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Design and modeling of 40 keV X-ray optics for Titan experiment

Description: In 2004 we designed and fabricated a 40 keV W/SiC multilayer coated mirrors with 2.0 nm period thickness that were tested at RAL (UK) in winter 2004/2005. The mirrors reflected from 35 to 70 keV (different grazing incidence angles) and showed high reflectivity. However, there was not enough beamtime at RAL to obtain quantitative results. Similar experiment will now be performed in Titan facility (LLNL). In this report we design and model multilayers with even shorter period than the ones used in 2004/2005 experiments. Our goal is to fabricate 1 nm period W/SiC multilayers with high reflectivity. This will enable operation at higher angle of grazing incidence and simplified the mounting fixture.
Date: June 22, 2006
Creator: Bajt, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LCLS soft x-ray imager mirrors and their performance

Description: Soft X-ray imager mirrors have been designed, calibrated and fabricated at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory and characterized at the Advanced Light Source for their performance between 200 and 1300 eV. The mirrors are coated with a multilayer coating consisting of 70 bilayers of W/ SiC. The mirrors are to reflect at 22.5 deg from grazing angle at 1.50 nm wavelength and the width of the reflectivity peak should be at least 1.3%. Also, the mirrors should be non-reflective elsewhere. Our multilayer design was optimized to satisfy these requirements. The coating is very challenging since the individual layer thicknesses need to be less than 1 nm thick and reproducibility from layer to layer is crucial. To minimize the second harmonic peak we designed a multilayer with {Gamma} = 0.5 (W and SiC layer thicknesses are the same). This way we end up with a mirror that has only the 1st and 3rd harmonic peak as shown in Figure 1. To suppress reflectivity outside the first peak we used our novel approach, an antireflective coating. Modeling predicted substantial reduction in reflectivity, especially for lower energies as shown in Figure 1. The experimental results of the soft x-ray imager mirror as measured at the ALS are shown in Figure 2 (log and linear scale). The energy range over which we measured the reflectivity is limited by the beamline hardware. This plot is a compilation of about six scans over different energy ranges using different gratings, filters and order sorter positions. The measured reflectivity of the peak at 1.505 nm is 4.3% with the peak width of 0.028 nm or 1.8%, satisfying the specs on the peak width. The other important specification was overall low reflectivity (except for 1st harmonic). We demonstrated this with the antireflective coating that is applied on these mirrors. The ...
Date: October 19, 2007
Creator: Bajt, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Growth of thick, crystalline material using dc-magnetron sputtering in Mag1 deposition chamber

Description: We demonstrated dense, non-columnar growth of thick Mo films by moving the substrates in and out of the plasma thus allowing the surface reconstruction and by interrupting the growth with Si layers. The multilayers made this way have very smooth surface, about 1.3 nm rms high spatial frequency roughness, while also maintaining the periodicity of a reflective coating. These preliminary results hint that the surface reconstruction is an important physical process that controls the growth mechanisms. Further studies, combined with theoretical modeling, are essential to further our knowledge on how to predict and control desired microstructure for different materials.
Date: November 2, 2005
Creator: Bajt, S; Alameda, J; Baker, S & Taylor, J S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High temperature stability multilayers for EUV condenser optics

Description: We investigate the thermal stability of Mo/SiC multilayer coatings at elevated temperatures. Transmission electron microscopy and x-ray diffraction studies show that upon annealing a thermally-induced structural relaxation occurs that transforms the polycrystalline Mo and amorphous SiC layers in as-deposited multilayers into amorphous Mo-Si-C alloy and crystalline SiC, respectively. After this relaxation process is complete the multilayer is stable at temperatures up to 400 C.
Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Bajt, S & Stearns, D G
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayers are enabling new science with x-ray free electron lasers

