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Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

Description: This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.
Date: March 1, 1980
Creator: Andrews, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface markers. [Quarterly report, January 1--June 30, 1995]

Description: This research examined information on natural phenomena and human activities to ultimately recommend specific sites for surface markers to warn future generations of the potential hazards of disposed waste. Literature pertaining to previous marker designs was reviewed and summarized. This literature primarily addressed the recommendations of a consultant team for developing a marker system to warn future generations about radioactive waste (WIPP, New Mexico). Literature on archeological markers (e.g., Nazca lines in Peru, pyramids) and their durability was also covered. Application to Yucca Mountain is discussed; sites for possible placement of surface markers are considered.
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Andrews, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risks of shippng uranium hexafluoride by truck and train

Description: Risk is defined as the product of the probability of a release of material to the environment and the consequences resulting from the release. Although a few accidents involving UF/sub 6/ containers have occurred during transportation, they are insufficient in number and consequences to provide data for a risk assessment of UF/sub 6/ transport. For this reason, this study used the predictive risk assessment methodology developed in the Transportation Safety Studies Project. The methodology is composed of four basic steps: detailed description of the transportation system, identification of possible material release sequences, evaluation of the probabilities and the consequences of the releases, and calculation and assessment of the risk. The system description includes projected industry characteristics, amounts to be shipped and the number of shipments required, material characteristics, transport mode and carrier., container types, routes (and any restrictions), and weather and population zones. Release sequences are identified using fault tree analyses. Releases are evaluated using container failure data and mathematical models for dispersion and health effects. The risk is then calculated and compared to other known risks. Only releases resulting from transportation accidents or nonstandard container closures (or combinations of both) were considered. 5 figures, 2 tables.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Johnson, J.F. & Andrews, W.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk of transporting spent nuclear fuel by truck

Description: The risk methodology used to evaluate the risk in shipping spent fuel includes: 1) a description of the spent fuel transport system, 2) identification of potential release sequences, 3) evaluation of the probabilities and consequences of the releases, and 4) calculation and assessment of the risk. The system description includes projected industry characteristics, amounts to be shipped, shipping package descriptions, material characteristics, transport mode, transport routes used and weather and population distribution information. Release sequences are identified by fault tree analysis tehniques. Releases are evaluated using package failure data, normal transport and transport accident environment data and mathematical models for material dispersion and resultant health effects. This information is combined to calculate the shipping system risk which is compared to other known risks. The data may be further analyzed to determine the primary contributors to the risk and identify possible methods for reducing the risk, if the current risk level is judged by society to be unacceptable.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Elder, H.K.; Andrews, W.B. & Rhoads, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for nuclear-power-plant safety-issue prioritization information development

Description: This is the second in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 15 issues. Each issue was considered within the contraints of available information as of September 1982 and two staff-weeks of labor. The results will be referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in an NRC prioritization report to be published at a future date.
Date: May 1, 1983
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V. & Konzek, G.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Defense waste transportation: cost and logistics studies

Description: Transportation of nuclear wastes from defense programs is expected to significantly increase in the 1980s and 1990s as permanent waste disposal facilities come into operation. This report uses models of the defense waste transportation system to quantify potential transportation requirements for treated and untreated contact-handled transuranic (CH-TRU) wastes and high-level defense wastes (HLDW). Alternative waste management strategies in repository siting, waste retrieval and treatment, treatment facility siting, waste packaging and transportation system configurations were examined to determine their effect on transportation cost and hardware requirements. All cost estimates used 1980 costs. No adjustments were made for future changes in these costs relative to inflation. All costs are reported in 1980 dollars. If a single repository is used for defense wastes, transportation costs for CH-TRU waste currently in surface storage and similar wastes expected to be generated by the year 2000 were estimated to be 109 million dollars. Recovery and transport of the larger buried volumes of CH-TRU waste will increase CH-TRU waste transportation costs by a factor of 70. Emphasis of truck transportation and siting of multiple repositories would reduce CH-TRU transportation costs. Transportation of HLDW to repositories for 25 years beginning in 1997 is estimated to cost $229 M in 1980 costs and dollars. HLDW transportation costs could either increase or decrease with the selection of a final canister configuration. HLDW transportation costs are reduced when multiple repositories exist and emphasis is placed on truck transport.
Date: August 1, 1982
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Cole, B.M.; Engel, R.L. & Oylear, J.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) spent fuel transportation and handling facility models

Description: A spent fuel logistics study was conducted in support of the US DOE program to develop facilities for preparing spent unreprocessed fuel from commercial LWRs for geological storage. Two computerized logistics models were developed. The first one was the site evaluation model. Two studies of spent fuel handling facility and spent fuel disposal facility siting were completed; the first postulates a single spent fuel handling facility located at any of six DOE laboratory sites, while the second study examined siting strategies with the spent fuel repository relative to the spent fuel handling facility. A second model to conduct storage/handling facility simulations was developed. (DLC)
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Bower, J.C.; Burnett, R.A.; Engel, R.L. & Rolland, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transportation considerations related to waste forms and canisters for Defense TRU wastes

Description: This report identifies and discusses the considerations imposed by transportation on waste forms and canisters for contact-handled, solid transuranic wastes from the US Department of Energy (DOE) activities. The report reviews (1) the existing raw waste forms and potential immobilized waste forms, (2) the existing and potential future DOE waste canisters and shipping containers, (3) regulations and regulatory trends for transporting commercial transuranic wastes on the ISA, (4) truck and rail carrier requirements and preferences for transporting the wastes, and (5) current and proposed Type B external packagings for transporting wastes.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Schneider, K.J.; Andrews, W.B.; Schreiber, A.M.; Rosenthal, L.J. & Odle, C.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Risk based requirements for long term stewardship: A proof-of-principle analysis of an analytic method tested on selected Hanford locations

