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Subterrene electrical heater design and morphology

Description: The design, construction, and testing of a variety of electrical heaters for small-diameter Subterrene penetrators has been pursued. The incompatibility of refractory materials at the required operating temperatures of ~2000 deg K and the large heat-flux requirements posed the most difflcult design problems. Heat fluxes of up to 2.0 MW/m/sup 2/ were obtained from pyrolytic-graphite radiant heattransfer elements and were as high as 2.5 MW/m/sup 2/ when this type of heater was combined with a lithium heat-pipe assembly. Penetrators using radiant heaters produced both vertical and horizontal holes of 50 mm dia up to lengths of 25 m, whereas holes of up to 64 mm dia and 0.5 m long were produced in basalt and other rock samples in the laboratory. (auth)
Date: February 1, 1974
Creator: Armstrong, P.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electric load monitoring to support a shared energy savings procurement at the US Maritime Administration Merchant Marine Academy

Description: Equipment from the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) testing and application program supported by the US Department of Energy Federal Energy Management Program (DOE-FEMP) was applied to measure three-phase power demand of three large buildings at the US Merchant Marine Academy (MMA) on Long Island, New York. The selected buildings were Bowditch Hall, Fulton-Gibbs Hall, and the Library. The MEL equipment was installed on March 17, 1991. Instruments to monitor the Bowditch Hall chiller as a separate load were added on June 2, 1991. MEL Test Procedure {number sign}1, Building Energy Monitoring, was followed in the installation and operation of the monitoring equipment. The monitoring objectives were to (1) provide a baseline for assessing energy savings resulting from future energy conservation measures that are to be implemented in the monitored buildings, and (2) provide information for recommending cost-effective energy conservation opportunities. Results of the long-term, whole building monitoring project at the MMA are presented in this report.
Date: June 1, 1992
Creator: Armstrong, P.R. & Parker, G.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical model for assessing the risk of hail damage to any ground installation. Technical report, June 1978-March 1979

Description: This report describes a statistical model which has been developed to determine the risk of damage by large hail to any ground installation (such as a solar flat plate collector). The model is based on data for the number of haildays per year, hailstone size distribution, and storm severity (expressed in number of hailstones per square meter per storm). Other than parameters derived from the raw meteorological data available, the parameters of the model are the number of years of surface exposure and the exposure area size. The end result is the probability of a hailstone of a given size striking a given surface area in a given number of years. The maximum probable hailstone size is used as a convenient index of hail risk. The data upon which to base a prediction model are sparse at this time, covering few geographic locations; much of the information available is deficient in sampling consistency and/or sample size. For this reason, this report fully documents the derivation and use of the model for future applications, when more and better data are collected. The FORTRAN source code to calculate the risk model digitally is included in APPENDIX D. This model improves on previous work in: (1) the use of more thorough statistical procedures and a more rigorous accounting of storm severity; (2) a more thorough investigation into the two probability density distributions commonly used (Poisson and negative binomial) to describe hailday frequencies, and (3) an attempt to define more rigorously the distribution of hailstone sizes. A sensitivity analysis was performed and conclusions are drawn from the results.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Cox, M & Armstrong, P R
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and evaluation of gas engine driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove (PA) Naval Air Station

Description: In a field evaluation conducted for the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Federal Energy Management Program (FEMP), the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) examined the performance of a new US energy-related technology under the FEMP Test Bed Demonstration Program. The technology was a 15-ton natural gas engine driven roof top air conditioning unit. Two such units were installed on a naval retail building to provide space conditioning to the building. Under the Test Bed Demonstration Program, private and public sector interests are focused to support the installation and evaluation of new US technologies in the federal sector. Participating in this effort under a Cooperative Research and Development Agreement (CRADA) with DOE were the American Gas Cooling Center, Philadelphia Electric Company, Thermo King Corporation, and the US Naval Air Station at Willow Grove, Pennsylvania. Equipment operating and service data as well as building interior and exterior conditions were secured for the 1992 cooling season. Based on a computer assessment of the building using standard weather data, a comparison was made with the energy and operating costs associated with the previous space conditioning system. Based on performance during the 1992 cooling season and adjusted to a normal weather year, the technology will save the site $6,000/yr in purchased energy costs. An additional $9,000 in savings due to electricity demand ratchet charge reductions will also be realized. Detailed information on the technology, the installation, and the results of the technology test are provided to illustrate the advantages to the federal sector of using this technology. A history of the CRADA development process is also reported.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Armstrong, P.R. & Conover, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Market Brief: Status of the Voluntary Renewable Energy Certificate Market (2011 Data)