Description: Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enable the imaging of high-resolution structure and ultrafast dynamics of samples with the soft X-ray free electron laser, FLASH, at DESY in Hamburg. The FLASH free-electron laser (FEL) produces intense ultrashort soft X-ray pulses with more than 10{sup 8} times higher peak brightness as compared with the most advanced synchrotron radiation sources. This allows time-resolved X-ray imaging and holography of nanostructures with a temporal resolution approaching 10 fs, opening up new studies of laser-matter interactions and the dynamics of correlated systems. In addition, the ultrafast pulses can be used to obtain structural data before the onset of radiation damage. This vastly increases the dose that can be used to record images of biological samples and hence improving the resolution of images. The extreme power of the X-ray pulses poses a challenge, and new methods are required to harness them. The methods developed here will also pave the way to imaging at upcoming hard-X-ray FELs. With those sources, atomic-resolution imaging of single uncrystallized macromolecules may become possible. In the first demonstration of ultrafast X-ray imaging at FLASH, a micron-sized test object was illuminated by a single focused coherent FEL pulse (Fig. 1). The coherent diffraction pattern of the object was recorded in the far field on a CCD detector. This pattern was numerically transformed to a high-resolution image of the object, using an iterative phase retrieval technique. This image, formed without the use of a lens, has a resolution limited only by the wavelength and the angular extent of the CCD detector. The lensless nature of coherent diffractive imaging has the advantage that no optical element need be placed near the object, and it is not necessary to carefully position the object - focusing is performed numerically in the phase retrieval step. However, the ...
Date: July 17, 2007
Creator: Bajt, S & Chapman, H N
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properites of ultrathin films appropriate for optics capping layers in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL)

Description: The contamination of optical surfaces by irradiation shortens optics lifetime and is one of the main concerns for optics used in conjunction with intense light sources, such as high power lasers, 3rd and 4th generation synchrotron sources or plasma sources used in extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) tools. This paper focuses on properties and surface chemistry of different materials, which as thin layers, could be used as capping layers to protect and extend EUVL optics lifetime. The most promising candidates include single element materials such as ruthenium and rhodium, and oxides such as TiO{sub 2} and ZrO{sub 2}.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: Bajt, S; Edwards, N V & Madey, T E
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optics and multilayer coatings for EUVL systems

Description: EUV lithography (EUVL) employs illumination wavelengths around 13.5 nm, and in many aspects it is considered an extension of optical lithography, which is used for the high-volume manufacturing (HVM) of today's microprocessors. The EUV wavelength of illumination dictates the use of reflective optical elements (mirrors) as opposed to the refractive lenses used in conventional lithographic systems. Thus, EUVL tools are based on all-reflective concepts: they use multilayer (ML) coated optics for their illumination and projection systems, and they have a ML-coated reflective mask.
Date: March 21, 2008
Creator: Soufli, R.; Bajt, S.; Hudyma, R. M. & Taylor, J. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potential energy sputtering of EUVL materials

Description: Of the many candidates employed for understanding the erosion of critical Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) components, potential energy damage remains relatively uninvestigated. Unlike the familiar kinetic energy sputtering, which is a consequence of the momentum transferred by an ion to atoms in the target, potential energy sputtering occurs when an ion rapidly collects charge from the target as it neutralizes. Since the neutralization energy of a singly charged ion is typically on the order of 10 eV, potential energy effects are generally neglected for low charge state ions, and hence the bulk of the sputtering literature. As an ion's charge state is increased, the potential energy (PE) increases rapidly, e.g. PE(Xe{sup 1+})= 11 eV, PE(Xe{sup 10+}) = 810 eV, PE(Xe{sup 20+}) = 4.6 keV, etc. By comparison, the binding energy of a single atom on a surface is typically about 5 eV, so even relatively inefficient energy transfer mechanisms can lead to large quantities of material being removed, e.g. 25% efficiency for Xe{sup 10+} corresponds to {approx} 40 atoms/ion. By comparison, singly charged xenon ions with {approx} 20 keV of kinetic energy sputter only about 5 atoms/ion at normal incidence, and less than 1 atom/ion at typical EUV source energies. EUV light sources are optimized for producing approximately 10{sup 16} xenon ions per shot with an average charge state of q=10 in the core plasma. At operational rates of {approx}10 kHz, the number of ions produced per second becomes a whopping 10{sup 20}. Even if only one in a billion ions reaches the collector, erosion rates could reach {approx}10{sup 12} atoms per second, severely reducing the collector lifetime (for an average yield of 10 atoms/ion). In addition, efforts to reduce contamination effects may contribute to reduced neutralization and even larger potential energy damages rates (discussed further below). In order to ...
Date: July 2, 2004
Creator: Pomeroy, J. M.; Ratliff, L. P.; Gillaspy, J. D. & Bajt, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical Constants of Beryllium from Photoabsorption Measurements for X-Ray Optics Applications

