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High-R Window Technology Development : Phase II Final Report.

Description: Of all building envelope elements, windows always have had the highest heat loss rates. However, recent advances in window technologies such as low-emissivity (low-E) coatings and low- conductivity gas fillings have begun to change the status of windows in the building energy equation, raising the average R-value (resistance to heat flow) from 2 to 4 h-ft{sup 2}-{degrees}F/Btu. Building on this trend and using a novel combination of low-E coatings, gas-fills, and three glazing layers, the authors developed a design concept for R-6 to R-10 super'' windows. Three major window manufacturers produced prototype superwindows based this design for testing and demonstration in three utility-sponsored and -monitored energy-conserving homes in northwestern Montana. This paper discusses the design and tested performance of these three windows and identifies areas requiring further research if these window concepts are to be successfully developed for mass markets.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Modeling Windows in Energy Plus with Simple Performance Indices

Description: The building energy simulation program, Energy Plus (E+), cannot use standard window performance indices (U, SHGC, VT) to model window energy impacts. Rather, E+ uses more accurate methods which require a physical description of the window. E+ needs to be able to accept U and SHGC indices as window descriptors because, often, these are all that is known about a window and because building codes, standards, and voluntary programs are developed using these terms. This paper outlines a procedure, developed for E+, which will allow it to use standard window performance indices to model window energy impacts. In this 'Block' model, a given U, SHGC, VT are mapped to the properties of a fictitious 'layer' in E+. For thermal conductance calculations, the 'Block' functions as a single solid layer. For solar optical calculations, the model begins by defining a solar transmittance (Ts) at normal incidence based on the SHGC. For properties at non-normal incidence angles, the 'Block' takes on the angular properties of multiple glazing layers; the number and type of layers defined by the U and SHGC. While this procedure is specific to E+, parts of it may have applicability to other window/building simulation programs.
Date: October 12, 2009
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Kohler, Christian & Griffith, Brent
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Highly Insulating Glazing Systems using Non-Structural Center Glazing Layers

Description: Three layer insulating glass units with two low-e coatings and an effective gas fill are known to be highly insulating, with center-of-glass U-factors as low as 0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K (0.10 Btu/h-ft{sup 2}- F). Such units have historically been built with center layers of glass or plastic which extend all the way through the spacer system. This paper shows that triple glazing systems with non-structural center layers which do not create a hermetic seal at the edge have the potential to be as thermally efficient as standard designs, while potentially removing some of the production and product integration issues that have discouraged the use of triples.
Date: April 9, 2008
Creator: Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy & Kohler, Christian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-Dimensional Computational Fluid Dynamics and Conduction Simulations of Heat Transfer in Horizontal Window Frames with Internal Cavities

Description: This paper assesses the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection and radiation models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. Temperatures and U-factors for typical horizontal window frames with internal cavities are compared; results from Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations with detailed radiation modeling are used as a reference. Four different frames were studied. Two were made of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and two of aluminum. For each frame, six different simulations were performed, two with a CFD code and four with a building-component thermal-simulation tool using the Finite Element Method (FEM). This FEM tool addresses convection using correlations from ISO 15099; it addressed radiation with either correlations from ISO 15099 or with a detailed, view-factor-based radiation model. Calculations were performed using the CFD code with and without fluid flow in the window frame cavities; the calculations without fluid flow were performed to verify that the CFD code and the building-component thermal-simulation tool produced consistent results. With the FEM-code, the practice of subdividing small frame cavities was examined, in some cases not subdividing, in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than five millimeters (mm) (ISO 15099) and in some cases subdividing cavities with interconnections smaller than seven mm (a breakpoint that has been suggested in other studies). For the various frames, the calculated U-factors were found to be quite comparable (the maximum difference between the reference CFD simulation and the other simulations was found to be 13.2 percent). A maximum difference of 8.5 percent was found between the CFD simulation and the FEM simulation using ISO 15099 procedures. The ISO 15099 correlation works best for frames with high U-factors. For more efficient frames, the relative differences among various simulations are larger. Temperature was also compared, at selected locations on the frames. Small ...
Date: December 1, 2008
Creator: Gustavsen, Arlid; Kohler, Christian; Dalehaug, Arvid & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Window-Related Energy Consumption in the US Residential and Commercial Building Stock

