accurate and efficient processing of the large amounts of data collected by such probes. The basic structure of a rule-based multiparameter data analysis algorithm is described in this paper. Multiple-frequency inspection data from a standard rotating pancake coil were used for the analyses. The codes were implemented as MATLAB scripts and provide, as the final outcome, profiles of flaw depth in a section of tube. Graphical user interface tools were devised to read the information needed to carry out various stages of data processing. These interactive tools allow conversion, calibration, analysis, and display of data in various formats. Representative cases of estimated flaw profiles are shown for tube specimens with laboratory-grown cracks (with and without simulated artifacts) that were used to assess sizing accuracy. The statistical analyses used to determine NDE performance are also discussed briefly. Results of investigations to date suggest that improved resolution and sizing accuracy can be obtained in a fraction of the time required for manual analysis.
Date: March 7, 2002
Creator: Bakhtiari, S.; Park, J. Y.; Kupperman, D. S. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Prediction of failure pressure and leak rate of stress corrosion.

Description: An ''equivalent rectangular crack'' approach was employed to predict rupture pressures and leak rates through laboratory generated stress corrosion cracks and steam generator tubes removed from the McGuire Nuclear Station. Specimen flaws were sized by post-test fractography in addition to a pre-test advanced eddy current technique. The predicted and observed test data on rupture and leak rate are compared. In general, the test failure pressures and leak rates are closer to those predicted on the basis of fractography than on nondestructive evaluation (NDE). However, the predictions based on NDE results are encouraging, particularly because they have the potential to determine a more detailed geometry of ligamented cracks, from which failure pressure and leak rate can be more accurately predicted. One test specimen displayed a time-dependent increase of leak rate under constant pressure.
Date: June 24, 2002
Creator: Majumdar, S.; Kasza, K.; Park, J. Y. & Bakhtiari, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Validation of failure and leak rate correlations for stress corrosion cracks in steam generator tubes.

Description: This report summarizes models for the prediction of failure pressures and leak rates under normal operation and design-basis accident conditions in steam generator tubes with axial and circumferential cracks. These models were first validated through failure and leak rate tests at room temperature and at 282 C on tubes with rectangular, triangular, and trapezoidal notches fabricated by electrodischarge machining. They were then compared with failure and leak rate tests conducted on tubes with laboratory-generated outer-diameter stress corrosion cracks and steam generator tubes with field-induced stress corrosion cracks, which have highly complex morphology. Complex crack profiles are addressed using a model based on the concept of equivalent rectangular cracks. The predictions of the models are in reasonable agreement with test results, the time-dependent initiation and increase of leak rates observed in some tests cannot be predicted by the model.
Date: April 12, 2002
Creator: Majumdar, S.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K. & Park, J. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microwave radar detection of gas pipeline leaks.

Description: We are developing a microwave radar sensing and imaging system to detect and locate gas leaks in natural gas pipelines. The underlying detection principle is radar backscattering from the index-of-refraction inhomogeneities introduced by the dispersion of methane in air. An essential first step in the development effort is modeling to estimate the radar cross section. This paper describes the modeling results and the experimental efforts underway to validate the model. For the case of leaks from small holes in a pressurized gas pipeline, we modeled the gas dynamics of the leak jet to determine the plume geometry and the variation of methane concentration in air as a function of distance from the leak source. From the static and dynamic changes in the index of refraction in the turbulent plume, the radar backscatter cross sections were calculated. The results show that the radar cross sections of the leak plumes should be detectable by special-purpose radars.
Date: October 2, 2002
Creator: Gopalsami, N.; Kanareykin, D. B.; Asanov, V. D; Bakhtiari, S. & Raptis, A. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research perspectives on the evaluation of steam generator tube integrity.

Description: Industry effects have been largely successful in managing degradation of steam generator tubes due to wastage, pitting, and denting, but fretting, SCC and intergranular attack have proved more difficult to manage. Although steam generator replacements are proceeding there is substantial industry interest in operating with degraded steam generators, and significant numbers of plants will continue to do so. In most cases degradation of steam generator tubing by stress corrosion cracking is still managed by plug or repair on detection, because current NDE techniques for characterization of flaws are not accurate enough to permit continued operation. This paper reviews some of the historical background that underlies current steam generator degradation management strategies and outlines some of the additional research that must be done to provide more effective management of degradation in current generators and provide greater assurance of satisfactory performance in replacement steam generators.
Date: February 22, 2001
Creator: Muscara, J.; Diercks, D. R.; Majumdar, S.; Kupperman, D. S.; Bakhtiari, S. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Eddy current analysis round robin using the NRC steam generator mockup.

