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Status of rod consolidation

Description: Two of the factors that need to be taken into account with rod consolidation are (1) the effects on rods from their removal from the fuel assembly and (2) the effects on rods as a result of the consolidation process. Potential components of both factors are described in the report. Discussed under (1) are scratches on the fuel rod surfaces, rod breakage, crud, extended burnup, and possible cladding embrittlement due to hydrogen injection at BWRs. Discussed under (2) are the increased water temperature (less than 10/sup 0/C) because of closer packing of the rods, formation of crevices between rods in the close-packed mode, contact with dissimilar metals, and the potential for rapid heating of fuel rods following the loss of water from a spent fuel storage pool. Another factor that plays an important role in rod consolidation is the cost of disposal of the nonfuel-bearing components of the fuel assembly. Also, the dose rate from the components - especially Inconel spacer grids - can affect the handling procedures. Several licensing issues that exist are described. A list of recommendations is provided. 98 refs., 5 figs., 5 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1985
Creator: Bailey, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Categorization of failed and damaged spent LWR (light-water reactor) fuel currently in storage

Description: The results of a study that was jointly sponsored by the US Department of Energy and the Electric Power Research Institute are described in this report. The purpose of the study was to (1) estimate the number of failed fuel assemblies and damaged fuel assemblies (i.e., ones that have sustained mechanical or chemical damage but with fuel rod cladding that is not breached) in storage, (2) categorize those fuel assemblies, and (3) prepare this report as an authoritative, illustrated source of information on such fuel. Among the more than 45,975 spent light-water reactor fuel assemblies currently in storage in the United States, it appears that there are nearly 5000 failed or damaged fuel assemblies. 78 refs., 23 figs., 19 tabs.
Date: November 1, 1987
Creator: Bailey, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel performance annual report for 1986

Description: This annual report, the ninth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1986 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related U.S. Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included. 550 refs., 12 figs., 31 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1988
Creator: Bailey, W.J. & Wu, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel performance annual report for 1983. Volume 1

Description: This annual report, the sixth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1983 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included.
Date: March 1, 1985
Creator: Bailey, W.J. & Dunenfeld, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel performance annual report for 1984. Volume 2

Description: This annual report, the seventh in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1984 in commercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to additional, more detailed information and related NRC evaluations are included. 279 refs., 11 figs., 29 tabs.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Bailey, W.J. & Dunenfeld, M.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experience with non-fuel-bearing components in LWR (light-water reactor) fuel systems

Description: Many non-fuel-bearing components are so closely associated with the spent fuel assemblies that their integrity and behavior must be taken into consideration with the fuel assemblies, when handling spent fuel of planning waste management activities. Presented herein is some of the experience that has been gained over the past two decades from non-fuel-bearing components in light-water reactors (LWRs), both pressurized-water reactors (PWRs) and boiling-water reactors (BWRs). Among the most important of these components are the control rod systems, the absorber and burnable poison rods, and the fuel assembly channels. 15 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: December 1, 1990
Creator: Bailey, W.J. & Berting, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Wet storage in the USA: recent experience and directions

Description: Wet storage has been the only licensed option for spent fuel management for US commercial power reactor operators, except for a period of commercial reprocessing at the Nuclear Fuel Services facility, 1965-71. Developments are underway to bring dry storage to licensed status on the US by mid-1986. However, wet storage will remain the predominant storage method, at least beyond the turn of the century. The Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 establishes current US policy regarding responsibilities for spent fuel management. The Nuclear Waste Confidence Rulemaking proceedings address the viability of extended wet storage for US reactors. US utilities have moved aggressively to implement optimized utilization of wet storage technology, assisted in some areas by federal programs. This paper summarizes US policy and regulatory aspects of wet storage and the status of several wet storage technology developments, including: dense racking, double tiering, credit for burnup in rack designs, transshipment, impacts of extended burnup, rod consolidation, and pool decommissioning.
Date: March 1, 1986
Creator: Klein, K.; Johnson, A.B. Jr. & Bailey, W.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrity of neutron-absorbing components of LWR fuel systems

Description: A study of the integrity and behavior of neutron-absorbing components of light-water (LWR) fuel systems was performed by Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) and sponsored by the US Department of Energy (DOE). The components studies include control blades (cruciforms) for boiling-water reactors (BWRs) and rod cluster control assemblies for pressurized-water reactors (PWRs). The results of this study can be useful for understanding the degradation of neutron-absorbing components and for waste management planning and repository design. The report includes examples of the types of degradation, damage, or failures that have been encountered. Conclusions and recommendations are listed. 84 refs.
Date: March 1, 1991
Creator: Bailey, W.J. & Berting, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel Performance Annual Report for 1980