Description: We present a simple spreadsheet-based tool for estimating window-related energy consumption in the United States. Using available data on the properties of the installed US window stock, we estimate that windows are responsible for 2.15 quadrillion Btu (Quads) of heating energy consumption and 1.48 Quads of cooling energy consumption annually. We develop estimates of average U-factor and SHGC for current window sales. We estimate that a complete replacement of the installed window stock with these products would result in energy savings of approximately 1.2 quads. We demonstrate that future window technologies offer energy savings potentials of up to 3.9 Quads.
Date: June 16, 2006
Creator: Apte, Joshua & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Buildings Research using Infrared Imaging Radiometers with Laboratory Thermal Chambers

Description: Infrared thermal imagers are used at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory to study heat transfer through components of building thermal envelopes. Two thermal chambers maintain steady-state heat flow through test specimens under environmental conditions for winter heating design. Infrared thermography is used to map surface temperatures on the specimens' warm side. Features of the quantitative thermography process include use of external reference emitters, complex background corrections, and spatial location markers. Typical uncertainties in the data are {+-} 0.5 C and 3 mm. Temperature controlled and directly measured external reference emitters are used to correct data from each thermal image. Complex background corrections use arrays of values for background thermal radiation in calculating temperatures of self-viewing surfaces. Temperature results are used to validate computer programs that predict heat flow including Finite-Element Analysis (FEA) conduction simulations and conjugate Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) simulations. Results are also used to study natural convection surface heat transfer. Example data show the distribution of temperatures down the center line of an insulated window.
Date: January 12, 1999
Creator: Griffith, Brent & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Using infrared thermography for the study of heat transfer through building envelope components

Description: Heat transfer through building envelope components is typically characterized by one number, the conductance. Such a characterization is best suited for homogeneous samples since it does not quantify or illustrate spatial variations within a sample. However, the growing use of advanced wall and window insulations with existing framing materials has increased the importance of understanding spatial heat transfer effects within building envelope components. An infrared thermography laboratory has been established to provide detailed quantitative and qualitative information on the spatial heat transfer effects of building envelope materials. The use of this facility for more effective product development and more accurate product development and more accurate product characterization is discussed.
Date: November 1991
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Beck, Fred; Griffith, Brent; Acevedo-Ruiz, Manuel & Byars, Nan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Key Elements of and Materials Performance Targets for Highly Insulating Window Frames

Description: The thermal performance of windows is important for energy efficient buildings. Windows typically account for about 30-50 percent of the transmission losses though the building envelope, even if their area fraction of the envelope is far less. The reason for this can be found by comparing the thermal transmittance (U-factor) of windows to the U-factor of their opaque counterparts (wall, roof and floor constructions). In well insulated buildings the U-factor of walls, roofs an floors can be between 0.1-0.2 W/(m2K). The best windows have U-values of about 0.7-1.0. It is therefore obvious that the U-factor of windows needs to be reduced, even though looking at the whole energy balance for windows (i.e. solar gains minus transmission losses) makes the picture more complex.In high performance windows the frame design and material use is of utmost importance, as the frame performance is usually the limiting factor for reducing the total window U-factor further. This paper describes simulation studies analyzing the effects on frame and edge-of-glass U-factors of different surface emissivities as well as frame material and spacer conductivities. The goal of this work is to define materials research targets for window frame components that will result in better frame thermal performance than is exhibited by the best products available on the market today.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Gustavsen, Arild; Grynning, Steinar; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter & Goudey, Howdy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Research Needs: Glass Solar Reflectance and Vinyl Siding

Description: The subject of glass solar reflectance and its contribution to permanent vinyl siding distortion has not been extensively studied, and some phenomena are not yet well understood. This white paper presents what is known regarding the issue and identifies where more research is needed. Three primary topics are discussed: environmental factors that control the transfer of heat to and from the siding surface; vinyl siding properties that may affect heat build-up and permanent distortion; and factors that determine the properties of reflected solar radiation from glass surfaces, including insulating window glass. Further research is needed to fully characterize the conditions associated with siding distortion, the scope of the problem, physical properties of vinyl siding, insulating window glass reflection characteristics, and possible mitigation or prevention strategies.
Date: July 7, 2011
Creator: Hart, Robert; Curcija, Charlie; Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Kohler, Christian & Selkowitz, Stephen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluating Fenestration Products for Zero-Energy Buildings: Issuesfor Discussion

