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Nuclear waste disposal in subseabed geologic formatons: the Seabed Disposal Program

Description: The goal of the Seabed Disposal Program is to assess the technical and environmental feasibility of using geologic formations under the sea floor for the disposal of processed high-level radioactive wastes or repackaged spent reactor fuel. Studies are focused on the abyssal hill regions of the sea floors in the middle of tectonic plates and under massive surface current gyres. The red-clay sediments here are from 50 to 100 meters thick, are continuously depositional (without periods of erosion), and have been geologically and climatologically stable for millions of years. Mineral deposits and biological activity are minimal, and bottom currents are weak and variable. Five years of research have revealed no technological reason why nuclear waste disposal in these areas would be impractical. However, scientific assessment is not complete. Also, legal political, and sociological factors may well become the governing elements in such use of international waters. These factors are being examined as part of the work of the Seabed Working Group, an international adjunct of the Seabed Program, with members from France, England, Japan, Canada, and the United States.
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Third international seabed high-level waste disposal assessment workshop, Albuquerque, New Mexico, February 6--7, 1978: a report to the NEA Radioactive Waste Management Committee

Description: The task groups of the Third International Workshop were staffed by scientists from the attending countries. Reviews of the progress of programs within each nation were given and plans for cooperative task group workshops, data interchanges, newsletters, ocean cruises, sample exchanges, and critical laboratory and field measurements were coordinated. Although a considerable amount of work remains to be done to assure safety and feasibility, no technical or environmental reasons were identified that would preclude the disposal of radioactive wastes beneeath the ocean floor.
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Anderson, D.R. (ed.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proceedings of the fifth annual NEA-seabed working group meeting

Description: European Communities, the Federal Republic of Germany, France, Japan, Netherlands, Switzerland, the United Kingdom, and the United States on national policies and positions on seabed disposal are summarized. Task group reports on systems analysis, site assessment, canisters, waste forms, sediment and rocks, physical oceanography, and biology are presented. (DMC)
Date: September 1, 1980
Creator: Anderson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of Waste Isolation Pilot Plant compliance with 40 CFR 191B, December 1992

Description: Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the US Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper describes the 1992 preliminary comparison with Subpart B of the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), which regulates long-term releases of radioactive waste. Results of the 1992 PA are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or noncompliance with EPA regulations because portions of the modeling system and data base are incomplete. Results are consistent, however, with those of previous iterations of PA, and the SNL WIPP PA Department has high confidence that compliance with 40 CFR 191B can be demonstrated. Comparison of predicted radiation doses from the disposal system also gives high confidence that the disposal system is safe for long-term isolation.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Marietta, M.G. & Anderson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quarterly Progress Report Covering Period October 1 Through December 31, 1978 Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments

Description: Analysis of water samples from several locations across the U.S. is underway. We have completed analysis using the Purge and Trap and headspace techniques on several locations. In the freshwater phase of the program we have completed fifteen chloroform acute toxicity bioassays with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri), bluegill (Lepomis macrochirus), and catfish (Ictalurus punctatus). Results indicate, in all cases, the LC-50 is well above that which could be expected to be discharged due to power plant chlorination. The LC-50's range from about 15 to 50 ppm chloroform depending on the species. Histological analysis is underway on clams from long-term chlorination by-product exposures. If the results of the histological analysis indicate an effect, further histological examination of samples from other concentrations will be conducted.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M. & Gibson, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biocide by-products in aquatic environments. Annual report, October 1, 1977--September 30, 1978. [Analysis and toxicity of by-products from chlorine used in nuclear power plant cooling systems]

Description: The Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments Program is composed of analytical chemistry and biological phases with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objectives of the analytical studies are: to identify those chloroorganic chemical compounds that result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater; to develop methods for detecting chlorinated organics in the effluents discharged to receiving water bodies from nuclear stations; and to verify laboratory findings through analysis for chlorination by-products in water and biota samples from cooling water bodies of nuclear power stations. The objectives of the biological studies are: to investigate the immediate toxicity of specific chlorination by-products (chloroform in freshwater and bromoform in marine waters); to evaluate the chronic toxicity of chlorination by-products; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification of halogenated hydrocarbons on selected aquatic or marine biota.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M. & Gibson, C.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biocide By-Products in Aquatic Environments

