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Soft x-ray scanning microtomography with submicron resolution

Description: Scanning soft x-ray microtomography was used to obtain high-resolution three-dimensional images of a microfabricated test object. Using a special rotation stage mounted on the scanning transmission x-ray microscope at the XIA Beamline at the National Synchrotron Light Source, we recorded nine two-dimensional projections of the 3D test object over an angular range of {minus}50{degrees} to +55{degrees}. The x-ray wavelength was 3.6 nm and the radiation dose to the object per projection was approximately 2 {times} 10{sup 6} Gy. The object consisted of two gold patterns supported on transparent silicon nitride membranes, separated by 4.75 Jim, with 100 to 300-nm wide and 65-nm thick features. We reconstructed a volumetric data set of the test object from the two-dimensional projections using an algebraic reconstruction technique algorithm. Features of the test object were resolved to {approximately}100 nm in transverse and longitudinal extent in three-dimensional images rendered from the volumetric set.
Date: December 31, 1994
Creator: McNulty, I.; Haddad, W.S.; Trebes, J.E. & Anderson, E.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Demonstration of 12 nm resolution Fresnel zone plate lens based soft x-ray microscopy

Description: To extend soft x-ray microscopy to a resolution of order 10 nm or better, we developed a new nanofabrication process for Fresnel zone plate lenses. The new process, based on the double patterning technique, has enabled us to fabricate high quality gold zone plates with 12 nm outer zones. Testing of the zone plate with the full-field transmission x-ray microscope, XM-1, in Berkeley, showed that the lens clearly resolved 12 nm lines and spaces. This result represents a significant step towards 10 nm resolution and beyond.
Date: June 5, 2009
Creator: Chao, W.; Kim, J.; Rekawa, S.; Fischer, P. & Anderson, E. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EUV mask reflectivity measurements with micron-scale spatial resolution

Description: The effort to produce defect-free mask blanks for EUV lithography relies on increasing the detection sensitivity of advanced mask inspection tools, operating at several wavelengths. We describe the unique measurement capabilities of a prototype actinic (EUV wavelength) microscope that is capable of detecting small defects and reflectivity changes that occur on the scale of microns to nanometers. Types of defects: (a) Buried Substrate Defects: particles & pits (causes amplitude and/or phase variations); (b) Surface Contamination (reduces reflectivity and (possibly) contrast); (c) Damage from Inspection and Use (reduces the reflectivity of the multilayer coating). This paper presents an overview of several topics where scanning actinic inspection makes a unique contribution to EUVL research. We describe the role of actinic scanning inspection in four cases: defect repair studies; observations of laser damage; after scanning electron microscopy; and native and programmed defects.
Date: May 26, 2008
Creator: Goldberg, Kenneth A.; Rekawa, S.B.; Kemp, C.D.; Barty, A.; Anderson, E.H.; Kearney, Patrick et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring nanomagnetism with soft x-ray microscopy

Description: Magnetic soft X-ray microscopy images magnetism in nanoscale systems with a spatial resolution down to 15nm provided by state-of-the-art Fresnel zone plate optics. X-ray magnetic circular dichroism (X-MCD) is used as element-specific magnetic contrast mechanism similar to photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM), however, with volume sensitivity and the ability to record the images in varying applied magnetic fields which allows to study magnetization reversal processes at fundamental length scales. Utilizing a stroboscopic pump-probe scheme one can investigate fast spin dynamics with a time resolution down to 70 ps which gives access to precessional and relaxation phenomena as well as spin torque driven domain wall dynamics in nanoscale systems. Current developments in zone plate optics aim for a spatial resolution towards 10nm and at next generation X-ray sources a time resolution in the fsec regime can be envisioned.
Date: October 30, 2006
Creator: Fischer, P.; Kim, D.-H.; Mesler, B.L.; Chao, W.; Sakdinawat,A.E. & Anderson, E.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Lensless x-ray imaging in reflection geometry

Description: Lensless X-ray imaging techniques such as coherent diffraction imaging and ptychography, and Fourier transform holography can provide time-resolved, diffraction-limited images. Nearly all examples of these techniques have focused on transmission geometry, restricting the samples and reciprocal spaces that can be investigated. We report a lensless X-ray technique developed for imaging in Bragg and small-angle scattering geometries, which may also find application in transmission geometries. We demonstrate this by imaging a nanofabricated pseudorandom binary structure in small-angle reflection geometry. The technique can be used with extended objects, places no restriction on sample size, and requires no additional sample masking. The realization of X-ray lensless imaging in reflection geometry opens up the possibility of single-shot imaging of surfaces in thin films, buried interfaces in magnetic multilayers, organic photovoltaic and field-effect transistor devices, or Bragg planes in a single crystal.
Date: February 3, 2011
Creator: Roy, S.; Parks, D.H.; Seu, K.A.; Turner, J.J.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inspection 13.2 nm table-top full-field microscope

Description: We present results on a table-top microscope that uses an EUV stepper geometry to capture full-field images with a halfpitch spatial resolution of 55 nm. This microscope uses a 13.2 nm wavelength table-top laser for illumination and acquires images of reflective masks with exposures of 20 seconds. These experiments open the path to the realization of high resolution table-top imaging systems for actinic defect characterization.
Date: February 23, 2009
Creator: Brizuela, F.; Wang, Y.; Brewer, C. A.; Pedaci, F.; Chao, W.; Anderson, E. H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advances in full field microscopy with table-top soft x-ray lasers

Description: We describe recent advances in the demonstration of table-top full field microscopes that use soft x-ray lasers for illumination. We have achieved wavelength resolution and single shot exposure operation with a very compact 46.9 nm microscope based on a desk-top size capillary discharge laser. This {lambda}-46.9 nm microscope has been used to capture full field images of a variety of nanostructure systems and surfaces. In a separate development we have demonstrated a zone plate microscope that uses {lambda}=13.2 nm laser illumination to image absorption defects in an extreme ultraviolet lithography (EUVL) mask in the same geometry used in a 4x demagnification EUVL stepper. Characterization of the microscope’s transfer function shows it can resolve 55 nm half period patterns. With these capabilities, the {lambda}-13.2 nm microscope is well suited for evaluation of pattern and defect printability of EUVL masks for the 22 nm node.
Date: May 18, 2009
Creator: Menoni, C. S.; Brizuela, F.; Wang, Y.; Brewer, C. A.; Luther, B. M.; Pedaci, F. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department