Description: This report documents the status and trends of U.S. 'voluntary' markets -- those in which consumers and institutions purchase renewable energy to match their electricity needs on a voluntary basis. Voluntary REC markets continue to exhibit growth and spur renewable energy development. Voluntary green power markets provide an additional revenue stream for renewable energy projects and raise consumer awareness of the benefits of renewable energy. Although a full estimate of the size of the voluntary market is not available for 2011, this review uses indicative metrics to capture 2011 voluntary market trends.
Date: September 1, 2012
Creator: Heeter, J.; Armstrong, P. & Bird, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of a gas backup heater for solar domestic hot-water systems. Final report, April 1978-April 1980

Description: A comprehensive program was undertaken to develop a unique gas fired backup for solar domestic hot water systems. Detailed computer design tools were written. A series of heat transfer experiments were performed to characterize the performance of individual components. A full scale engineering prototype, including the solar preheat tank and solar heat exchanger, was designed, fabricated and subjected to limited testing. Firing efficiency for the backup system was found to be 81.4% at a firing rate of 50,000 Btu/h. Long term standby losses should be negligible.
Date: June 1, 1980
Creator: Morrison, D.J.; Grunes, H.E.; de Winter, F. & Armstrong, P.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven split-system cooling equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station

Description: DOE`s Federal Energy Management Program supports efforts to reduce energy use and associated expenditures within the federal sector; one such effort, the New Technology Demonstration Program (NTDP)(formerly the Test Bed Demonstration program), seeks to evaluate new energy saving US technologies and secure their more timely adoption by the federal government. This report describes the field evaluation conducted to examine the performance of a 15-ton natural-gas-engine- driven, split-system, air-conditioning unit. The unit was installed at a multiple-use building at Willow Grove Naval Air Station, a regular and reserve training facility north of Philadelphia, and its performance was monitored under the NTDP.
Date: January 1, 1997
Creator: Armstrong, P.R. & Schmelzer, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demand-side management implementation and verification at Fort Drum, New York

Description: Through the Facility Energy Decision Screening (FEDS) process, the US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has identified present value savings of nearly $47 million in cost-effective energy conservation measures (ECMs) at Fort Drum, New York. With associated costs of more than $16 million (1992 $), the measures provide a net present value of $30.6 million for all identified projects. By implementing all cost-effective ECMs, Fort Drum can reduce its annual energy use by more than 230,000 MBtu (11% of its fossil energy consumption) and more than 27,000 MWh (32% of its electric energy consumption). The annual cost of energy services will decrease by $2.8 million (20%) at current energy rates. The servicing utility (Niagara Mohawk Power Corporation) has informally agreed to finance and implement cost-effective ECMs and to participate in the verification of energy savings. Verification baselining is under way; implementation of retrofit projects is expected to begin in late 1994. The utility-administered financing and contracting arrangements and the alternative federal programs for implementing the projects are described. The verification protocols and sampling plans for audit, indirect, and direct measurement levels of verification and the responsibilities of Fort Drum, the utility, the energy service companies (ESCOs), and Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) in the verification process are also presented. A preliminary weather-normalized model of baseline energy consumption has been developed based on a full year`s metered data.
Date: December 1, 1994
Creator: Armstrong, P.R.; Dixon, D.R.; Richman, E.E. & Rowley, S.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance and evaluation of gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning equipment at the Willow Grove Naval Air Station. Final report (revised October 21, 1996)

Description: The performance was evaluated of a new US cooling technology that has been installed for the first time at a federal facility. The technology is a 15-ton natural gas-engine-driven rooftop air conditioning unit made by Thermo King. Two units were installed to serve the Navy Exchange at Willow Grove. The savings potential at Willow Grove is described and that in the federal sector estimated. Conditions for implementation are discussed. In summary, the new technology is generally cost-effective at sites where marginal electricity cost (per MBtu at the meter) is more than 4 times the marginal gas cost (per MBtu at the meter) and annual full-load-equivalent cooling hours exceed 2,000.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Armstrong, P.R. & Katipamula, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Autogenous electrolyte, non-pyrolytically produced solid capacitor structure

