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Use of filler materials to aid spent nuclear fuel dry storage

Description: The use of filler materials (also known as stabilizer or encapsulating materials) was investigated in conjunction with the dry storage of irradiated light water reactor (LWR) fuel. The results of this investigation appear to be equally valid for the wet storage of fuel. The need for encapsulation and suitable techniques for closing was also investigated. Various materials were reviewed (including solids, liquids, and gases) which were assumed to fill the void areas within a storage can containing either intact or disassembled spent fuel. Materials were reviewed and compared on the basis of cost, thermal characteristics, and overall suitability in the proposed environment. A thermal analysis was conducted to yield maximum centerline and surface temperatures of a design basis fuel encapsulated within various filler materials. In general, air was found to be the most likely choice as a filler material for the dry storage of spent fuel. The choice of any other filler material would probably be based on a desire, or need, to maximize specific selection criteria, such as surface temperatures, criticality safety, or confinement.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Anderson, K.J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Clearing Unexploded Ordnance: Bayesian Methodology for Assessing Success

Description: The Department of Defense has many Formerly Used Defense Sites (FUDS) that are slated for transfer for public use. Some sites have unexploded ordnance (UXO) that must be cleared prior to any land transfers. Sites are characterized using geophysical sensing devices and locations are identified where possible UXO may be located. In practice, based on the analysis of the geophysical surveys, a dig list of N suspect locations is created for a site that is possibly contaminated with UXO. The suspect locations on the dig list are often assigned into K bins ranging from ``most likely to contain UXO" to ``least likely to be UXO" based on signal discrimination techniques and expert judgment. Usually all dig list locations are sampled to determine if UXO is present before the site is determined to be free of UXO. While this method is 100% certain to insure no UXO remains in the locations identified by the signal discrimination and expert judgment, it is very costly. This paper proposes a statistical Bayesian methodology that may result in digging less than 100% of the suspect locations to reach a pre-defined tolerable risk, where risk is defined in terms of a low probability that any UXO remains in the unsampled dig list locations. Two important features of a Bayesian approach are that it can account for uncertainties in model parameters and that it can handle data that becomes available in stages. The results from each stage of data can be used to direct the subsequent digs.
Date: October 30, 2005
Creator: Anderson, K K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Statistical evaluation of CTBT regional seismic monitoring

Description: A global seismic monitoring system under a Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty (CTBT) is judged by its capability to detect, locate, and identify suspicious seismic events. Performance measures are those statistical objects that describe these capabilities. Performance criteria are the thresholds derived from the overall monitoring system goals, against which the evaluated performance measures are compared. This report proposes statistical objects for performance measurement of detection and location, a continuation of the research of Anderson and Anderson. A statistical methodology for calibrating regional station magnitudes to the worldwide teleseismic Mb scale is also proposed.
Date: September 1, 1996
Creator: Anderson, K.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1985

Description: The report highlights research performed from October 1984 to September 1985. The major sections cover the areas of industrial hygiene, aerosol physics, health physics, fire science, dosimetry, criticality safety, and safety analysis. Separate abstracts have been prepared for individual papers. (ACR)
Date: June 1, 1986
Creator: Griffith, R.V. & Anderson, K.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lithium Lens for Focusing Protons on Target in the Fermilab Antiproton Source

Description: A lithium lens will be used to focus the 120 GeV proton beam on the antiproton production target to a spot size of about 0.1 mm, as part of the planned upgrade to the FNAL antiproton source target station. Improved focusing increases antiproton yield and corrects for possible future emittance dilution of the incident proton beam. The lens, with a radius of 3 mm and length of 8 cm, is expected to operate at a gradient of 2667 T/m and a current of 120 kA. The lens is similar in design to the antiproton collection lens.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: Bieniosek, F.M.; Anderson, K. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Adaptive security systems -- Combining expert systems with adaptive technologies

Description: The Adaptive Multisensor Integrated Security System (AMISS) uses a variety of computational intelligence techniques to reason from raw sensor data through an array of processing layers to arrive at an assessment for alarm/alert conditions based on human behavior within a secure facility. In this paper, the authors give an overview of the system and briefly describe some of the major components of the system. This system is currently under development and testing in a realistic facility setting.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Argo, P.; Loveland, R. & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Hazards Control Department annual technology review, 1987

Description: This document describes some of the research performed in the LLNL Hazards Control Department from October 1986 to September 1987. The sections in the Annual report cover scientific concerns in the areas of Health Physics, Industrial Hygiene, Industrial Safety, Aerosol Science, Resource Management, Dosimetry and Radiation Physics, Criticality Safety, and Fire Science. For a broader overview of the types of work performed in the Hazards Control Department, we have also compiled a selection of abstracts of recent publications by Hazards Control employees. Individual reports are processed separately for the data base.
Date: July 1, 1988
Creator: Griffith, R.V. & Anderson, K.J. (eds.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Shock waves in P-bar target