Description: A three-year program has been conducted to study the chemistry and biological effects of products arising from the low-level chlorination of natural waters. These studies are related to environmental concerns arising from the discharge of chlorine-treated power plant cooling water. The studies have shown that addition of low levels (2 mg/l) of chlorine to natural waters produces haloforms in concentrations which are orders of magnitude lower than the LC{sub 50}'s measured in a number of fresh ana salt water organisms. Chlorination also produces nonhaloform lipophilic organohalogen products in concentrations much lower than the naloforms, although no evidence was obtained which suggested significant olomagnification of these during chronic exposure of juvenile salmon to chlorinated fresh water. No dramatic effects were noted in organisms chronically exposed to chlorinated waters, but changes in general condition were observed.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Bean, R. M.; Gibson, C. I. & Anderson, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational implementation of a systems prioritization methodology for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A preliminary example

Description: A systems prioritization methodology (SPM) is under development to provide guidance to the US DOE on experimental programs and design modifications to be supported in the development of a successful licensing application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. The purpose of the SPM is to determine the probabilities that the implementation of different combinations of experimental programs and design modifications, referred to as activity sets, will lead to compliance. Appropriate tradeoffs between compliance probability, implementation cost and implementation time can then be made in the selection of the activity set to be supported in the development of a licensing application. Descriptions are given for the conceptual structure of the SPM and the manner in which this structure determines the computational implementation of an example SPM application. Due to the sophisticated structure of the SPM and the computational demands of many of its components, the overall computational structure must be organized carefully to provide the compliance probabilities for the large number of activity sets under consideration at an acceptable computational cost. Conceptually, the determination of each compliance probability is equivalent to a large numerical integration problem. 96 refs., 31 figs., 36 tabs.
Date: April 1, 1996
Creator: Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R. & Baker, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regulatory issues for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant long-term compliance with U.S. Environmental Protection Agency 40 CFR 191B and 268

Description: Before disposing of transuranic radioactive waste at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), the United States Department of Energy (DOE) must evaluate compliance with long-term regulations of the United States Environmental Protection Agency (EPA), specifically the Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes (40 CFR 191), and the Land Disposal Restrictions (40 CFR 268) of the Hazardous and Solid Waste Amendments to the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) is conducting iterative performance assessments (PAs) of the WIPP for the DOE to provide interim guidance while preparing for final compliance evaluations. This paper provides background information on the regulations, describes the SNL WIPP PA Departments approach to developing a defensible technical basis for consistent compliance evaluations, and summarizes the major observations and conclusions drawn from the 1991 and 1992 PAs.
Date: October 1, 1993
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.G. & Higgins, P.J. Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STAINLESS STEEL WASTES. III. LABORATORY STUDIES OF THE RATE OF REMOVAL OF STAINLESS STEEL IONS BY MERCURY CATHODE ELECTROLYSIS

Description: ABS> The removal rates of iron, nickel, and chromium from synthetic stainless steel waste solutions during electrolysis over a mercury cathode were studied. The loading capacity of the mercury for the stainless steel metals was estimated on the basis of laboratory experiments to be about two% by weight. The laboratory data indicated that, at an electrode potential of --1.80 voits vs S.C.E., 85 ampere-hours per liter of waste removed essentially all of the stainless steel ions from a sulfuric acid solution containing 0.13M metal ions at 35 deg C. (auth)
Date: February 12, 1962
Creator: Anderson, D. R. & Rhodes, D. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Strategy for assessing the technical, environmental, and engineering feasibility of subseabed disposal

Description: This report presents the strategy and management techniques used in the development of the US Subseabed Disposal Program (SDP) for possible disposal of both high-level waste and spent fuel. These have been developed through joint efforts of the Department of Energy (DOE), Division of Waste Isolation, the Sandia Technical Program Manager, the Technical Program Coordinators, the Advisory Group, and the Principal Investigators. Three subsections of this paper address the various components which make up the SDP strategy and management techniques. The first section summarizes the US DOE high-level waste and spent-fuel disposal program and the position that the SDP occupies within that program. The second section, the Subseabed Program Plan, addresses the technical and administrative tools which are employed to facilitate the day-to-day operation of the SDP. The third section addresses the current studies and future plans for addressing the legal, political, and international uncertainties that must be resolved before the SDP reaches the final engineering phases.
Date: July 1, 1980
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Talbert, D.M.; Reese, D.; Boyer, D.G.; Herrmann, H. & Kelly, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis, pathways, effects, and fate of chlorination by-products in freshwater, estuarine and marine environments. Annual report, September 10, 1976--September 30, 1977