Description: This report discusses the design of a solid electrolytic capacitor having a solid electrolyte comprised of manganese dioxide dispersed in an aromatic polyamide capable of to forming polyimide linkages. This solid electrolyte being disposed between a first electrode made of valve metal covered by an anodic oxide film and a second electrode opposite the first electrode. The electrolyte autogenously produces water, oxygen, and hydroxyl groups which act as healing substances and is not itself produced pyrolytically. Reduction of the manganese dioxide and the water molecules released by formation of imide linkages result in substantially improved self-healing of anodic dielectric layer defects.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Sharp, D.J.; Armstrong, P.S. & Paintz, J.K.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Waste water heat recovery appliance. Final report

Description: An efficient convective waste heat recovery heat exchanger was designed and tested. The prototype appliance was designed for use in laundromats and other small commercial operations which use large amounts of hot water. Information on general characteristics of the coin-op laundry business, energy use in laundromats, energy saving resources already in use, and the potential market for energy saving devices in laundromats was collected through a literature search and interviews with local laundromat operators in Fort Collins, Colorado. A brief survey of time-use patterns in two local laundromats was conducted. The results were used, with additional information from interviews with owners, as the basis for the statistical model developed. Mathematical models for the advanced and conventional types were developed and the resulting computer program listed. Computer simulations were made using a variety of parameters; for example, different load profiles, hold-up volumes, wall resistances, and wall areas. The computer simulation results are discussed with regard to the overall conclusions. Various materials were explored for use in fabricating the appliance. Resistance to corrosion, workability, and overall suitability for laundromat installations were considered for each material.
Date: November 21, 1983
Creator: Chapin, H.D.; Armstrong, P.R. & Chapin, F.A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Need for and evaluation of hail protection devices for solar flat plate collectors. Final report, June 1978-March 1980

Description: A brief summary of the hail risk work previously done under this contract is given, and a summary evaluation of hail impact resistance standards currently being developed is presented. Simulated hail impact test data, field data, and the impact resistance of commercially available glazings are discussed. The use of screens for protection against hail and the threat of vandalism to solar flat plate collectors are discussed. (WHK)
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Armstrong, P R; Cox, M & de Winter, F
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Griffiss AFB integrated resource assessment

Description: The US Air Force Air Combat Command has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Griffiss Air Force Base (AFB). This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, Griffiss AFB, an Air Combat Command facility located near Rome, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Electric Resource Assessment. The analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. The results include energy-use intensities for the facilities at Griffiss AFB by building type and electric energy end use. A complete electric energy consumption reconciliation is presented that accounts for the distribution of all major electric energy uses and losses among buildings, utilities, and central systems.
Date: February 1, 1993
Creator: Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R. & Keller, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inspection and assessment of energy conservation opportunities at Ellis Island National Park, Ellis Island, New York

Description: Ellis Island is a National Park Service (NPS) facility located in New York Harbor that hosts two million visitors per year. The main building houses exhibits and artifacts, food and gift concessions, and staff work and office spaces in a 200,000-square-foot floor area. Heating and cooling of the main building are provided by a central heating and cooling plant, housed in an adjacent 20,000-square-foot building, with distribution by nine main fan systems and perimeter radiators. Energy end-use estimates were obtained by reconciling connected load characteristics with billing data. The energy-use intensities are about 40 kWh/ft[sup 2]-yr for electricity and 170,000 Btu/ft[sup 2]-yr for natural gas. Energy use is higher than expected for facilities of this type in this region. This high energy use is due to a number of factors. A large fraction of the lighting is provided by incandescent lamps. Constant-volume air-handlers and reheat coils are used in most of the exhibit spaces. Tight temperature and humidity control is achieved in these spaces at the expense of substantial energy use for simultaneous heating and cooling. The large window area is made up of entirely of single-glazed units. Ventilation is controlled by time schedules, not occupant load. Most motors and pumps are single-speed rather than the more efficient variable speed drive type. A preliminary assessment of the potential for energy conservation has been made after a site inspection and analysis of utility bills, building plans, and other information. The electric savings potential is over 30% using available, generally cost-effective technologies. The fossil fuel savings potential is over 1,500 MBtu per year and could be much higher because 10,000 MBtu/yr of natural gas consumption could not be accounted for in our analysis. Cost-effective Energy Conservation Opportunities were identified in the areas of lighting, HVAC, central plant, envelope, motors, and other equipment ...
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Armstrong, P.R.; Parker, G.B. & Richman, E.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy end-use metering in two modular office buildings at Fort Irwin, California