Description: Beryllium (Be) has been recently receiving considerable attention as the key material for a range of potential applications in the extreme ultraviolet (EUV) and x-ray region. Most notably, it has been successfully implemented as the spacer material in beryllium-based multilayer mirrors for EUV lithography, achieving experimental reflectivities of about 70% at wavelengths around 11.4 nm. Knowledge of the absorptive and dispersive properties of this material thus becomes important for the modeling of these optics. Experimental photoabsorption results in the region 40-250 eV, derived from transmission measurements on free-standing beryllium foils, are presented in this work. The measured absorption in the region extending a few tens eV below the K edge (111.7 eV) appears to be significantly (up to 50%) lower than the tabulated values. Fine structure above the K edge is also demonstrated in the measurements. These data are incorporated in an updated set for the atomic scattering factors of beryllium, obtained in the range 0.1-30,000 eV. Finally, the Bragg reflectivity of MO/Be multilayer optics is modeled using the new experimental results.
Date: September 30, 1999
Creator: Soufli, R.; Bajt, S. & Gullikson, E.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High Energy Physics Division semiannual report of research activities. Semi-annual progress report, July 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: This report describes the research conducted in the High Energy Physics Division of Argonne National Laboratory during the period July 1, 1995 - December 31, 1995. Topics covered here include experimental and theoretical particle physics, advanced accelerator physics, detector development, and experimental facilities research. Lists of division publications and colloquia are included.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Norem, J.; Bajt, D.; Rezmer, R. & Wagner, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Identification of isotopically primitive interplanetary dust particles: A NanoSIMS isotopic imaging study

Description: We have carried out a comprehensive survey of the isotopic compositions (H, B, C, N, O, S) of a suite of interplanetary dust particles (IDPs), including both cluster and individual particles. Isotopic imaging with the NanoSIMS shows the presence of numerous discrete hotspots that are strongly enriched in {sup 15}N, including the largest {sup 15}N enrichments ({approx}1300 {per_thousand}) observed in IDPs to date. A number of the IDPs also contain larger regions with more modest enrichments in {sup 15}N, leading to average bulk N isotopic compositions that are {sup 15}N-enriched in these IDPs. Although C isotopic compositions are normal in most of the IDPs, two {sup 15}N-rich N-hotspots have correlated {sup 13}C anomalies. CN{sup -}/C{sup -} ratios suggest that most of the {sup 15}N-rich hotspots are associated with relatively N-poor carbonaceous matter, although specific carriers have not been determined. H isotopic distributions are similar to those of N: D anomalies are present both as distinct very D-rich hotspots and as larger regions with more modest enrichments. Nevertheless, H and N isotopic anomalies are not directly correlated, consistent with results from previous studies. Oxygen isotopic imaging shows the presence of abundant presolar silicate grains in the IDPs. The O isotopic compositions of the grains are similar to those found in presolar oxide and silicate grains from primitive meteorites. Most of the silicate grains in the IDPs have isotopic ratios consistent with meteoritic Group 1 oxide grains, indicating origins in oxygen-rich red giant and asymptotic giant branch stars, but several presolar silicates exhibit the {sup 17}O and {sup 18}O enrichments of Group 4 oxide grains, whose origin is less well understood. Based on their N isotopic compositions, the IDPs studied here can be divided into two groups. One group is characterized as being ''isotopically primitive'' and consists of those IDPs that have ...
Date: September 2, 2005
Creator: Floss, C; Stadermann, F J; Bradley, J P; Dai, Z R; Bajt, S; Graham, G et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Critical parameters influencing the EUV-induced damage of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors

