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Use of filler materials to aid spent nuclear fuel dry storage

Description: The use of filler materials (also known as stabilizer or encapsulating materials) was investigated in conjunction with the dry storage of irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The results of this investigation appear to be equally valid for the wet storage of fuel. The need for encapsulation and suitable techniques for closing was also investigated. Various materials were reviewed (including solids, liquids, and gases) which were assumed to fill the void areas within a storage can containing either intact or disassembled spent fuel. Materials were reviewed and compared on the basis of cost, thermal characteristics, and overall suitability in the proposed environment. A thermal analysis was conducted to yield maximum centerline and surface temperatures of a design basis fuel encapsulated within various filler materials. In general, air was found to be the most likely choice as a filler material for the dry storage of spent fuel. The choice of any other filler material would probably be based on a desire, or need, to maximize specific selection criteria, such as surface temperatures, criticality safety, or confinement.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Anderson, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clearing Unexploded Ordnance: Bayesian Methodology for Assessing Success

Description: The Department of Defense has many Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) that are slated for transfer for public use. Some sites have unexploded ordnance (UXO) that must be cleared prior to any land transfers. Sites are characterized using geophysical sensing devices and locations are identified where possible UXO may be located. In practice, based on the analysis of the geophysical surveys, a dig list of N suspect locations is created for a site that is possibly contaminated with UXO. The suspect locations on the dig list are often assigned into K bins ranging from ``most likely to contain UXO" to ``least likely to be UXO" based on signal discrimination techniques and expert judgment. Usually all dig list locations are sampled to determine if UXO is present before the site is determined to be free of UXO. While this method is 100% certain to insure no UXO remains in the locations identified by the signal discrimination and expert judgment, it is very costly. This paper proposes a statistical Bayesian methodology that may result in digging less than 100% of the suspect locations to reach a pre-defined tolerable risk, where risk is defined in terms of a low probability that any UXO remains in the unsampled dig list locations. Two important features of a Bayesian approach are that it can account for uncertainties in model parameters and that it can handle data that becomes available in stages. The results from each stage of data can be used to direct the subsequent digs.
Date: October 30, 2005
Creator: Anderson, K K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical evaluation of CTBT regional seismic monitoring

Description: A global seismic monitoring system under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is judged by its capability to detect, locate, and identify suspicious seismic events. Performance measures are those statistical objects that describe these capabilities. Performance criteria are the thresholds derived from the overall monitoring system goals, against which the evaluated performance measures are compared. This report proposes statistical objects for performance measurement of detection and location, a continuation of the research of Anderson and Anderson. A statistical methodology for calibrating regional station magnitudes to the worldwide teleseismic Mb scale is also proposed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Anderson, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1985

Description: The report highlights research performed from October 1984 to September 1985. The major sections cover the areas of industrial hygiene, aerosol physics, health physics, fire science, dosimetry, criticality safety, and safety analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Griffith, R.V. & Anderson, K.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

Description: This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Griffith, R.V. & Anderson, K.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Estimation of Parameters in Nonlinear, Implicit Measurement Error Models With Experiment-Wide Measurements

Description: Measurement error modeling is a statistical approach to the estimation of unknown model parameters which takes into account the measurement errors in all of the data. Approaches which ignore the measurement errors in so-called independent variables may yield inferior estimates of unknown model parameters. At the same time, experiment-wide variables (such as physical constants) are often treated as known without error, when in fact they were produced from prior experiments. Realistic assessments of the associated uncertainties in the experiment-wide variables can be utilized to improve the estimation of unknown model parameters. A maximum likelihood approach to incorporate measurements of experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties is presented here. An iterative algorithm is presented which yields estimates of unknown model parameters and their estimated covariance matrix. Further, the algorithm can be used to assess the sensitivity of the estimates and their estimated covariance matrix to the given experiment-wide variables and their associated uncertainties.
Date: May 1, 1994
Creator: Anderson, K. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Middle and upper cretaceous amber from the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia: Evidence for a new structural sub-class of resinite