Description: This report documents the application of the Mobile Energy Laboratory (MEL) at Fort Irwin for the period 21 December 1989 to 27 January 1992. The purpose of the test was to monitor electrical demands in Buildings 567 and 571 by end use and to monitor the response of the HVAC systems to internal and external loads. Results of two years of monitoring are summarized below. The observed energy-use intensities (EUIs) were 13.7 kWh/ft{sup 2}-yr for Building 567 and 10.4 kWh/ft{sup 2}-yr for Building 571. The corresponding numbers for HVAC energy were 5.9 and 5.3 kWh/ft{sup 2}-yr. Lighting used about 35%, primary HVAC 40% (heating 8%, cooling 32%), supply fans 3% and other equipment (mostly plug loads) about 20% of the total. Over 10% of the primary HVAC energy used in Building 567 was the result of simultaneous heating and cooling. Six energy conservation measures were evaluated: (1) delamping and retrofit of T-12 fluorescent fixtures with T-8 systems; (2) installation of two-speed fans with operation at the lower speed (67% of rated airflow) during occupied periods whenever a unit is not heating or cooling; (3) retrofit of heat pump compressors with two-speed compressors; (4) installation of controls that eliminate non-productive simultaneous heating and cooling and provide improved night and weekend setback; (5) coating the existing black roof material with a white reflective material; and (6) adding an economizer system to provide outside air cooling. The estimated energy savings as a percent of whole-building energy use are: Lighting HVAC Savings -- 26%; Two-Speed Fans -- 2%; Two-Speed Compressors -- 11%; Improved HVAC Controls -- 5%; White Roof Coating -- 5%; Economizer Cooling -- 5 %. The total energy savings that can be achieved through the measures is 49%.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Armstrong, P. R. & Keller, J. M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inspection and assessment of energy conservation opportunities at Ellis Island National Park, Ellis Island, New York

Description: Ellis Island is a National Park Service (NPS) facility located in New York Harbor that hosts two million visitors per year. The main building houses exhibits and artifacts, food and gift concessions, and staff work and office spaces in a 200,000-square-foot floor area. Heating and cooling of the main building are provided by a central heating and cooling plant, housed in an adjacent 20,000-square-foot building, with distribution by nine main fan systems and perimeter radiators. Energy end-use estimates were obtained by reconciling connected load characteristics with billing data. The energy-use intensities are about 40 kWh/ft{sup 2}-yr for electricity and 170,000 Btu/ft{sup 2}-yr for natural gas. Energy use is higher than expected for facilities of this type in this region. This high energy use is due to a number of factors. A large fraction of the lighting is provided by incandescent lamps. Constant-volume air-handlers and reheat coils are used in most of the exhibit spaces. Tight temperature and humidity control is achieved in these spaces at the expense of substantial energy use for simultaneous heating and cooling. The large window area is made up of entirely of single-glazed units. Ventilation is controlled by time schedules, not occupant load. Most motors and pumps are single-speed rather than the more efficient variable speed drive type. A preliminary assessment of the potential for energy conservation has been made after a site inspection and analysis of utility bills, building plans, and other information. The electric savings potential is over 30% using available, generally cost-effective technologies. The fossil fuel savings potential is over 1,500 MBtu per year and could be much higher because 10,000 MBtu/yr of natural gas consumption could not be accounted for in our analysis. Cost-effective Energy Conservation Opportunities were identified in the areas of lighting, HVAC, central plant, envelope, motors, and other equipment ...
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Armstrong, P. R.; Parker, G. B. & Richman, E. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Reports of the measurement of elastic properties of 51XX series steels for the heat treatment distortion project