Description: This annual report, the third in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance in conmercial nuclear power plants. Brief summaries of fuel surveillance programs and operating experience, fuel performance problems, and fuel design changes are provided. References to additional, more detailed, information and related NRC evaluation are included.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Bailey, W. J.; Rising, K. H. & Tokar, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FABRICATION OF ALUMINUM-PLUTONIUM ALLOY FUEL ELEMENTS BY COEXTRUSION

Description: The development of the fabrication process and preparation of 144 coextruded fuel elements for the TransPlutonium Program are described. The fuel elements were in the form of coextruded rods, 0.94 in. in diameter and 60 in. in length. The cladding was aluminum (X-8001 alloy) and was 0.040 to 0.120 in. thick. The fuel cores were aluminum-7.35 wt.% plutonium alloy. The fuel elements were coextruded in an extrusion press which was mounted in a plutonium- contaminated glove box. The extruded elements were easily decontaminated. The cast fuel cores for the coextrusion billets were machined only on one end. The fuel elements are currently under irradiation. (auth)
Date: December 1, 1959
Creator: Bailey, W.J.; Bloomster, C.H.; Katayama, Y.B. & Ross, W.T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual report, FY 1979 Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity.

Description: International meetings under the BEFAST program and under INFCE Working Group No. 6 during 1978 and 1979 continue to indicate that no cases of fuel cladding degradation have developed on pool-stored fuel from water reactors. A section from a spent fuel rack stand, exposed for 1.5 y in the Yankee Rowe (PWR) pool had 0.001- to 0.003-in.-deep (25- to 75-..mu..m) intergranular corrosion in weld heat-affected zones but no evidence of stress corrosion cracking. A section of a 304 stainless steel spent fuel storage rack exposed 6.67 y in the Point Beach reactor (PWR) spent fuel pool showed no significant corrosion. A section of 304 stainless steel 8-in.-dia pipe from the Three Mile Island No. 1 (PWR) spent fuel pool heat exchanger plumbing developed a through-wall crack. The crack was intergranular, initiating from the inside surface in a weld heat-affected zone. The zone where the crack occurred was severely sensitized during field welding. The Kraftwerk Union (Erlangen, GFR) disassembled a stainless-steel fuel-handling machine that operated for 12 y in a PWR (boric acid) spent fuel pool. There was no evidence of deterioration, and the fuel-handling machine was reassembled for further use. A spent fuel pool at a Swedish PWR was decontaminated. The procedure is outlined in this report.
Date: May 1, 1980
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Schreiber, R.E. & Kustas, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Examination of Zircaloy-clad spent fuel after extended pool storage

Description: This report presents the results from metallurgical examinations of Zircaloy-clad fuel rods from two bundles (0551 and 0074) of Shippingport PWR Core 1 blanket fuel after extended water storage. Both bundles were exposed to water in the reactor from late 1957 until discharge. The estimated average burnups were 346 GJ/kgU (4000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0551 and 1550 GJ/kgU (18,000 MWd/MTU) for bundle 0074. Fuel rods from bundle 0551 were stored in deionized water for nearly 21 yr prior to examination in 1980, representing the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel. Bundle 0074 has been stored in deionized water since reactor discharge in 1964. Data from the current metallurgical examinations enable a direct assessment of extended pool storage effects because the metallurgical condition of similar fuel rods was investigated and documented soon after reactor discharge. Data from current and past examinations were compared, and no significant degradation of the Zircaloy cladding was indicated after almost 21 yr in water storage. The cladding dimensions and mechanical properties, fission gas release, hydrogen contents of the cladding, and external oxide film thicknesses that were measured during the current examinations were all within the range of measurements made on fuel bundles soon after reactor discharge. The appearance of the external surfaces and the microstructures of the fuel and cladding were also similar to those reported previously. In addition, no evidence of accelerated corrosion or hydride redistribution in the cladding was observed.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Bradley, E.R.; Bailey, W.J.; Johnson, A.B. Jr. & Lowry, L.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Assessment of the use of extended burnup fuel in light water power reactors