Description: Ongoing endurance testing of Ru-capped multilayer mirrors (MLMs) at the NIST synchrotron facility has revealed that the damage resulting from EUV irradiation does not always depend on the exposure conditions in an intuitive way. Previous exposures of Ru-capped MLMs to EUV radiation in the presence of water vapor demonstrated that the mirror damage rate actually decreases with increasing water pressure. We will present results of recent exposures showing that the reduction in damage for partial pressures of water up to 5 x 10{sup -6} Torr is not the result of a spatially uniform decrease in damage across the Gaussian intensity distribution of the incident EUV beam. Instead we observe a drop in the damage rate in the center of the exposure spot where the intensity is greatest, while the reflectivity loss in the wings of the intensity distribution appears to be independent of water partial pressure. (See Fig. 1.) We will discuss how the overall damage rate and spatial profile can be influenced by admixtures of carbon-containing species (e.g., CO, CO{sub 2}, C{sub 6}H{sub 6}) at partial pressures one-to-two orders of magnitude lower than the water vapor partial pressure. An investigation is underway to find the cause of the non-Gaussian damage profile. Preliminary results and hypotheses will be discussed. In addition to high-resolution reflectometry of the EUV-exposure sites, the results of surface analysis such as XPS will be presented. We will also discuss how the bandwidth and time structure of incident EUV radiation may affect the rate of reflectivity degradation. Although the observations presented here are based on exposures of Ru-capped MLMs, unless novel capping layers are similarly characterized, direct application of accelerated testing results could significantly overestimate mirror lifetime in the production environment.
Date: March 12, 2007
Creator: Hill, S B; Ermanoski, I; Tarrio, C; Lucatorto, T B; Madey, T E; Bajt, S et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of Sample Handling and Analytical Expertise For the Stardust Comet Sample Return

Description: NASA's Stardust mission returned to Earth in January 2006 with ''fresh'' cometary particles from a young Jupiter family comet. The cometary particles were sampled during the spacecraft flyby of comet 81P/Wild-2 in January 2004, when they impacted low-density silica aerogel tiles and aluminum foils on the sample tray assembly at approximately 6.1 km/s. This LDRD project has developed extraction and sample recovery methodologies to maximize the scientific information that can be obtained from the analysis of natural and man-made nano-materials of relevance to the LLNL programs.
Date: February 9, 2006
Creator: Bradley, J; Bajt, S; Brennan, S; Graham, G; Grant, P; Hutcheon, I et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV testing of multilayer mirrors: critical issues

Description: Recently, while performing extensive EUV irradiation endurance testing on Ru-capped multilayer mirrors in the presence of elevated partial pressures of water and hydrocarbons, NIST has observed that the amount of EUV-induced damage actually decreases with increasing levels of water vapor above {approx} 5 x 10{sup -7} Torr. It is thought that the admitted water vapor may interact with otherwise stable, condensed carbonaceous species in an UHV vacuum system to increase the background levels of simple gaseous carbon-containing molecules. Some support for this hypothesis was demonstrated by observing the mitigating effect of very small levels of simple hydrocarbons with the intentional introduction of methyl alcohol in addition to the water vapor. It was found that the damage rate decreased by at least an order of magnitude when the partial pressure of methyl alcohol was just one percent of the water partial pressure. These observations indicate that the hydrocarbon components of the vacuum environment under actual testing conditions must be characterized and controlled to 10{sup -11} Torr or better in order to quantify the damage caused by high levels of water vapor. The possible effects of exposure beam size and out-of-band radiation on mirror lifetime testing will also be discussed.
Date: February 24, 2006
Creator: Hill, S B; Ermanoski, I; Grantham, S; Tarrio, C; Lucatorto, T B; Madey, T E et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improved Reflectance and Stability of Mo/Si Multilayers