Description: We have measured the temperature dependence of the elastic constants of the 51XX series steels [gear steels] for a range of phases. At RT the normalized steel (pearlite) has the highest value of the moduli, the bainite phase the next highest, and martensite the lowest. Extrapolation of the austenite suggests that at RT austenite has lower moduli than martensite. For all the grades and phases of steels examined, the behavior of the elastic constants is similar: a curve could be drawn for each of the moduli from all the phases and all the grades would not deviate by more than {+-}4%. The normalized phase (100% pearlite in 5180) is stable up to 900 C. Bainite is stable up to 500 C. Martensite starts to change above 150 C as it tempers or strain relieves; once this is complete, the martensite moduli increase to similar values to bainite. Extrapolations are discussed. Behavior in lower carbon steels (5140, 5120) should conform to above; there is no explanation for the anomalous behavior of the quenched 5120 steel.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Darling, T.; Migliori, A.; Armstrong, P.E.; Vaidya, R.; Scherer, C. & Lowe, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Aquifer thermal energy storage at Mid-Island postal facility: Phase 1 final report

Description: The successful widespread commercialization of aquifer thermal energy storage (ATES) in the United States will depend on how experiences gained from early full-scale projects are used as guides in the design, installation, and operation of future projects. One early system, built in the mid-1980s, is the US Postal Service (USPS) Mid-Island Mail Processing Facility (MPF), in Melville, New York. The heating, ventilation, and air conditioning (HVAC) of the MPF's workroom is provided by an ATES system, which is operated year-round to provide a source for both heating and cooling, in combination with a triethylene glycol (TEG) liquid-desiccant system for humidity control. Because the facility affords a unique opportunity to study this innovative system, the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) entered into agreements with the USPS, the US Geological Survey (USGS), and the New York State Energy Research and Development Authority (the Energy Authority) to assess the operation and performance of the system. Two essentially independent questions were to be addressed by the project. The first question was: How does the MPF ATES/TEG technology compare to conventional technologies '' The second was: What can be done to make operation of the USPS MPF more economical '' Modelling of the MPF ATES/TEG HVAC system and its loads helped to address both of these questions by showing how much energy is used by the different system components. This report is divided into six sections. Section 1 is an introduction. Section 2 provides system background. Section 3 describes PNL's technical performance assessment of the system. Section 4 discusses the life-cycle cost assessment. An operational assessment of the liquid-desiccant system is discussed in Section 5. Section 6 contains conclusions of this study.
Date: May 1, 1993
Creator: Marseille, T.J.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brown, D.R.; Vail, L.W. & Kannberg, L.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Possible FERMI liquid behavior of 5f electrons in UPt sub 3 at T. much gt. T sub K

Description: The energy of localized electrons should be independent of crystal momentum. Thus the energy of 5f electrons in heavy Fermion systems far above T{sub K} is expected to show no E vs. k dispersion. We have used angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy on the (1010) surface of UP{sub t3}, cleaned by repeated sputter and anneal, to study any possible dispersion of the 5f bands at T = 300 K{much gt}T{sub K} {approx}50 K. The measurements were performed at the Synchrotron Radiation Center in Stoughton, WI, at a photon energy hv = 40 eV. At this energy the 5f cross-section is already sufficiently large to yield a significant 5f spectral weight, but not yet large enough to lose all k-dependence. Data were taken at various angle settings of a VG ADES 400 spectrometer along the {Gamma}-M direction in the hexagonal zone. The overall instrument resolution was 250 meV while the acceptance cone of the analyzer was {plus minus} 2{degree}, or about 20% of the {Gamma}-M direction. Although no dispersion was observed at normal emission by varying the photon energy, substantial energy dispersion, primarily in the d-bands, was evident with k{sub 11}. From resonant photoemission experiments we established that the primary peak associated with 5f intensity is the peak within 200 meV of E{sub F}. Although our resolution was insufficient to observe any energy shifts, the peak disappeared at several angles near the M-point in the zone. We interpret this as dispersion above E{sub F}. While further measurements are necessary, this raises questions regarding the accepted models for the electronic structure. 10 refs., 1 fig.
Date: January 1, 1989
Creator: Arko, A.J.; Armstrong, P.; Wire, M. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA) & TRW Space Technology Labs., Redondo Beach, CA (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ignition Target Fabrication and Fielding for the National Ignition Facility