Description: Analysis of three amber (resinite) samples collected from Middle and Upper Cretaceous sediments in the Taimyr Peninsula, Siberia, indicates that these materials are based on copolymers of biformene (I) and communol (II). No resinites of similar structural character have previously been described and hence, these samples represent a previously unknown structural sub-class of resinite.
Date: August 1, 1994
Creator: Anderson, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biomarker distributions in different types of sedimentary organic matter isolated from the same sample: Implications for biomarker correlations

Description: The observation of qualitatively and quantitatively distinct biomarker distributions in the pyrolysates of Type II and Type III organic matter isolated from the same sample is reported. This demonstrates the clear need for a greater understanding of the relationship between biomarker distributions present in the different components of sedimentary organic matter, and those observed in liquid products generated by maturation. The data imply that it is possible that the biomarker distributions observed in petroleums derived from inhomogeneous source rocks may be disproportionately derived from the various organic components of the sediment. This may result in spurious conclusions concerning oil/source relationships and other geochemical parameters, which suggests that further investigations of these phenomena is well merited.
Date: June 1, 1994
Creator: Anderson, K. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium Lens for Focusing Protons on Target in the Fermilab Antiproton Source

Description: A lithium lens will be used to focus the 120 GeV proton beam on the antiproton production target to a spot size of about 0.1 mm, as part of the planned upgrade to the FNAL antiproton source target station. Improved focusing increases antiproton yield and corrects for possible future emittance dilution of the incident proton beam. The lens, with a radius of 3 mm and length of 8 cm, is expected to operate at a gradient of 2667 T/m and a current of 120 kA. The lens is similar in design to the antiproton collection lens.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bieniosek, F.M.; Anderson, K. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

Description: The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Argo, P.; Loveland, R. & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock waves in P-bar target

Description: The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Tang, Zhijing & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock waves in P-bar target

Description: The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Tang, Zhijing & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A comparison of artificial neural networks and statistical analyses

Description: Artificial neural networks have come to be used in a wide variety of data analytic applications, many of which were traditionally approached using statistical methods. It is the purpose of this paper to discuss the nature of the information obtained by each methodology, that of artificial neural networks and that of statistical analyses. Two aspects of the comparison will be considered: (1) what are the requirements needed for each approach in terms of model specification, data requirements, and computing power, and (2) what sort of information is contained in the results of each approach. Example analyses are presented characterizing the differences in the two approaches. A specific problem (hydrodynamic yield estimation) is presented with a corresponding data set. This data is then analyzed using statistical methods, and the results are compared with those obtained by using an artificial neural network. The requirements and results of the two approaches are then summarized as general guidelines an investigator can use in deciding which approach would be best for analyzing a given data set.
Date: January 1, 1994
Creator: Blough, D. K. & Anderson, K. K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Demonstration of Energy Savings Perform Contracting Methodologies for Hydroelectric Facilities: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-309

Description: This CRADA explores the opportunities and challenges of funding federal hydro dam refurbishment projects through ESPCs. It assesses legal authorities for rehabilitating dams through ESPCs; roles and responsibilities of each party including the dam owner, Power Marketing Administration (PMA), ESCO, and preference customers; potential contract structure and flow of money; measurement and verification processes; risk and responsibility allocation; and financial viability of projects.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to “networks” in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders ...
Date: November 30, 2009
Creator: Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B. & Watson, and A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

Description: The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Target Results from the FNAL Antiproton Source

Description: Nickel and compressed rhenium powder targets have been installed in the FNAL antiproton source target station. Ni was chosen for its high melting point energy and resistance to stress wave fractures. As well, compressed powdered rhenium segments were constrained by a thin-wall Ti jacket to insure resistance to stress fractures. The {bar p} yield of these new targets is compared with that of copper - the previous standard production target. The target depletion characteristics of nickel and rhenium for a beam intensity of 1.6 x 10{sup 12} protons per pulse are also presented.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: O'Day, S.; Bieniosek, F.; Anderson, K. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

Description: From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department