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Measurements and Calculations of Halfraum Radiation Drives at the Omega Laser

Description: Thin walled gold halfraums are a common choice for producing x-ray drives in experiments at high-power laser facilities. At the Omega Laser, we use 10 kJ of laser energy in a two-pulse sequence to generate halfraum drive temperatures of 160-190 eV for {approx}3ns. This type of drive is well characterized and reproducible, with characterization of the drive radiation temperature typically performed using the Dante diagnostic. Additionally, calibrated Photoconductive Diamond Detectors (PCDs) are used to measure the drive when it is desirable to utilize the Dante elsewhere in the experiment. Measurements of halfraum drives from both Dante and PCDs are compared with calculations, with good agreement. This agreement lends the calculations a predictive capability in designing further experiments utilizing halfraum drives.
Date: January 6, 2005
Creator: MacLaren, S A; Back, C A & Hammer, J H
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging back scattered and near back scattered light in ignition scale plasmas

Description: Diagnostics have been developed and fielded at the Nova laser facility that image scattered light in the vicinity of the final laser focusing lens. The absolute calibration of optical components exposed to the target debris have been achieved by a combination of routine in situ calibration and maintenance. The scattering observed from plasmas relevant to ignition experiments indicates that light scattered just outside the lens can be larger than that collected by the lens, and is a significant factor in the energy balance when the f number is high.
Date: May 7, 1996
Creator: Kirkwood, R.K.; Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H. & Moody, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spectroscopic temperature measurements of non-equilibrium plasmas

Description: The characterization of laser-produced plasmas has required the application of spectroscopic techniques to non-standard conditions where kinetics models have not been extensively tested. The plasmas are produced by the Nova laser for the study of inertial confinement fusion, can be mm in size, and evolve on sub-nanosecond time scales. These targets typically achieve electron temperatures from 2-4 keV and electron densities of 10{sup 20}-10{sup 22} cm{sup {minus}3}. The authors have measured the electron temperature of two types of targets: bags of gas and hohlraums, Au cylinders with laser entrance holes in the flat ends. By comparing data from different targets, they examine the time-dependence of spectroscopic plasma diagnostics.
Date: April 24, 1996
Creator: Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Lee, R.W. & MacGowan, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering from inertial confinement fusion plasmas

Description: Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Flat disks coated with thin multilayers of gold and beryllium were with one laser beam to produce a two ion species plasma with a controlled amount of both species. Thomson scattering spectra from these plasmas showed two ion acoustic waves belonging to gold and beryllium. The phase velocities of the ion acoustic waves are shown to be a sensitive function of the relative concentrations of the two ion species and are in good agreement with theoretical calculations. These open geometry experiments further show that an accurate measurement of the ion temperature can be derived from the relative damping of the two ion acoustic waves. Subsequent Thomson scattering measurements from methane-filled, ignition-relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas to obtain the electron and ion temperatures with high accuracy. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict the performance of future megajoule laser driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Applied to NIF targets, this flux limitation has little effect on x- ray production. The spatial distribution of x-rays is slightly modified but optimal symmetry can be re-established by small changes in power balance or pointing. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. This result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Date: July 8, 1997
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A. & Suter, L.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thomson scattering in the corona of laser-produced gold plasmas

Description: Thomson scattering measurements of the electron temperature in laser- produced gold plasmas are presented. We irradiated a flat gold disk target with one laser beam of the Nova laser facility. A second laser beam probed the plasma at a distance of 500{mu}m with temporally resolved Thomson scattering. The electron temperature measurements are compared with hydrodynamic simulations using the code LASNEX for experiments applying smoothed and unsmoothed heater beams. In case of an unsmoothed heater beam the simulations predict temperatures which are about 40% higher than our measured data. Although the agreement is improved for a smoothed heater beam, discrepancies exist in the decay phase of the plasma. We discuss possible explanations for these observations.
Date: May 8, 1996
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A.; Estabrook, K.G. & MacGowan, B.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The study of parametric instabilities in NIF-scale plasmas on Nova