Description: Commercial EUV lithographic systems require multilayers with higher reflectance and better stability then that published to date. Interface-engineered Mo/Si multilayers with 70% reflectance at 13.5 nm wavelength (peak width of 0.545 nm) and 71% at 12.7 nm wavelength (peak width of 0.49 nm) were developed. These results were achieved with 50 bilayers. These new multilayers consist of Mo and Si layers separated by thin boron carbide layers. Depositing boron carbide on interfaces leads to reduction in silicide formation on the Mo-on-Si interfaces. Bilayer contraction is reduced by 30% implying that there is less intermixing of Mo and Si to form silicide. As a result the Mo-on-Si interfaces are sharper in interface-engineered multilayers than in standard Mo/Si multilayers. The optimum boron carbide thicknesses have been determined and appear to be different for Mo-on-Si and Si-on-Mo interfaces. The best results were obtained with 0.4 nm thick boron carbide layer on the Mo-on-Si interface and 0.25 nm thick boron carbide layer on the Si-on-Mo interface. Increase in reflectance is consistent with multilayers with sharper and smoother interfaces. A significant improvement in oxidation resistance of EUV multilayers has been achieved with ruthenium terminated Mo/Si multilayers. The best capping layer design consists of a Ru layer separated from the last Si layer by a boron carbide layer. This design achieves high reflectance and the best oxidation resistance in a water vapor (i.e. oxidation) environment. Electron beam exposures of 4.5 hours in the presence of 5x10{sup -7} torr water vapor partial pressure show no measurable reflectance loss and no increase in the oxide thickness of Ru terminated multilayers. Longer exposures in different environments are necessary to test lifetime stability of many years.
Date: October 22, 2001
Creator: Bajt, S.; Almeda, J.; Naree, T.; Clift, M.; Folta, A.; Kauffman, B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-precision reflectometry of multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Description: Synchrotron-based reflectometry is an important technique for the precise determination of optical properties of reflective multilayer coatings for Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL). Multilayer coatings enable normal incidence reflectances of more than 65% in the wavelength range between 11 and 15 nm. In order to achieve high resolution and throughput of EUVL systems, stringent requirements not only apply to their mechanical and optical layout, but also apply to the optical properties of the multilayer coatings. Therefore, multilayer deposition on near-normal incidence optical surfaces of projection optics, condenser optics and reflective masks requires suitable high-precision metrology. Most important, due to their small bandpass on the order of only 0.5 nm, all reflective multilayer coatings in EUVL systems must be wavelength-matched to within {+-}0.05 nm. In some cases, a gradient of the coating thickness is necessary for wavelength matching at variable average angle of incidence in different locations on the optical surfaces. Furthermore, in order to preserve the geometrical figure of the optical substrates, reflective multilayer coatings need to be uniform to within 0.01 nm in their center wavelength. This requirement can only be fulfilled with suitable metrology, which provides a precision of a fraction of this value. In addition, for the detailed understanding and the further development of reflective multilayer coatings a precision in the determination of peak reflectances is desirable on the order of 0.1%. Substrates up to 200 mm in diameter and 15 kg in mass need to be accommodated. Above requirements are fulfilled at beamline 6.3.2 of the Advanced Light Source (ALS) in Berkeley. This beamline proved to be precise within 0.2% (ms) for reflectance and 0.002 nm (rms) for wavelength.
Date: December 29, 1999
Creator: Wedowski, M; Underwood, J H; Gullikson, E M; Bajt, S; Folta, J A; Kearney, P A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energetic feedback in galaxies: Processing of interstellar silicate grains by cosmic rays

Description: The formation and evolution of stars and galaxies is a complex process that involves the cooling and collapse of dense interstellar clouds as well as energetic feedback on these clouds. Interstellar dust grains are central to the radiative transfer, thermal balance, and molecular processes in these clouds and can provide an important diagnostic. Hence, the effects of energetic processing of interstellar dust may have significant consequences. r This may be studied in our own Galaxy, where observations have shown that an appreciable fraction of silicates formed in the outflows from red giants and supergiants have a crystalline structure. Yet, the fraction of crystalline silicates in the interstellar medium is very small, pointing towards an efficient crystalline crystalline-to to-amorphous conversion process. Here we report experimental and modeling results that show that relatively ''low'' energy (0.1 - 5.0 GeV) heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium. The implications of this are briefly discussed. We also examine the effects of cosmic ray processing of silicates in the solar system and in stellar debris disks. In the latter systems, cosmic ray processing may play a role for grains trapped in resonance with planetary companions. We speculate that energetic processing of interstellar dust is likely to be even more important in s star forming galaxies, which have higher cosmic ray fluxes due to tar their much larger star formation rates and their emerging active black holes with associated jets.
Date: May 10, 2006
Creator: Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G W M; Dai, Z R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energetic Processing of Interstellar Silicate Grains by Cosmic Rays