Description: This study has been conducted by Pacific Northwest Laboratory for the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission to review the environmental and economic impacts associated with the use of extended burnup nuclear fuel in light water power reactors. It has been proposed that current batch average burnup levels of 33 GWd/t uranium be increased to above 50 GWd/t. The environmental effects of extending fuel burnup during normal operations and during accident events and the economic effects of cost changes on the fuel cycle are discussed in this report. The physical effects of extended burnup on the fuel and the fuel assembly are also presented as a basis for the environmental and economic assessments. Environmentally, this burnup increase would have no significant impact over that of normal burnup. Economically, the increased burnup would have favorable effects, consisting primarily of a reduction: (1) total fuel requirements; (2) reactor downtime for fuel replacement; (3) the number of fuel shipments to and from reactor sites; and (4) repository storage requirements. 61 refs., 4 figs., 27 tabs.
Date: February 1, 1988
Creator: Baker, D.A.; Bailey, W.J.; Beyer, C.E.; Bold, F.C. & Tawil, J.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent fuel and fuel pool component integrity. Annual report, FY 1980

Description: During program FY 1980 staff members of the Spent Fuel and Fuel Pool Component Integrity Program at Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) completed the following major tasks: represented DOE on the international Behavior of Fuel Assemblies in Storage (BEFAST) Committee; the program manager, A.B. Johnson, Jr., participated in an International Survey of Water Reactor Spent Fuel Storage Experience, which was conducted jointly by the International Atomic Energy Agency (Vienna) and the Nuclear Energy Agency (Paris); provided written testimony and cross statement for the Proposed Rulemaking on Storage and Disposal of Nuclear Waste; acquired and began examination of the world's oldest pool-stored Zircaloy-clad fuel from the Shippingport reactor, stored approx. 21 years in deionized water; acquired and began examination of stainless-clad spent fuel from the Connecticut Yankee Reactor (PWR); negotiated for specimens from components stored in spent fuel pools at fuel storage facilities from the Savannah River Plant, Aiken, South Carolina, Zion (PWR) spent fuel pool, Zion, Illinois, and La Crosse (BWR) spent fuel pool, La Crosse, Wisconsin; planned for examinations in FY 81 of specimens from the three spent fuel pools; investigated a low-temperature stress corrosion cracking mechanism that developed in piping at a few PWR spent fuel pools. This report summarizes the results of these activities and investigations. Details are provided in the presentationsand publications generated under this program and summarized in Appendix A.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Johnson, A.B. Jr.; Bailey, W.J.; Bradley, E.R.; Bruemmer, S.M. & Langstaff, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Welding Plutonium-Containing Fuel Elements

Description: Report discussing the manual and automatic welding techniques for fuel elements containing plutonium with Zircaloy-2 aluminum, and stainless steel cladding, 0.013 to 0.0889 cm (0.005 to 0.350 in.) thick" (p. 3).
Date: June 1964
Creator: Lemon, L. C.; Ross, W. T. & Bailey, W. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent nuclear fuel as a waste form for geologic disposal: Assessment and recommendations on data and modeling needs

Description: This study assesses the status of knowledge pertinent to evaluating the behavior of spent nuclear fuel as a waste form in geologic disposal systems and provides background information that can be used by the DOE to address the information needs that pertain to compliance with applicable standards and regulations. To achieve this objective, applicable federal regulations were reviewed, expected disposal environments were described, the status of spent-fuel modeling was summarized, and information regarding the characteristics and behavior of spent fuel was compiled. This compiled information was then evaluated from a performance modeling perspective to identify further information needs. A number of recommendations were made concerning information still needed to enhance understanding of spent-fuel behavior as a waste form in geologic repositories. 335 refs., 22 figs., 44 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1987
Creator: Van Luik, A.E.; Apted, M.J.; Bailey, W.J.; Haberman, J.H.; Shade, J.S.; Guenther, R.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fuel performance annual report for 1989

Description: This annual report, the twelfth in a series, provides a brief description of fuel performance during 1989 in commercial nuclear power plants and an indication of trends. Brief summaries of fuel design changes, fuel surveillance programs, fuel operating experience, fuel problems, high-burnup fuel experience, and items of general significance are provided. References to more detailed information and related US Nuclear Regulatory Commission evaluations are included.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Bailey, W.J.; Berting, F.M. (Pacific Northwest Lab., Richland, WA (United States)) & Wu, S. (Nuclear Regulatory Commission, Washington, DC (United States). Div. of Systems Technology)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department