Description: This paper discusses round-robin exercises to assess inspection reliability using the NRC steam generator (SG) mock-up at Argonne National Laboratory. The purpose of the round robins is to assess the current reliability of SG tubing inservice inspection, determine the probability of detection (POD) as function of flaw size or severity, and assess the capability for sizing of flaws. The mock-up contains hundreds of cracks and simulations of artifacts such as corrosion deposits and tube support plates that make detection and characterization of cracks more difficult in operating steam generators than in most laboratory situations. Eddy current signals from the laboratory-grown cracks used in the mock-up have been reviewed to ensure that they provide reasonable simulations of those obtained in the field. The mock-up contains 400 tube openings. Each tube contains nine 22.2-mm (7/8-in.) diameter, 30.5-cm (1-ft) long, Alloy 600 test sections. The flaws are located in the tube sheet near the roll transition zone (RTZ), in the tube support plate (TSP), and in the freespan. The flaws are primarily intergranular stress corrosion cracks (axial and circumferential, ID and OD). In addition to the simulated tube sheet and TSP the mock-up has simulated sludge and magnetite deposits. A validated multiparameter eddy current algorithm that provided a detailed isometric plot for every flaw was used to establish the reference state of defects in the mock-up. The detection results for the 11 teams were used to develop POD curves as a function of maximum depth, voltage and the parameter m{sub p}, for the various types of flaws. The 95% one-sided confidence limits (OSL), which include errors in maximum depth estimates, are presented along with the POD curves. For the second round robin a reconfigured mock-up is being used to evaluate the effectiveness of eddy current arrays.
Date: February 20, 2002
Creator: Kupperman, D. S.; Muscara, J.; Bakhtiari, S.; Park, J. Y. & Shack, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waveguide-based ultrasonic and far-field electromagnetic sensors for downhole reservoir characterization.

Description: This report summarizes the first year research and development effort leading to development of high-temperature sensors for enhanced geothermal systems. It covers evaluation of ultrasonic and electromagnetic (EM) techniques applied to temperature measurement and flow characterization. On temperature measurement, we have evaluated both microwave radiometry and ultrasonic techniques for temperature gradient and profile measurements. Different antenna designs are evaluated and array loop antenna design is selected for further development. We have also evaluated ultrasonic techniques for total flow characterization, which includes using speed of sound to determine flow temperature, measuring acoustic impedance to estimate fluid density, and using cross-correlation technique to determine the mass flow rate. Method to estimate the flow enthalpy is briefly discussed. At end, the need and proposed techniques to characterize the porosity and permeability of a hot dry rock resource are presented.
Date: November 12, 2010
Creator: Sheen, S. H.; Chien, H. T.; Wang, K.; Liao, S.; Gopalsami, N.; Bakhtiari, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steam generator tube integrity program: Annual report, August 1995--September 1996. Volume 2

Description: This report summarizes work performed by Argonne National Laboratory on the Steam Generator Tube Integrity Program from the inception of the program in August 1995 through September 1996. The program is divided into five tasks: (1) assessment of inspection reliability, (2) research on ISI (inservice-inspection) technology, (3) research on degradation modes and integrity, (4) tube removals from steam generators, and (5) program management. Under Task 1, progress is reported on the preparation of facilities and evaluation of nondestructive evaluation techniques for inspecting a mock-up steam generator for round-robin testing, the development of better ways to correlate failure pressure and leak rate with eddy current (EC) signals, the inspection of sleeved tubes, workshop and training activities, and the evaluation of emerging NDE technology. Results are reported in Task 2 on closed-form solutions and finite-element electromagnetic modeling of EC probe responses for various probe designs and flaw characteristics. In Task 3, facilities are being designed and built for the production of cracked tubes under aggressive and near-prototypical conditions and for the testing of flawed and unflawed tubes under normal operating, accident, and severe-accident conditions. Crack behavior and stability are also being modeled to provide guidance for test facility design, develop an improved understanding of the expected rupture behavior of tubes with circumferential cracks, and predict the behavior of flawed and unflawed tubes under severe accident conditions. Task 4 is concerned with the acquisition of tubes and tube sections from retired steam generators for use in the other research tasks. Progress on the acquisition of tubes from the Salem and McGuire 1 nuclear plants is reported.
Date: February 1998
Creator: Diercks, D. R.; Bakhtiari, S.; Kasza, K. E.; Kupperman, D. S.; Majumdar, S.; Park, J. Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department