Description: The deposition of large amount of beam energy in short time will cause high temperature and pressure in the center of P-bar Target, and this disturbance will propagate outwards as a shock wave. Shock wave induced material changes which are of our concern include void growth and accompanying density decrease which will decrease antiproton yield, and crack formation and fracture as was observed in tungsten target which will destroy the integrity of the target. Our objective is to analyze the shock wave behavior in the target, optimize its design so that the destructive effects of shock wave can be minimized, the integrity of the target can be maintained, and a reasonably high yield of antiproton production can be achieved. In this report we put together some results of our analysis of a cylindrical copper target. We hope that it will provide a general overview of the shock wave phenomena in the target, establish a basis for further research, and facilitate the target design. First, energy deposition data are analyzed, and it is justified that as an approximation, the problem can be treated as axi-symmetric. The average data therefore are used as energy profile, however, the maximum energy deposition are still used as the peak value. Next some basic estimations are made as to what temperature and pressure can reach at present level of energy deposition. Then some characteristics of wave propagation in a thermal shock loaded solid are illustrated with a one-dimensional model. Since there is no analytical solution available for cylindrical geometry, our understanding of the problem relies on numerical model, which are performed via finite element package ANSYS. results of numerical analysis are summarized, sources of potential danger are identified, and design ideas to minimize the damage are proposed.
Date: November 1, 1991
Creator: Tang, Zhijing & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and Demonstration of Energy Savings Perform Contracting Methodologies for Hydroelectric Facilities: Cooperative Research and Development Final Report, CRADA Number CRD-08-309

Description: This CRADA explores the opportunities and challenges of funding federal hydro dam refurbishment projects through ESPCs. It assesses legal authorities for rehabilitating dams through ESPCs; roles and responsibilities of each party including the dam owner, Power Marketing Administration (PMA), ESCO, and preference customers; potential contract structure and flow of money; measurement and verification processes; risk and responsibility allocation; and financial viability of projects.
Date: April 1, 2012
Creator: Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Interconnecting PV on New York City's Secondary Network Distribution System

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has teamed with cities across the country through the Solar America Cities (SAC) partnership program to help reduce barriers and accelerate implementation of solar energy. The New York City SAC team is a partnership between the City University of New York (CUNY), the New York City Mayor s Office of Long-term Planning and Sustainability, and the New York City Economic Development Corporation (NYCEDC).The New York City SAC team is working with DOE s National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) and Con Edison, the local utility, to develop a roadmap for photovoltaic (PV) installations in the five boroughs. The city set a goal to increase its installed PV capacity from1.1 MW in 2005 to 8.1 MW by 2015 (the maximum allowed in 2005). A key barrier to reaching this goal, however, is the complexity of the interconnection process with the local utility. Unique challenges are associated with connecting distributed PV systems to secondary network distribution systems (simplified to “networks” in this report). Although most areas of the country use simpler radial distribution systems to distribute electricity, larger metropolitan areas like New York City typically use networks to increase reliability in large load centers. Unlike the radial distribution system, where each customer receives power through a single line, a network uses a grid of interconnected lines to deliver power to each customer through several parallel circuits and sources. This redundancy improves reliability, but it also requires more complicated coordination and protection schemes that can be disrupted by energy exported from distributed PV systems. Currently, Con Edison studies each potential PV system in New York City to evaluate the system s impact on the network, but this is time consuming for utility engineers and may delay the customer s project or add cost for larger installations. City leaders ...
Date: November 30, 2009
Creator: Anderson, K.; Coddington, M.; Burman, K.; Hayter, S.; Kroposki, B. & Watson, and A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal and structural stability of medium energy target carrier assembly for NOvA at Fermilab

Description: The NOvA project will upgrade the existing Neutrino at Main Injector (NuMI) project beamline at Fermilab to accommodate beam power of 700 kW. The Medium Energy (ME) graphite target assembly is provided through an accord with the State Research Center of Russia Institute for High Energy Physics (IHEP) at Protvino, Russia. The effects of proton beam energy deposition within beamline components are considered as thermal stability of the target carrier assembly and alignment budget are critical operational issues. Results of finite element thermal and structural analysis involving the target carrier assembly is provided with detail regarding the target's beryllium windows.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: McGee, M.W.; Ader, C.; Anderson, K.; Hylen, J.; Martens, M. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

New Target Results from the FNAL Antiproton Source

Description: Nickel and compressed rhenium powder targets have been installed in the FNAL antiproton source target station. Ni was chosen for its high melting point energy and resistance to stress wave fractures. As well, compressed powdered rhenium segments were constrained by a thin-wall Ti jacket to insure resistance to stress fractures. The {bar p} yield of these new targets is compared with that of copper - the previous standard production target. The target depletion characteristics of nickel and rhenium for a beam intensity of 1.6 x 10{sup 12} protons per pulse are also presented.
Date: January 1, 1992
Creator: O'Day, S.; Bieniosek, F.; Anderson, K. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recovery of valuable chlorosilane intermediates by a novel waste conversion process. Technical report for phase IIIA (final) and phase IIIB (progress)