Description: At the same time we experimentally reproduced the plasma conditions expected within the NIF using plasmas produced by the Nova laser. The plasmas were created by irradiating a thin walled gas balloon or a sealed hohlraum containing of order one atmosphere of a low-Z gas (e.g. C{sub 5}H{sub 12}, C{sub 5}D{sub 12} or CO{sub 2}). When the gas is ionized and heated the resultant plasmas are homogeneous, and of high density ({approximately}10{sup 21} electron/cm{sup 3}) and temperature ({approximately}3 keV) with large scale density scale lengths ({approximately}2 mm). Nine of the Nova beams were used to produce the plasma, the tenth beam was configured as an interaction beam that was sent through the performed plasma after a delay of order 500 psec. The SRS and SBS scattered from the plasma, together with the effects of the plasma on the transmitted beam, were studied as a function of the interaction beam intensity, beam smoothing and plasma constituents. The interaction beam was smoothed by using radon phase plates (RPPs), and 4 different colors within the f/8 beam to mimic the NIF laser architecture. The 4-color set-up divided the f/8 beam in to 4 separate quadrants each of which had its wavelength shifted relative to the other quadrants. The wavelength separation of the colors was approximately 1.4{Angstrom} at 3{omega}. Since each beam quadrant could have its frequency conversion crystals individually tuned for its wavelength, the 4-color scheme approximated ``bandwidth`` on the interaction beam without losing 3{omega} conversion efficiency. We have also studied the use of a laser bandwidth of approximately 0.7{Angstrom} and smoothing by Spectral Dispersion (SSD) with all of the quadrants set at the same color, to further reduce the reflected SBS. These studies were performed with both f/4.3 and f/8 interaction beam focusing.
Date: September 26, 1994
Creator: MacGowan, B.J.; Back, C.A. & Berger, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of large scale-length plasmas produced from gas-filled targets

Description: Apart from their intrinsic interest, plasma physics processes are important because they affect the coupling of the laser energy into laser-irradiated targets. Recently, new gas-filled targets have been developed to create large mm-size plasmas for the study of stimulated Brillouin scattering (SBS) and stimulated Raman scattering (SRS). We present x-ray images and x-ray spectra to characterize these targets, which show that the plasmas are homogeneous, have electron densities of {approximately}10{sup 21} cm{sup {minus}3}, and attain electron temperatures of {approximately}3 keV. We also present SBS measurements to demonstrate how systematic studies of physical phenomena can be performed using these targets.
Date: June 30, 1995
Creator: Back, C.A.; Berger, R.L. & Estabrook, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of nova plasmas using an x-ray spectrometer with temporal and spatial resolution

Description: Spectroscopic diagnostics have great potential to obtain high temperature measurements of plasmas created in ICF targets. The plasmas may be over 1 mm in size and therefore, one of the first steps in making accurate spectroscopic measurements has been to improve the resolution of the instrument. A spectrograph is now available for Nova experiments which takes advantage of gated technology by coupling a Bragg crystal to a microchannel plate that can record data over a 250 ps time frame. The crystal disperses the x-rays, while slits add the ability to image the plasmas in the perpendicular direction. The characteristics of this diagnostic, TSPEC, will be evaluated for laser-produced plasmas. Recent data will be presented from colliding plasmas and large-scale hohlraums which indicate that imaging can greatly enhance the ability to diagnose these plasmas.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Back, C. A.; Kauffman, R. L.; Bell, P. & Kilkenny, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

X-ray diagnostics of hohlraum plasma flow

Description: In this study we use spectroscopy and x-ray imaging to investigate the macroscopic plasma flow in mm-sized laser-produced hohlraum plasmas. By using multiple diagnostics to triangulate the emission on a single experiment, we can pinpoint the position of dopants placed inside the hohlraum. X-ray emission from the foil has been used in the past to measure electron temperature. Here we analyze the spatial movement of dopant plasmas for comparison to hydrodynamic calculations.
Date: May 13, 1996
Creator: Back, C.A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Landen, O.L.; MacGowan, B.J. & Shepard, T.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supersonic propagation of ionization waves in an under-dense, laser-produced plasma

Description: We observe a laser-driven supersonic ionization wave heating a mm-scale plasma of sub-critical density up to 2-3 keV electron temperatures. Propagation velocities initially 10 times the sound speed were measured by means of time-resolved x-ray imaging diagnostics. The measured ionization wave trajectory is modeled analytically and by a 2D radiation-hydrodynamics code. The comparison to the modeling suggests that nonlocal heat transport effects may contribute to the attenuation of the heat wave propagation.
Date: October 22, 2004
Creator: Constantin, C; Back, C A; Fournier, K B; Gregori, G; Landen, O L; Glenzer, S H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Accuracy of X-Ray Spectra Modeling of Inertial Confinement Fusion Plasmas