Description: While a significant fraction of silicate dust in stellar winds has a crystalline structure, in the interstellar medium nearly all of it is amorphous. One possible explanation for this observation is the amorphization of crystalline silicates by relatively 'low' energy, heavy ion cosmic rays. Here we present the results of multiple laboratory experiments showing that single-crystal synthetic forsterite (Mg{sub 2}SiO{sub 4}) amorphizes when irradiated by 10 MeV Xe{sup ++} ions at large enough fluences. Using modeling, we extrapolate these results to show that 0.1-5.0 GeV heavy ion cosmic rays can rapidly ({approx}70 Million yrs) amorphize crystalline silicate grains ejected by stars into the interstellar medium.
Date: March 28, 2007
Creator: Bringa, E M; Kucheyev, S O; Loeffler, M J; Baragiola, R A; Tielens, A G Q M; Dai, Z R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Applied Focused Ion Beam Techniques for Sample Preparation of Astromaterials for Integrated Nano-Analysis

Description: Sample preparation is always a critical step in study of micrometer sized astromaterials available for study in the laboratory, whether their subsequent analysis is by electron microscopy or secondary ion mass spectrometry. A focused beam of gallium ions has been used to prepare electron transparent sections from an interplanetary dust particle, as part of an integrated analysis protocol to maximize the mineralogical, elemental, isotopic and spectroscopic information extracted from one individual particle. In addition, focused ion beam techniques have been employed to extract cometary residue preserved on the rims and walls of micro-craters in 1100 series aluminum foils that were wrapped around the sample tray assembly on the Stardust cometary sample collector. Non-ideal surface geometries and inconveniently located regions of interest required creative solutions. These include support pillar construction and relocation of a significant portion of sample to access a region of interest. Serial sectioning, in a manner similar to ultramicrotomy, is a significant development and further demonstrates the unique capabilities of focused ion beam microscopy for sample preparation of astromaterials.
Date: February 20, 2007
Creator: Graham, G A; Teslich, N E; Kearsley, A T; Stadermann, F J; Stroud, R M; Dai, Z R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Oxidation resistance and microstructure of Ru-capped extreme ultraviolet lithography multilayers

Description: The oxidation resistance of protective capping layers for extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) multilayers depends on their microstructure. Differently prepared Ru-capping layers, deposited on Mo/Si EUVL multilayers, were investigated to establish their baseline structural, optical, and surface properties in as-deposited state. The same capping layer structures were then tested for their thermal stability and oxidation resistance. The best performing Ru-capping layer structure was analyzed in detail with transmission electron microscopy (TEM). As compared to other Ru capping layers preparations studied here it is the only one that shows grains with preferential orientation. This information is essential for modeling and performance optimization of EUVL multilayers.
Date: June 15, 2005
Creator: Bajt, S; Dai, Z; Nelson, E J; Wall, M A; Alameda, J B; Nguyen, N et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sub-nanometer-scale measurements of the interaction of ultrafast soft x-ray free-electron-laser pulses with matter

Description: Femtosecond pulses from soft-x-ray free-electron lasers (FELs) [1] are ideal for directly probing matter at atomic length scales and timescales of atomic motion. An important component of understanding ultrafast phenomena of light-matter interactions is concerned with the onset of atomic motion which is impeded by the atoms inertia. This delay of structural changes will enable atomic-resolution flash-imaging [2-3] to be performed at upcoming x-ray FELs [4-5] with pulses intense enough to record the x-ray scattering from single molecules [6]. We explored this ultrafast high-intensity regime with the FLASH soft-x-ray FEL [7-8] by measuring the reflectance of nanostructured multilayer mirrors using pulses with fluences far in excess of the mirrors damage threshold. Even though the nanostructures were ultimately completely destroyed, we found that they maintained their integrity and reflectance characteristics during the 25-fs-long pulse, with no evidence for any structural changes during that time over lengths greater than 3 {angstrom}. In the recently built FLASH FEL [7], x-rays are produced from short electron pulses oscillating in a periodic magnet array, called an undulator, by the principle of self-amplification of spontaneous emission [9-10]. The laser quality of the x-ray pulses can be quantified by the peak spectral brilliance of the source, which is 10{sup 28} photons/(s mm2 mrad2 0.1% bandwidth) [8]; this is up to seven orders of magnitude higher than modern third-generation synchrotron sources. For our studies, the machine operated with pulses of 25 fs duration at a wavelength of 32.5 nm and energies up to 21 {micro}J. We focused these pulses to 3 x 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2} onto our nanostructured samples, resulting in an the unprecedented heating rate of 5 x 10{sup 18} K/s, while probing the irradiated structures at the nanometer length scale. The x-ray reflectivity of periodic nanometer-scale multilayers [11] is very sensitive to changes in the ...
Date: August 2, 2006
Creator: Hau-Riege, S; Chapman, H; Krzywinski, J; Sobierajski, R; London, R; Bionta, R et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multilayers for next generation x-ray sources