Description: The study is composed of analytical chemistry and biological divisions with freshwater and marine biological subdivisions. The objective of the analytical phase is to identify those chemical compounds, other than the free and combined available halogen, which result from the addition of chlorine to fresh or saltwater. The objectives of the biological studies are to investigate the immediate and relatively long-term toxicity of several chlorination by-products to selected aquatic biota; to follow their pathways of action; and to analyze for bioaccumulation or biomagnification. Initial analytical experimentation has been directed toward isolating and identifying nonpolar, lipophylic organohalogens that might be expected to be absorbed and biomagnified in the lipids of aquatic biota. Chlorinated natural fresh and marine water samples were obtained from Task IIa and b. Organic components were concentrated by forcing chlorinated and unchlorinated water through columns of XAD-2 resin using a positive displacement pump. Ether extracts of the XAD-2 columns were analyzed for haloforms by gas chromatography. Bromoform was found to be the major constituent in all chlorinated sea water samples. In contrast, chloroform was the only haloform produced from chlorinated freshwater. The Freshwater Biology 6-month chronic bioassay on rainbow trout has produced several results. The mortality rate, although low, indicated an interesting trend in response to increasing concentration of chlorination by-products. In addition to observed mortality, concentration was inversely related to other fish losses which are hypothesized to result from decreased aggressiveness. Fish length and weight at six months was also significantly reduced with increasing concentrations of chlorination by-products. A chronic bioassay of chlorination by-products was conducted with little-neck clams in the marine phase of the program.
Date: June 1, 1978
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Bean, R.M.; Gibson, C.I. & Thatcher, T.O.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Why consider subseabed disposal of high-level nuclear waste

Description: Large areas of the deep seabed warrant assessment as potential disposal sites for high-level radioactive waste because: (1) they are far from seismically and tectonically active lithospheric plate boundaries; (2) they are far from active or young volcanos; (3) they contain thick layers of very uniform fine-grained clays; (4) they are devoid of natural resources likely to be exploited in the forseeable future; (5) the geologic and oceanographic processes governing the deposition of sediments in such areas are well understood, and are remarkably insensitive to past oceanographic and climatic changes; and (6) sedmentary records of tens of millions of years of slow, uninterrupted deposition of fine grained clay support predictions of the future stability of such sites. Data accumulated to date on the permeability, ion-retardation properties, and mechanical strength of pelagic clay sediments indicate that they can act as a primary barrier to the escape of buried nuclides. Work in progress should determine within the current decade whether subseabed disposal is environmentally acceptable and technically feasible, as well as address the legal, political and social issues raised by this new concept.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Heath, G.R.; Hollister, C.D.; Anderson, D.R. & Leinen, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

An overview of performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: This paper presents an overview of the methodology used in the recent performance assessment (PA) to support the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Carlsbad Area Office`s (CAO`s) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Compliance Certification Application (CCA). The results of this recently completed WIPP PA will be presented. Major release modes contributing to the total radionuclide release to the accessible environment will be discussed. Comparison of the mean complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) curve against the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) radionuclide release limits will be presented.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Jow, Hong-Nian; Anderson, D.R. & Marietta, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Assessment in Support of the 1996 Compliance Certification Application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The conceptual and computational structure of a performance assessment (PA) for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is described. Important parts of thk structure are @ maintenance of a separation between stochastic (i.e., aleatory) and subjective (i.e., epistemic) uncertain, with stochastic uncefinty arising from the many possible disruptions that could occur over the 10,000 Y regulatory period fiat applies to the WIPP and subjective uncertainty arising from `the imprecision with which many of the quantities rquired in tie `hdysis are known, (ii) use of Latin hypercttbe sampling to incorporate the effects of subjective uncefirtty, (iii) use of Monte Carlo (i.e., random) sampling to incorporate the effects of stochastic uncetinty, and OV) efficient use of tie necessarily limited number of mechanistic calculations that can be performed to SUPPOII the analysis. The WIPP is under development by the U.S. Department of Ener~ (DOE) for the geologic (i.e., deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste, with the indicated PA supporting a ~Compliance Certification Application (CCA) by the DOE to the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October 1996 for tie necessary certifications for the WIPP to begin operation. If certified, the WIPP will be the first operational faciliv in tie United States for the geologic disposal of ra&oactive waste.
Date: October 14, 1998
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Basabilvazo, G.; Helton, J.C.; Jow, H.-N. & Marietta, M.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment in support of the 1996 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: A decision analysis perspective