Description: We have performed x-ray spectroscopic experiments in homogeneous gas bag plasmas where we independently measure the temperature with Thomson scattering. We find that collisional radiative (kinetics) modeling of the intensities of the He-{beta} line and its dielectronic capture satellites is generally in agreement with the measured spectra. On the other hand, for the particular case of satellites arising from inner-shell electron collisional excitation, we find discrepancies of up to a factor of two between experiment and kinetics models. We have ruled out possible effects on the line emission due to plasma gradients, radiative transport, and suprathermal electron excitation leaving errors in the atomic physics modeling to be the most likely explanation. The determination that there are problems with the collisionally populated states is important for the interpretation of inertial confinement fusion capsule implosions where electron densities and temperature have been measured using the spectral line shape of the He-{beta} transition of Ar XVII. The analysis of the implosion data has required Stark broadening calculations coupled to a kinetics model to calculate the detailed line intensities and widths. Despite remaining discrepancies, the good agreement between the experimental dielectronic capture satellites and the HULLAC calculations suggests that HULLAC is a more appropriate code for the construction of the kinetics models of the He-{beta} complex from high density plasmas than previously used codes (e.g. MCDF). HULLAC results in higher temperatures for the implosion conditions of Ref.(5,6) in closer agreement with the 2-D radiation hydrodynamic modeling and other spectroscopic techniques. These results indicate that benchmarking kinetics codes with Thomson scattering is an important area in present ICF research.
Date: May 30, 2000
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Fournier, K.B.; Hammel, B.A.; Lee, L.W.; MacGowan, B.J. & Back, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of multi-kilovolt x-ray from laser-heated targets

Description: Experiments to develop high photon energy x-ray sources were carried out on the Nova laser. Ten laser beams delivered approximately 39 kJ of energy in 2 ns into a Be cylinder filled with Xe gas. The conversion efficiency into x-ray {lt} 4 keV was measured to be 5-15%, which is the highest measured in this photon regime for laser-produced plasmas. The temporal dependence of the x-ray emission indicates that the bulk of the emission is emitted in the first half of the 2 ns pulse. A set of diagnostics were fielded to image the volume in emission as well as provide spectra to measure conversion efficiency.
Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Grum, J.; Decker, C.D.; Davis, J.L.; Landen, O.L.; Suter, L.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Opacity measurements: extending the range and filling in the gaps

Description: A series of experiments to explore Ge opacity at temperatures where the M-shell is almost filled will be discussed. Data are obtained at lower temperatures than previously explored and allow us to investigate the role of atomic structure calculations and their impact on opacity scalings. The experiment uses the Nova laser to irradiate a gold hohlraum within which a CH-tamped Ge sample is radiatively heated. A Nd backlight probes the sample 2 ns later to produce Ge spectral absorption features in the 1.2-1.5 keV energy range. Temperature is monitored by the use of an Al dopant and density is monitored by measuring the edge-on expansion of the sample. Temporal resolution of about 200 ps is obtained by using a short pulse backlight. Calculations in this photon energy region show significant changes in the spectral features.
Date: March 17, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Perry, T.S.; Bach, D.R.; Wilson, G.; Iglesias, G.A.; Laden, O.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Characterization of laser-produced fusion plasmas with thomson scattering

Description: Thomson scattering has been developed at the Nova laser facility as a direct and accurate diagnostic to characterize inertial confinement fusion plasmas. Measurements from methane-filled, ignition relevant hohlraums apply the theory for two ion species plasmas, which has been tested in separate open geometry experiments, to obtain electron and ion temperatures. The experimental data provide a benchmark for two-dimensional hydrodynamic simulations using LASNEX, which is presently in use to predict he performance of future megajoule laser- driven hohlraums of the National Ignition Facility (NIF). The data are consistent with modeling using significantly inhibited heat transport at the peak of the drive. Furthermore, we find that stagnating plasma regions on the hohlraum axis are well described by the calculations. The result implies that stagnation in gas-filled hohlraums occurs too late to directly affect the capsule implosion in ignition experiments.
Date: July 9, 1997
Creator: Glenzer, S.H.; Back, C.A.; Suter, L.J.; MacGowan, B.J.; Landen, O.L.; Lindl, J.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-power laser source evaluation