Description: Computer modeling to determine fenestration product energy properties (U-factor, SHGC, VT) has emerged as the most cost-effective and accurate means to quantify them. Fenestration product simulation tools have been effective in increasing the use of low-e coatings and gas fills in insulating glass and in the widespread use of insulating frame designs and materials. However, for more efficient fenestration products (low heat loss products, dynamic products, products with non-specular optical characteristics, light re-directing products) to achieve widespread use, fenestration modeling software needs to be improved. This paper addresses the following questions: (1) Are the current properties (U, SHGC, VT) calculated sufficient to compare and distinguish between windows suitable for Zero Energy Buildings and conventional window products? If not, what data on the thermal and optical performance, on comfort, and on peak demand of windows is needed. (2) Are the algorithms in the tools sufficient to model the thermal and optical processes? Are specific heat transfer and optical effects not accounted for? Is the existing level of accuracy enough to distinguish between products designed for Zero Energy Buildings? Is the current input data adequate?
Date: July 25, 2006
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Curcija, Charlie; Huang, Joe; Huizenga,Charlie & Kohler, Christian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Developing Low-Conductance Window Frames: Capabilities and Limitations of Current Window Heat Transfer Design Tools

Description: While window frames typically represent 20-30% of the overall window area, their impact on the total window heat transfer rates may be much larger. This effect is even greater in low-conductance (highly insulating) windows that incorporate very low-conductance glazing. Developing low-conductance window frames requires accurate simulation tools for product research and development. Based on a literature review and an evaluation of current methods of modeling heat transfer through window frames, we conclude that current procedures specified in ISO standards are not sufficiently adequate for accurately evaluating heat transfer through the low-conductance frames. We conclude that the near-term priorities for improving the modeling of heat transfer through low-conductance frames are: (1) Add 2D view-factor radiation to standard modeling and examine the current practice of averaging surface emissivity based on area weighting and the process of making an equivalent rectangular frame cavity. (2) Asses 3D radiation effects in frame cavities and develop recommendation for inclusion into the design fenestration tools. (3) Assess existing correlations for convection in vertical cavities using CFD. (4) Study 2D and 3D natural convection heat transfer in frame cavities for cavities that are proven to be deficient from item 3 above. Recommend improved correlations or full CFD modeling into ISO standards and design fenestration tools, if appropriate. (5) Study 3D hardware short-circuits and propose methods to ensure that these effects are incorporated into ratings. (6) Study the heat transfer effects of ventilated frame cavities and propose updated correlations.
Date: September 11, 2008
Creator: Gustavsen, Arild; Arasteh, Dariush; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Curcija, Charlie & Kohler, Christian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

State-of-the-Art Highly Insulating Window Frames - Research and Market Review

Description: This document reports the findings of a market and research review related to state-of-the-art highly insulating window frames. The market review focuses on window frames that satisfy the Passivhaus requirements (window U-value less or equal to 0.8 W/m{sup 2}K ), while other examples are also given in order to show the variety of materials and solutions that may be used for constructing window frames with a low thermal transmittance (U-value). The market search shows that several combinations of materials are used in order to obtain window frames with a low U-value. The most common insulating material seems to be Polyurethane (PUR), which is used together with most of the common structural materials such as wood, aluminum, and PVC. The frame research review also shows examples of window frames developed in order to increase the energy efficiency of the frames and the glazings which the frames are to be used together with. The authors find that two main tracks are used in searching for better solutions. The first one is to minimize the heat losses through the frame itself. The result is that conductive materials are replaced by highly thermal insulating materials and air cavities. The other option is to reduce the window frame area to a minimum, which is done by focusing on the net energy gain by the entire window (frame, spacer and glazing). Literature shows that a window with a higher U-value may give a net energy gain to a building that is higher than a window with a smaller U-value. The net energy gain is calculated by subtracting the transmission losses through the window from the solar energy passing through the windows. The net energy gain depends on frame versus glazing area, solar factor, solar irradiance, calculation period and U-value. The frame research review also discusses heat ...
Date: January 1, 2007
Creator: Gustavsen, Arild; Jelle, Bjorn Petter; Arasteh, Dariush & Kohler, Christian
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Zero Energy Windows