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. The primary regulatory requirements (i.e., 40 CFR 191 and 40 CFR 194) placed on the WIPP by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) involve a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for normalized radionuclide releases to the accessible environment. The interpretation and use of this CCDF from a decision analysis perspective is discussed and illustrated with results from the 1996 performance assessment for the WIPP, which was carried out to support a compliance certification application by the DOE to the EPA for the WIPP.
Date: August 1, 1998
Creator: Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G. & Basabilvazo, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance assessment in support of compliance certification application for the WIPP project

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is being developed by the US Department of Energy for the geologic (deep underground) disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste. A Compliance Certification Application (CCA) of the WIPP (1) for such disposal was submitted to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, and is currently under review, with a decision anticipated in late 1997. An important component of the CCA is a performance assessment (PA) for the WIPP carried out by Sandia National Laboratories. The final outcome of the PA is a complementary cumulative distribution function (CCDF) for radionuclide releases from the WIPP to the accessible environment and an assessment of the confidence with which this CCDF can be estimated. This paper describes the computational process used to develop the CCDF. The results of uncertainty and sensitivity analysis are also presented.
Date: March 1, 1998
Creator: Jow, H.N.; Anderson, D.R.; Marietta, M.; Helton, J. & Basabilvazo, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uncertainty analysis in the 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The appropriate treatment of uncertainty is now widely recognized as an essential component of performance assessments (PAs) for complex systems. When viewed at a high-level, the uncertainty in such analyses can typically be partitioned into two types: (1) stochastic uncertainty, which arises because the system can behave in many different ways and is thus a property of the system itself, and (2) subjective uncertainty, which arises from a lack of knowledge about quantities that are believed to have (or, at least, are assumed to have) fixed values and is thus a property of the analysts carrying out the study. The 1996 PA for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) will be used to illustrate the treatment of these two types of uncertainty in a real analysis. In particular, this PA supported a compliance certification application (CCA) by the US Department of Energy (DOE) to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) for the certification of the WIPP for the geologic disposal of transuranic waste. Insights on the conceptual and computational structure of PAs for complex systems gained from these and other analyses are being incorporated into a new software system under development at SNL to facilitate the performance of analyses that maintain a separation between stochastic and subjective uncertainty.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Helton, J.C.; Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G. & Basabilvazo, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of WIPP (Waste Isolation Pilot Plant) compliance with EPA 40 CFR 191, December 1990

Description: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is developing the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), located in southeastern New Mexico, for disposal of transuranic wastes generated by defense programs. The DOE must first demonstrate compliance with the Environmental Protection Agency's (EPA) Environmental Standards for the Management and Disposal of Spent Nuclear Fuel, High-Level and Transuranic Radioactive Wastes hereafter called the Standard. The Containment Requirements in Subpart B of the Standard set limits on the probability that cumulative radionuclide releases to the accessible environment during the 10,000 years following decommissioning of the repository will exceed certain limits. To comply with these requirements, performance assessments must construct a modeling system that can adequately simulate all realistic future states of the repository that might result in radionuclide releases. Because the regulatory limits are probabilistic, performance assessments must accurately reflect variability and uncertainty within all factors that contribute to the simulation, including variability and uncertainty within all factors that contribute to the simulation, including variability in material properties, probabilities of future human actions, and uncertainties inherent in the conceptual and numerical models that simulate reality. This paper describes conceptual and numerical improvements in the performance assessment methodology made during 1990, and summarizes the present status of WIPP performance assessment. All results to date are preliminary, and cannot be used to determine compliance or non-compliance. The DOE anticipates determining compliance after evaluating a final performance assessment in 1994. 11 refs., 3 figs.
Date: January 1, 1990
Creator: Marietta, M.G.; Bertram-Howery, S.G.; Rechard, R.P. & Anderson, D.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The use of expert elicitation to quantify uncertainty in incomplete sorption data bases for Waste Isolation Pilot Plant performance assessment