Date: July 1, 1997
Creator: Back, C.A.; Decker, C.D.; Dipeso, G.J.; Gerassimenko, M.; Managan, R.A.; Serduke, F.J.D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-keV X-Ray Conversion Efficiency in Laser-Produced Plasmas

Description: X-ray sources are created at the Nova and Omega laser by irradiating a confined volume of Ar, Xe, or Kr gas. The gas is heated by forty 0.35 {micro}m wavelength, 1-ns square laser beams to produce He-like ions that radiate K-shell emission over mm-sized dimensions. The targets are designed to be ''underdense'', meaning that the initial gas density is lower than the critical density of the laser, n{sub c} {approx} 10{sup 21} cm{sup -3}. The laser energy is primarily absorbed by inverse bremsstrahlung and a supersonic heat wave efficiently ionizes the gas. Results from time-resolved and time-integrated diagnostics over a range of experimental parameters are compared. This work represents an important, new method for development of efficient, large-area, tailored multi-keV x-ray sources.
Date: October 31, 2002
Creator: Back, C A; Landen, O L; Hammer, J H; Suter, L J; Miller, M C; Davis, J et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Multi-Kilovolt X-Ray Conversion Efficiencies

Description: X-ray sources in the 3-7 keV energy regime can be produced by laser-irradiating mid- and high-Z gas-filled targets with high-powered lasers. A series of experiments have been performed using underdense targets that are supersonically heated with {approx} 35 kJ of 0.35 {micro}m laser light. These targets were cylindrical Be enclosures that were filled with 1-2 atms of Xe or Ar gas. L-shell x-ray emission is emitted from the plasma and detected by Bragg crystal spectrometers and x-ray diodes. Absolute flux measurements show conversion efficiencies of {approx} 10% in the multi-kilovolt x-ray emission. These sources can be used as bright x-ray backlighters or for material testing.
Date: August 23, 2001
Creator: Back, C A; Davis, J L; Grun, J; Landen, O L; Miller, M C & Suter, L J
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-Density Scaling of Conversion Efficiency of Laser Energy into L-shell X-rays

Description: Laser-produced plasmas at subcritical densities have proven to be efficient sources for x-ray production. In this context, they obtain new results from experiments performed in Kr and Xe gas-filled targets that were irradiated by the high-power OMEGA (Laboratory for Laser Energetics, University of Rochester) laser. Nearly 40% of the laser energy was converted into x-rays in the L-shell-photon-energy range ({ge} 1.6 keV) by a Kr-filled target. The conversion efficiency measurements were correlated with time-resolved plasma-temperature measurements done by means of a Thomson-scattering diagnostic. The measured range of temperatures, between 2-3.5 keV, is in good agreement with LASNEX radiation-hydrodynamics simulations. X-ray-cooling rates and charge-state distributions were computed using detailed atomic data from the HULLAC suite of codes. X-ray yields predicted by the cooling-rate calculations are compared to measured spectra, and good agreement is found for predictions made with highly-detailed atomic models. They find that x-ray conversion efficiency in Kr-filled targets is a strong function of temperature, and has an optimum density near 10-15% of the laser's critical density.
Date: January 10, 2005
Creator: Fournier, K B; Constantin, C; Back, C A; Suter, L; Chung, H; Miller, M C et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron density measurement of a colliding plasma using soft x-ray laser interferometry

Description: The understanding of the collision and subsequent interaction of counter-streaming high-density plasmas is important for the design of indirectly-driven inertial confinement fusion (ICF) hohlraums. We have employed a soft x-ray Mach-Zehnder interferometer, using a Ne- like Y x-ray laser at 155 {angstrom} as the probe source, to study interpenetration and stagnation of two colliding plasmas. We observed a peaked density profile at the symmetry axis with a wide stagnation region with width of order 100 {mu}m. We compare the measured density profile with density profiles calculated by the radiation hydrodynamic code LASNEX and a multi-specie fluid code which allows for interpenetration. The measured density profile falls in between the calculated profiles using collisionless and fluid approximations. By using different target materials and irradiation configurations, we can vary the collisionality of the plasma. We hope to use the soft x-ray laser interferometry as a mechanism to validate and benchmark our numerical codes used for the design and analysis of high-energy- density physics experiments.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Wan, A.S.; Back, C.A.; Barbee, T.W.Jr.; Cauble, R.; Celliers, P.; DaSilva, L.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-power laser source evaluation