Description: From July 1994 through May 1998, direct process residue (DPR) hydrogenolysis has been studied in the laboratory, at a small Pilot Plant, and finally at a larger Pilot Plant within Dow Corning`s Carrollton, Kentucky plant. The system reacts filtered DPR with monomer at high temperature and pressure. The process demonstrates DPR conversion up to 86%. The reaction product contains high concentrations of valuable monomers such as dimethyldichlorosilane and methyldichlorosilane. A larger DPR hydrogenolysis reactor based on these results is being designed for operation in Europe at Dow Corning`s Barry, Wales site.
Date: October 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, K.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanistic and kinetic studies of the thermal decomposition of TNAZ and NDNAZ

Description: The authors have studied the mechanism and detailed reaction kinetics of the thermal decomposition of 1,3,3-trinitroazetidine (TNAZ), and separately, its key decomposition intermediate, 1-nitroso-3,3-dinitroacetidine (NDNAZ), using a simultaneous thermogravimetric modulated beam mass spectrometer (STMBMS). These decompositions were conducted in a sealed alumina cell with a 2.5 {micro}m orifice, at varying temperatures and at a range of isothermal temperatures (at 10 C intervals from 120--160 C for NDNAZ and 160--210 C for TNAZ). The gaseous products have been identified and their rates of formation have been measured as a function of time, temperature, and pressure. This system is complex, with TNAZ decomposing by four separate routes, one of which leads to NDNAZ, which itself decomposes by at least two distinct routes.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: Anderson, K.; Homsy, J.; Behrens, R. & Bulusu, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Degradation chemistry of PETN and its homologues

Description: Pentaerythritol tetranitrate (PETN) is used throughout the stockpile as an energetic material. The formulation of PETN into XTX8003 (80% PETN, 20% Sylgard 182) creates an extrudable energetic composite. PETN and XTX8003 are used in the firesets for the retired W68 (MC2370) and the W76 (MC3028). When faced with potential lifetime extensions, energetic materials are naturally suspect regarding their output after prolonged aging. The authors have studied PETN and XTX8003 by looking at 25-year-old samples from retired MC2370s and newer materials. Both the old and new materials have also been placed in various accelerated aging protocols to investigate any decomposition that might occur over time. PETN is known to decompose autocatalytically even in the early stages of decomposition, but the process is poorly understood. Published values for the activation energy of decomposition vary by >40 kcal/mol. The 12 million year half life predicted for room temperature PETN would be dramatically shortened by chemical influences that lead to lower energy decomposition pathways. Degree of confinement, purity, and crystal size all influence degradation rates. In this paper, the authors observe the effects of chemical and thermal aging on PETN. They anticipate changes in mechanism at higher temperature aging, and before trying to extrapolate to lower temperatures, they want to make sure that they understand the different chemical processed involved.
Date: November 1, 1997
Creator: Shepodd, T.; Behrens, R.; Anex, D.; Miller, D. & Anderson, K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and testing of inorganic sorbents made by the internal gelation process for radionuclide and heavy metal separations

Description: The objectives of this task are to develop, prepare, and test microspheres and granular forms of inorganic ion exchangers to remove radionuclides and heavy metals from waste streams occurring at various sites. Several inorganic materials, such as hexacyanoferrates, titanates, phosphates, and oxides have high selectivities and efficiencies for separating and removing radionuclides such as uranium, technetium, cesium, and strontium, and metals such as cobalt, silver, zinc, and zirconium from aqueous waste streams. However, these sorbents frequently exist only as powders and consequently are not readily adaptable to continuous processing such as column chromatography. Making these inorganic ion exchangers as microspheres or granular forms improves the flow dynamics for column operations and expands their practical applications. Microspheres of several materials have been prepared at ORNL, and the effectiveness of zirconium monohydrogen phosphate and hydrous titanium oxide microspheres for removing radionuclides from hot cell waste solutions has been demonstrated.
Date: November 29, 1995
Creator: Egan, B. Z.; Collins, J. L.; Anderson, K. K. & Chase, C. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Foreign nationals who receive science or engineering Ph.D.`s from US universities: Stay rates and characteristics of stayers

Description: This report studies the behavior of foreign nationals who received Ph.D. degrees in science or engineering from US universities during the period 1984--1990. It addresses two distinct questions: What proportion of foreign students stay to work in the United States after graduation; and do foreign students who leave the United States differ from those who stay? Descriptive statistics are provided to answer the first question. These estimates of stay rates have small margins of error because they were produced from the tax payment records of the Social Security Administration. The estimates of stay rates in also provide a partial answer to the second question as well as we are able to provide stay rates for different degree fields and different countries of citizenship, thereby identifying country-specific and field-specific differences in stay rates.
Date: April 1, 1995
Creator: Finn, M.G.; Pennington, L.A. & Anderson, K.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radiation-induced changes in electrical conductivity of a wide range of copper alloys

Description: A wide variety of radiation-induced changes in electrical conductivity was observed in a series of irradiation experiments conducted on copper alloys in FFTF/MOTA. The behavior of each alloy was found to depend on the alloy composition, starting state, irradiation temperature, and the sometimes complex interaction of three radiation-driven processes. These processes are transmutation, void swelling, and solute redistribution. The objective of this effort is to identify those copper alloys that offer promise as high heat flux materials for fusion application. 13 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Garner, F. A.; Anderson, K. R. & Shikama, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department