Description: Windows in the U.S. consume 30 percent of building heating and cooling energy, representing an annual impact of 4.1 quadrillion BTU (quads) of primary energy. Windows have an even larger impact on peak energy demand and on occupant comfort. An additional 1 quad of lighting energy could be saved if buildings employed effective daylighting strategies. The ENERGY STAR{reg_sign} program has made standard windows significantly more efficient. However, even if all windows in the stock were replaced with today's efficient products, window energy consumption would still be approximately 2 quads. However, windows can be ''net energy gainers'' or ''zero-energy'' products. Highly insulating products in heating applications can admit more useful solar gain than the conductive energy lost through them. Dynamic glazings can modulate solar gains to minimize cooling energy needs and, in commercial buildings, allow daylighting to offset lighting requirements. The needed solutions vary with building type and climate. Developing this next generation of zero-energy windows will provide products for both existing buildings undergoing window replacements and products which are expected to be contributors to zero-energy buildings. This paper defines the requirements for zero-energy windows. The technical potentials in terms of national energy savings and the research and development (R&D) status of the following technologies are presented: (1) Highly insulating systems with U-factors of 0.1 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F; (2) Dynamic windows: glazings that modulate transmittance (i.e., change from clear to tinted and/or reflective) in response to climate conditions; and (3) Integrated facades for commercial buildings to control/ redirect daylight. Market transformation policies to promote these technologies as they emerge into the marketplace are then described.
Date: May 17, 2006
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Selkowitz, Steve; Apte, Josh & LaFrance, Marc
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Criteria for Residential Zero Energy Windows

Description: This paper shows that the energy requirements for today's typical efficient window products (i.e. ENERGY STAR{trademark} products) are significant when compared to the needs of Zero Energy Homes (ZEHs). Through the use of whole house energy modeling, typical efficient products are evaluated in five US climates and compared against the requirements for ZEHs. Products which meet these needs are defined as a function of climate. In heating dominated climates, windows with U-factors of 0.10 Btu/hr-ft{sup 2}-F (0.57 W/m{sup 2}-K) will become energy neutral. In mixed heating/cooling climates a low U-factor is not as significant as the ability to modulate from high SHGCs (heating season) to low SHGCs (cooling season).
Date: October 9, 2006
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Goudey, Howdy; Huang, Joe; Kohler, Christian & Mitchell, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERM 2.1 NFRC simulation manual

Description: This document, the ''THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual'', discusses how to use THERM to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with the THERM program. In order to learn how to use THERM, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in the THERM User's Manual. In general, this manual references the THERM User's Manual rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between the THERM User's Manual and the THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual, the THERM 2.1 NFRC Simulation Manual takes precedence. The CD that is included with the manual includes all sample files that are referenced in the manual as well as some additional samples.
Date: July 1, 2000
Creator: Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Finlayson, Elizabeth; Huizenga, Charlie; Curcija, Dragan et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A first-generation prototype dynamic residential window

Description: We present the concept for a ''smart'' highly efficient dynamic window that maximizes solar heat gain during the heating season and minimizes solar heat gain during the cooling season in residential buildings. We describe a prototype dynamic window that relies on an internal shade, which deploys automatically in response to solar radiation and temperature. This prototype was built at Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory from commercially available ''off-the-shelf'' components. It is a stand-alone, standard-size product, so it can be easily installed in place of standard window products. Our design shows promise for near-term commercialization. Improving thermal performance of this prototype by incorporating commercially available highly efficient glazing technologies could result in the first window that could be suitable for use in zero-energy homes. The unit's predictable deployment of shading could help capture energy savings that are not possible with manual shading. Installation of dynamically shaded windows in the field will allow researchers to better quantify the energy effects of shades, which could lead to increased efficiency in the sizing of heating, ventilation, and air conditioning equipment for residences.
Date: October 26, 2004
Creator: Kohler, Christian; Goudey, Howdy & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A characterization of the nonresidential fenestration market