Description: Robust Nuclear-Weapons-Effects Testing (NWET) capability will be needed for the foreseeable future to ensure the performance and reliability, in nuclear environments, of the evolving U.S. stockpile of weapons and other assets. Ongoing research on the use of high-energy lasers to generate environments of utility in nuclear weapon radiation effects simulations is addressed in the work described in this report. Laser-driven hohlraums and a variety of other targets have been considered in an effort to develop NWET capability of the highest possible fidelity in above-ground experiments. The envelope of large-system test needs is shown as the gray region in fig. 1. It does not represent the spectrum of any device; it is just the envelope of the spectral region of outputs from a number of possible devices. It is a goal of our laser-only and ignition-capsule source development work to generate x rays that fall somewhere in this envelope. One of the earlier appearances of this envelope is in ref. 1. The Defense Special Weapons Agency provided important support for the work described herein. A total of $520K was provided in the 1997 IACROs 97-3022 for Source Development and 97-3048 for Facilitization. The period of performance specified in the Statement of Work ran from 28 February 1997 until 30 November 1997. This period was extended, by agreement with DSWA, for two reasons: 1) despite the stated period of performance, funds were not available at LLNL to begin this work until somewhat later in the fiscal year, and 2) we agreed to stretch the current resources until follow-on funds were in hand, to minimize effects of ramping down and up again. The tasks addressed in this report are the following: 1) Non-ignition-source model benchmarking and design. This involves analysis of existing and new data on laser-only sources to benchmark LASNEX predictions 2) ...
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Back, C A; Davis, J F; Decker, C D; Dixit, S; Grun, J; Managan, R A et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experiments on hot and dense laser-produced plasmas

Description: Plasmas generated by irradiating targets with {approx}20 kJ of laser energy are routinely created in inertial confinement fusion research. X-ray spectroscopy provides one of the few methods for diagnosing the electron temperature and electron density. For example, electron densities approaching 10{sup 24} cm{sup -3} have been diagnosed by spectral linewidths. However, the accuracy of the spectroscopic diagnostics depends on the population kinetics, the radiative transfer, and the line shape calculations. Analysis for the complex line transitions has recently been improved and accelerated by the use of a database where detailed calculations can be accessed rapidly and interactively. Examples of data from Xe and Ar doped targets demonstrate the current analytic methods. First we will illustrate complications that arise from the presence of a multitude of underlying spectral lines. Then, we will consider the Ar He-like 1s{sup 2}({sup 1}S{sub 0}) - 1s3p({sup 1}P{sub 0}) transition where ion dynamic effects may affect the profile. Here, the plasma conditions are such that the static ion microfield approximation is no longer valid; therefore in addition to the width, the details of the line shape can be used to provide additional information. We will compare the data to simulations and discuss the possible pitfalls involved in demonstrating the effect of ion dynamics on lineshapes.
Date: August 5, 1996
Creator: Back, C.A.; Woolsey, N.C.; Asfaw, A.; Glenzer, S.H.; Hammel, B.A.; Keane, C.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and analysis of absorption experiments on x-ray heated low-Z constrained samples

Description: Results of experiments on the absorption of niobium in a hot, dense plasma are presented. These results represent a major step in the development of absorption techniques necessary for the quantitative characterization of hot, dense matter. A general discussion is presented of the requirements for performing quantitative analysis of absorption spectra. Hydrodynamic simulations are used to illustrate the behavior of tamped X-ray-heated matter and to indicate effects that can arise from the two dimensional aspects of the experiment. The absorption spectrum of a low-Z material, in this case aluminum, provides a temperature diagnostic and indicates the advance of the absorption measurement technique to the level of application. The experimental technique is placed in context with a review of other measurements using absorption spectroscopy to probe hot, dense matter.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Lee, R.W.; Cauble, R.; Perry, T.S.; Springer, P.T.; Fields, D.F.; Bach, D.R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department