Description: Multilayers are artificially layered structures that can be used to create optics and optical elements for a broad range of x-ray wavelengths, or can be optimized for other applications. The development of next generation x-ray sources (synchrotrons and x-ray free electron lasers) requires advances in x-ray optics. Newly developed multilayer-based mirrors and optical elements enabled efficient band-pass filtering, focusing and time resolved measurements in recent FLASH (Free Electron LASer in Hamburg) experiments. These experiments are providing invaluable feedback on the response of the multilayer structures to high intensity, short pulsed x-ray sources. This information is crucial to design optics for future x-ray free electron lasers and to benchmark computer codes that simulate damage processes.
Date: May 4, 2007
Creator: Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Hau-Riege, S; Alameda, J; Nelson, A J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A camera for coherent diffractive imaging and holography with a soft-X-ray free electron laser

Description: We describe a camera to record coherent scattering patterns with a soft-X-ray free-electron laser. The camera consists of a laterally-graded multilayer mirror which reflects the diffraction pattern onto a CCD detector. The mirror acts as a bandpass filter both for wavelength and angle, which isolates the desired scattering pattern from non-sample scattering or incoherent emission from the sample. The mirror also solves the particular problem of the extreme intensity of the FEL pulses, which are focused to greater than 10{sup 14} W/cm{sup 2}. The strong undiffracted pulse passes through a hole in the mirror and propagates on to a beam dump at a distance behind the instrument rather than interacting with a beamstop placed near the CCD. The camera concept is extendable for the full range of the fundamental wavelength of the FLASH FEL (i.e. between 6 nm and 60 nm) and into the water window. We have fabricated and tested various multilayer mirrors for wavelengths of 32 nm, 16 nm, 13.5 nm, and 4.5 nm. At the shorter wavelengths mirror roughness must be minimized to reduce scattering from the mirror. We have recorded over 30,000 diffraction patterns at the FLASH free-electron laser with no observable mirror damage or degradation of performance.
Date: September 24, 2007
Creator: Bajt, S; Chapman, H N; Spiller, E; Alameda, J; Woods, B; Frank, M et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lifetime studies of Mo/Si and Mo/Be multilayer coatings for extreme ultraviolet lithography

Description: Extreme Ultraviolet Lithography (EUVL) is a candidate for future application by the semiconductor industry in the production of sub-100 nm feature sizes in integrated circuits. Using multilayer reflective coatings optimized at wavelengths ranging from 11 to 14 nm, EUVL represents a potential successor to currently existing optical lithography techniques. In order to assess lifetimes of the multilayer coatings under realistic conditions, a series of radiation stability tests has been performed. In each run a dose of EUV radiation equivalent to several months of lithographic operation was applied to Mo/Si and MO/Be multilayer coatings within a few days. Depending on the residual gas concentration in the vacuum environment, surface deposition of carbon during the exposure lead to losses in the multilayer reflectivity. However, in none of the experimental runs was structural damage within the bulk of the multilayers observed. Mo/Si multilayer coatings recovered their full original reflectivity after removal of the carbon layer by an ozone cleaning method. Auger depth profiling on MO/Be multilayers indicate that carbon penetrated into the Be top layer during illumination with high doses of EUV radiation. Subsequent ozone cleaning fully removed the carbon, but revealed enhanced oxidation of the area illuminated, which led to an irreversible loss in reflectance on the order of 1%. Keywords: Extreme ultraviolet (EUV) lithography, multilayer reflective coatings, radiation stability, surface contamination
Date: August 5, 1999
Creator: Bajt, S; Clift, W M; Folta, J A; Gullikson, E M; Klebanoff, L E; Kleineberg, U et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department