Description: The purpose of this report is to characterize the nonresidential fenestration market in order to better understand market barriers to, and opportunities for, energy-efficient fenestration products. In particular, the goal is to: (1) Better understand how glazing products flow between industry groups. (2) Identify major decision makers directing the product flow. (3) Understand industry trends for certain technologies or products. (4) Characterize the role of energy codes and standards in influencing industry trends. (5) Assess the impact of product testing and certification programs on the industry. The U.S. glass industry is a $27 billion enterprise with both large producers and small firms playing pivotal roles in the industry. While most sectors of the glass industry have restructured and consolidated in the past 20 years, the industry still employs 150,000 workers. Nonresidential glazing accounts for approximately 18% of overall U.S. glass production. In 1999, nonresidential glazing was supplied to approximately 2.2 billion ft{sup 2} of new construction and additions. That same year, nonresidential glazing was also supplied to approximately 1.1 billion ft{sup 2} of remodeling construction. With an industry this large and complex, it is to be expected that many market participants can influence fenestration selection. If market barriers to the selection of high performance fenestration products are better understood, then the U. S. Department of Energy (USDOE), the Northwest Energy Efficiency Alliance (NEEA), and others can develop programs and policies that promote greater energy efficiency in commercial glazing products.
Date: July 25, 2002
Creator: Shehabi, Arman; Eley, Charles; Arasteh, Dariush & Degens, Phil
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental techniques for measuring temperature and velocity fields to improve the use and validation of building heat transfer models

Description: When modeling thermal performance of building components and envelopes, researchers have traditionally relied on average surface heat-transfer coefficients that often do not accurately represent surface heat-transfer phenomena at any specific point on the component being evaluated. The authors have developed new experimental techniques that measure localized surface heat-flow phenomena resulting from convection. The data gathered using these new experimental procedures can be used to calculate local film coefficients and validate complex models of room and building envelope heat flows. These new techniques use a computer-controlled traversing system to measure both temperatures and air velocities in the boundary layer near the surface of a building component, in conjunction with current methods that rely on infrared (IR) thermography to measure surface temperatures. Measured data gathered using these new experimental procedures are presented here for two specimens: (1) a Calibrated Transfer Standard (CTS) that approximates a constant-heat-flux, flat plate; and (2) a dual-glazed, low-emittance (low-e), wood-frame window. The specimens were tested under steady-state heat flow conditions in laboratory thermal chambers. Air temperature and mean velocity data are presented with high spatial resolution (0.25- to 25-mm density). Local surface heat-transfer film coefficients are derived from the experimental data by means of a method that calculates heat flux using a linear equation for air temperature in the inner region of the boundary layer. Local values for convection surface heat-transfer rate vary from 1 to 4.5 W/m{sup 2} {center_dot} K. Data for air velocity show that convection in the warm-side thermal chamber is mixed forced/natural, but local velocity maximums occur from 4 to 8 mm from the window glazing.
Date: April 1, 1998
Creator: Griffith, Brent; Turler, Daniel; Goudey, Howdy & Arasteh, Dariush
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERM Simulations of Window Indoor Surface Temperatures for Predicting Condensation

Description: As part of a ''round robin'' project, the performance of two wood windows and a Calibrated Transfer Standard was modeled using the THERM heat-transfer simulation program. The resulting interior surface temperatures can be used as input to condensation resistance rating procedures. The Radiation and Condensation Index features within THERM were used to refine the accuracy of simulation results. Differences in surface temperatures between the ''Basic'' calculations and those incorporating the Radiation and/or Condensation Index features are demonstrated and explained.
Date: May 18, 2001
Creator: Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush & Mitchell, Robin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Improving information technology to maximize fenestration energyefficiency