Description: Iterative, annual performance-assessment calculations are being performed for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP), a planned underground repository in southeastern New Mexico, USA for the disposal of transuranic waste. The performance-assessment calculations estimate the long-term radionuclide releases from the disposal system to the accessible environment. Because direct experimental data in some areas are presently of insufficient quantity to form the basis for the required distributions. Expert judgment was used to estimate the concentrations of specific radionuclides in a brine exiting a repository room or drift as it migrates up an intruding borehole, and also the distribution coefficients that describe the retardation of radionuclides in the overlying Culebra Dolomite. The variables representing these concentrations and coefficients have been shown by 1990 sensitivity analyses to be among the set of parameters making the greatest contribution to the uncertainty in WIPP performance-assessment predictions. Utilizing available information, the experts (one expert panel addressed concentrations and a second panel addressed retardation) developed an understanding of the problem and were formally elicited to obtain probability distributions that characterize the uncertainty in fixed, but unknown, quantities. The probability distributions developed by the experts are being incorporated into the 1991 performance-assessment calculations. 16 refs., 4 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1991
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Trauth, K.M. (Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States)) & Hora, S.C. (Hawaii Univ., Hilo, HI (United States))
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The 1996 performance assessment for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is under development by the US Department of Energy (DOE) for the geologic disposal of transuranic (TRU) waste that has been generated at government defense installations in the United States. The WIPP is located in an area of low population density in southeastern New Mexico. Waste disposal will take place in excavated chambers in a bedded salt formation approximately 655 m below the land surface. This presentation describes a performance assessment (PA) carried out at Sandia National Laboratories (SNL) to support the Compliance Certification Application (CCA) made by the DOE to the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) in October, 1996, for the certification of the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. Based on the CCA supported by the PA described in this presentation, the EPA has issued a preliminary decision to certify the WIPP for the disposal of TRU waste. At present (April 1998), it appears likely that the WIPP will be in operation by the end of 1998.
Date: July 1, 1998
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Jow, H.N.; Marietta, M.G.; Chu, M.S.Y.; Shephard, L.E.; Helton, J.C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance Assessment for Environmental Decision Making

Description: The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Performance Assessment Departments at Sandia National Laboratories have, over the last twenty (20) years, developed unique, internationally-recognized performance and risk assessment methods to assess options for the safe disposal and remediation of radioactive and non-radioactive hazardous waste/contamination in geohydrologic systems. While these methods were originally developed for the disposal of nuclear waste, ongoing improvements and extensions make them equally applicable to a variety of environmental problems such as those associated with the remediation of EPA designated Superfund sites and the more generic Brownfield sites (industrial sites whose future use is restricted because of real or perceived contamination).
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Fewell, M.E.; Gomez, L.S.; Marietta, M.G.; Swift, P.N.; Trauth, K.M. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Certifying the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant: Lessons Learned from the WIPP Experience

Description: In May 1998, the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) certified the US Department of Energy's (DOE) Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) as being in compliance with applicable long-term regulations governing the permanent disposal of spent nuclear fuel, high-level, and transuranic radioactive wastes. The WIPP is the first deep geologic repository in the US to have successfully demonstrated regulatory compliance with long-term radioactive waste disposal requirements. The first disposal of TRU waste at WIPP occurred on March 26, 1999. Many of the lessons learned during the WIPP Project's transition from site characterization and experimental research to the preparation of a successful application may be of general interest to other repository programs. During a four-year period (1992 to 1996), the WIPP team [including the DOE Carlsbad Area Office (CAO), the science advisor to CAO, Sandia National Laboratories (SNL), and the management and operating contractor of the WIPP site, Westinghouse Electric Corporation (WID)] met its aggressive schedule for submitting the application without compromising the integrity of the scientific basis for the long-term safety of the repository. Strong leadership of the CAO-SNL-WID team was essential. Within SNL, a mature and robust performance assessment (PA) allowed prioritization of remaining scientific activities with respect to their impact on regulatory compliance. Early and frequent dialog with EPA staff expedited the review process after the application was submitted. Questions that faced SNL are familiar to geoscientists working in site evaluation projects. What data should be gathered during site characterization? How can we know when data are sufficient? How can we know when our understanding of the disposal system is sufficient to support our conceptual models? What constitutes adequate ''validation'' of conceptual models for processes that act over geologic time? How should we use peer review and expert judgment? Other lessons learned by SNL and the WIPP team are ...
Date: July 13, 1999
Creator: Anderson, D.R.; Chu, Margaret S.Y.; Froehlich, Gary K.; Howard, Bryan A.; Howarth, Susan M.; Larson, Kurt W. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department