Description: Since 1989, the Department of Energy`s (DOE) Environmental Management (EM) Program has managed the environmental legacy of US nuclear weapons production, research and testing at 137 facilities in 31 states and one US territory. The EM program has conducted several studies on the public risks posed by contaminated sites at these facilities. In Risks and the Risk Debate [DOE, 1995a], the Department analyzed the risks at sites before, during, and after remediation work by the EM program. The results indicated that aside from a few urgent risks, most hazards present little inherent risk because physical and active site management controls limit both the releases of site contaminants, and public access to these hazards. Without these controls, these sites would pose greater risks to the public. Past risk reports, however, provided little information about post-cleanup risk, primarily because of uncertainty about future site uses and site characteristics at the end of planned cleanup activities. This is of concern because in many cases current cleanup technologies, and remedies, will last a shorter period of time than the waste itself and the resulting contamination will remain hazardous.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Jarvis, T.T.; Andrews, W.B. & Buck, J.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 3

Description: This supplemental report is the fourth in a series that document and use methods developed to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. The initial report in this series was published by Andrews et al. in 1983 as NUREG/CR-2800. This supplement consists of two parts describing separate research efforts: (1) an alternative human factors methodology approach, and (2) a prioritization of the NRC's Human Factors Program Plan. The alternative human factors methodology approach may be used in specific future cases in which the methods identified in the initial report (NUREG/CR-2800) may not adequately assess the proper impact for resolution of new safety issues. The alternative methodology included in this supplement is entitled ''Methodology for Estimating the Public Risk Reduction Affected by Human Factors Improvement.'' The prioritization section of this report is entitled ''Prioritization of the US Nuclear Regulatory Commission Human Factors Program Plan.''
Date: September 1, 1985
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Counts, C.A.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Powers, T.B. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for nuclear-power-plant safety-issue-prioritization information development

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory has developed a methodology, with examples, to calculate - to an approximation serviceable for prioritization purposes - the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues. This report is an applications guide to issue-specific calculations. A description of the approach, mathematical models, worksheets and step-by-step examples are provided. Analysis using this method is intended to provide comparable results for many issues at a cost of two staff-weeks per issue. Results will be used by the NRC to support decisions related to issue priorities in allocation of resources to complete safety issue resolutions.
Date: February 1, 1983
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Bickford, W.E.; Konzek, G.J.; Strenge, D.L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ranking of sabotage/tampering avoidance technology alternatives

Description: Pacific Northwest Laboratory conducted a study to evaluate alternatives to the design and operation of nuclear power plants, emphasizing a reduction of their vulnerability to sabotage. Estimates of core melt accident frequency during normal operations and from sabotage/tampering events were used to rank the alternatives. Core melt frequency for normal operations was estimated using sensitivity analysis of results of probabilistic risk assessments. Core melt frequency for sabotage/tampering was estimated by developing a model based on probabilistic risk analyses, historic data, engineering judgment, and safeguards analyses of plant locations where core melt events could be initiated. Results indicate the most effective alternatives focus on large areas of the plant, increase safety system redundancy, and reduce reliance on single locations for mitigation of transients. Less effective options focus on specific areas of the plant, reduce reliance on some plant areas for safe shutdown, and focus on less vulnerable targets.
Date: January 1, 1986
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Tabatabai, A.S.; Powers, T.B.; Daling, P.M.; Fecht, B.A.; Gore, B.F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 2

Description: This is the third in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 31 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of summer 1983, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V.; Konzek, G.J.; Heaberlin, S.W.; Fecht, B.A.; Allen, C.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Guidelines for nuclear power plant safety issue prioritization information development. Supplement 4

Description: This is the fifth in a series of reports to document the use of a methodology developed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory to calculate, for prioritization purposes, the risk, dose and cost impacts of implementing resolutions to reactor safety issues (NUREG/CR-2800, Andrews et al. 1983). This report contains results of issue-specific analyses for 23 issues. Each issue was considered within the constraints of available information as of winter 1986, and two staff-weeks of labor. The results are referenced, as one consideration in setting priorities for reactor safety issues, in NUREG-0933, ''A Prioritization of Generic Safety Issues.''
Date: July 1, 1986
Creator: Tabatabai, A.S.; Fecht, B.A.; Powers, T.B.; Bickford, W.E.; Andrews, W.B.; Gallucci, R.H.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Report of early site suitability evaluation of the potential repository site at Yucca Mountain, Nevada; Yucca Mountain Site Characterization Project

Description: This study evaluated the technical suitability of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, as a potential site for a mined geologic repository for the permanent disposal of radioactive waste. The evaluation was conducted primarily to determine early in the site characterization program if there are any features or conditions at the site that indicate it is unsuitable for repository development. A secondary purpose was to determine the status of knowledge in the major technical areas that affect the suitability of the site. This early site suitability evaluation (ESSE) was conducted by a team of technical personnel at the request of the Associate Director of the US Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Geologic Disposal, a unit within the DOE`s Office of Civilian Radioactive Waste Management. The Yucca Mountain site has been the subject of such evaluations for over a decade. In 1983, the site was evaluated as part of a screening process to identify potentially acceptable sites. The site was evaluated in greater detail and found suitable for site characterization as part of the Environmental Assessment (EA) (DOE, 1986) required by the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982 (NWPA). Additional site data were compiled during the preparation of the Site Characterization Plan (SCP) (DOE, 1988a). This early site suitability evaluation has considered information that was used in preparing both-documents, along with recent information obtained since the EA and SCP were published. This body of information is referred to in this report as ``current information`` or ``available evidence.``
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Younker, J.L.; Andrews, W.B.; Fasano, G.A.; Herrington, C.C.; Mattson, S.R.; Murray, R.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department