Description: Improving software for the analysis of fenestration product energy efficiency and developing related information technology products that aid in optimizing the use of fenestration products for energy efficiency are essential steps toward ensuring that more efficient products are developed and that existing and emerging products are utilized in the applications where they will produce the greatest energy savings. Given the diversity of building types and designs and the climates in the U.S., no one fenestration product or set of properties is optimal for all applications. Future tools and procedures to analyze fenestration product energy efficiency will need to both accurately analyze fenestration product performance under a specific set of conditions and to look at whole fenestration product energy performance over the course of a yearly cycle and in the context of whole buildings. Several steps have already been taken toward creating fenestration product software that will provide the information necessary to determine which details of a fenestration product's design can be improved to have the greatest impact on energy efficiency, what effects changes in fenestration product design will have on the comfort parameters that are important to consumers, and how specific fenestration product designs will perform in specific applications. Much work remains to be done, but the energy savings potential justifies the effort. Information is relatively cheap compared to manufacturing. Information technology has already been responsible for many improvements in the global economy--it can similarly facilitate many improvements in fenestration product energy efficiency.
Date: June 6, 2001
Creator: Arasteh, Dariush; Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Huizenga,Charlie & Curcija, Dragan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of trade-off equations for EnergyStar windows

Description: The authors explore the feasibility of adding a performance option to DOE's EnergyStar{copyright} Windows program whereby windows of differing U-factors and SHGCs can qualify so long as they have equivalent annual energy performance. An iterative simulation procedure is used to calculate trade-off equations giving the change in SHGC needed to compensate for a change in U-factor. Of the four EnergyStar{copyright} Window climate zones, trade-off equations are possible only in the Northern and Southern zones. In the North/Central and South/Central zones, equations are not possible either because of large intrazone climate variations or the current SHGC requirements are already near optimum.
Date: June 9, 2004
Creator: Huang, Joe; Mitchell, Robin; Selkowitz, Steve; Arasteh, Dariush & Clear, Bob
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THERM 5 / WINDOW 5 NFRC simulation manual

Description: This document, the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual', discusses how to use the THERM and WINDOW programs to model products for NFRC certified simulations and assumes that the user is already familiar with those programs. In order to learn how to use these programs, it is necessary to become familiar with the material in both the ''THERM User's Manual'' and the ''WINDOW User's Manual''. In general, this manual references the User's Manuals rather than repeating the information. If there is a conflict between either of the User Manual and this ''THERM 5/''WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'', the ''THERM 5/WINDOW 5 NFRC Simulation Manual'' takes precedence. In addition, if this manual is in conflict with any NFRC standards, the standards take precedence. For example, if samples in this manual do not follow the current taping and testing NFRC standards, the standards not the samples in this manual, take precedence.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: Mitchell, Robin; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush; Carmody, John; Huizenga, Charlie & Curcija, Dragan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-dimensional computational fluid dynamics and conduction simulations of heat transfer in window frames with internal cavities - Part 1: Cavities only

Description: Accurately analyzing heat transfer in window frame cavities is essential for developing and characterizing the performance of highly insulating window products. Window frame thermal performance strongly influences overall product thermal performance because framing materials generally perform much more poorly than glazing materials. This paper uses Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) modeling to assess the accuracy of the simplified frame cavity conduction/convection models presented in ISO 15099 and used in software for rating and labeling window products. (We do not address radiation heat-transfer effects.) We examine three representative complex cavity cross-section profiles with varying dimensions and aspect ratios. Our results support the ISO 15099 rule that complex cavities with small throats should be subdivided; however, our data suggest that cavities with throats smaller than seven millimeters (mm) should be subdivided, in contrast to the ISO 15099 rule, which places the break point at five mm. The agreement between CFD modeling results and the results of the simplified models is moderate. The differences in results may be a result of the underlying ISO correlations being based on studies where cavity height/length (H/L) aspect ratios were smaller than 0.5 and greater than five (with linear interpolation assumed in between). The results presented here are for horizontal frame members because convection in vertical jambs involves very different aspect ratios that require three-dimensional CFD simulations. Ongoing work focuses on quantifying the exact effect on window thermal performance indicators of using the ISO 15099 approximations in typical real window frames.
Date: April 15, 2003
Creator: Gustavsen, Arild; Kohler, Christian; Arasteh, Dariush & Curcija, Dragan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department