Description: Continued advances in the design of ignition targets have stimulating new development paths for target fabrication, with potentially important simplifications for fielding cryogenic ignition targets for the National Ignition Facility. Including graded dopants in ablators as well as optimizing capsule and fuel layer dimensions increase implosion stability. This has led to developments of micron-scale fill tubes to fill and field the targets. Rapid progress has been made in development of the graded dopant layers in capsules as well as their characterization, in fabrication methods for micro-fill-tubes, and in fuel fill control with these fill tubes. Phase-contrast x-ray radiography has allowed characterization of fuel layers in beryllium targets. This target development program includes participation from General Atomics, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, and Los Alamos National Laboratory.
Date: October 6, 2005
Creator: Bernat, T P; Huang, H; Nikroo, A; Stephens, R; Wilkens, H; Xu, H et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Elastic after-effect due to oxygen relaxation in YBa sub 2 Cu sub 3 O sub 7-. delta. above Tc

Description: Isothermal elastic after-effect measurements to obtain relaxation times for the stress-induced motion of oxygen in YBa{sub 2}Cu{sub 3}O{sub 7 {minus}{delta}} have been made from 50{degree}C to 110{degree}C. These results extend our previous internal friction measurements of the same oxygen relaxation to lower temperatures. The combined results, which cover nine orders of magnitude in relaxation time, show a classical Arrhenius temperature dependence, activation, energy Q=1.3 {plus minus} 0.01 eV and attempt frequency {tau}{sub 0}=1.6 {times} 10{sup {minus}13}s (log {tau}{sub 0}={minus} 12.79 {plus minus} 0.13). The mechanism of the relaxation is considered to be stress-induced ordering of oxygen atoms on the CuO basal plane. Diffusivities obtained from these results are compared with those from tracer diffusion of oxygen. 12 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Cost, J.R.; Armstrong, P.E. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Poeppel, R.B. (Argonne National Lab., IL (USA)) & Stanley, J.T. (Arizona State Univ., Tempe, AZ (USA))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

Description: The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked the Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company. It will identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, and capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report documents the assessment of baseline energy use at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 3, the Resource Assessment. This analysis examines the characteristics of electric, gas, oil, propane, coal, and purchased thermal capacity use for fiscal year (FY) 1990. It records energy-use intensities for the facilities at Fort Drum by building type and energy end use. It also breaks down building energy consumption by fuel type, energy end use, and building type. A complete energy consumption reconciliation is presented that includes the accounting of all energy use among buildings, utilities, central systems, and applicable losses.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Brodrick, J.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Di Massa, F.V.; Keller, J.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fort Drum integrated resource assessment

Description: The US Army Forces Command (FORSCOM) has tasked Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) as the lead laboratory supporting the US Department of Energy (DOE) Federal Energy Management Program's (FEMP) mission to identify, evaluate, and assist in acquiring all cost-effective energy projects at Fort Drum. This is a model program PNL is designing for federal customers served by the Niagara Mohawk Power Company (Niagara Mohawk). It will (1) identify and evaluate all electric and fossil fuel cost-effective energy projects; (2) develop a schedule at each installation for project acquisition considering project type, size, timing, capital requirements, as well as energy and dollar savings; and (3) secure 100% of the financing required to implement electric energy efficiency projects from Niagara Mohawk and have Niagara Mohawk procure the necessary contractors to perform detailed audits and install the technologies. This report provides the results of the fossil fuel and electric energy resource opportunity (ERO) assessments performed by PNL at one of Niagara Mohawk's primary federal facilities, the FORSCOM Fort Drum facility located near Watertown, New York. It is a companion report to Volume 1, the Executive Summary, and Volume 2, the Baseline Detail.
Date: December 1, 1992
Creator: Dixon, D.R.; Armstrong, P.R.; Daellenbach, K.K.; Dagle, J.E.; Di Massa, F.V.; Elliott, D.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department