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Mechanical design and analysis of the Fermilab 11 T Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole model

Description: The goal of the Fermilab High Field Magnet (HFM) R and D project is to explore various designs and production technology of a high-field, low-cost Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet suitable for a future Very Large Hadron Collider (VLHC). The model under fabrication consists of two-layer shell-type coil with 43.5 mm aperture and cold iron yoke. Fermilab concept of magnet design and fabrication technology involves some specific features such as curing of half-coil with ceramic binder/matrix before reaction, and then simultaneous reaction and impregnation of both half-coils to get a coil pipe structure. The coil pipe is mechanically supported by the vertically-split iron yoke locked by two aluminum clamps and a thick stainless steel skin. 2D finite element analysis has been performed to study and optimize the prestress in the coil and in the structural elements at room temperature and at 4.2 K. Model description, material properties and the results of mechanical analysis are reported in this paper.
Date: January 26, 2000
Creator: Ambrosio, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of the react and wind technique for a Nb{sub 3}Sn common coil dipole

Description: Fermilab, in collaboration with LBNL, is exploring the use of the react and wind technique for a common coil dipole with a Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford cable. An R and D program on conductor design and magnet technology was begun aiming at an 11 T, 2 layer, 30 mm aperture design operating at 4.5 K. The goal is to explore the feasibility of the react and wind technique for flat coils with a minimum bending radius of 90 mm. In order to improve the understanding of the I{sub c} degradation caused by bending after reaction this effect will be studied on both strands and cables. In this paper, the authors present two techniques to measure the critical current degradation due to bending, both in wires and cables, using standard test facilities. Together with the description of the program they show the results of the first measurements on strands and the layout of the cables that are being produced.
Date: January 26, 2000
Creator: Ambrosio, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurements of Nb3Sn conductor dimension changes during heat treatment

Description: During the heat treatment of Nb{sub 3}Sn coils the conductor material properties change significantly. These effects together with the changes of the conductor dimensions during heat treatment may introduce large strain in the coils for accelerator magnets. The US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has initiated a study aiming at understanding the thermal expansion and contraction of Nb3Sn strands, cables and coils during heat treatment. Several measurements on strands and cables were performed in order to have sufficient inputs for finite element simulation of the dimensional changes during heat treatment. In this paper the results of measurements of OST-RRP Nb{sub 3}Sn conductor used in the LARP magnet program are discussed.
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Bocian, D.; Ambrosio, G.; Whitson, G.M. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tests of insulation systems for Nb3Sn wind and react coils

Description: Tests were performed to assess the viability of several cable insulation systems for use in Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets. Insulated stacks of cables were subjected to reaction cycles commonly used for Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. After reaction and epoxy impregnation, current leakage between turns was measured at pressures up to 180 MPa and turn-to-turn potentials up to 500V. Systems consisting of S-2 glass, ceramic fiber, and E-glass were tested. Several methods of applying the insulation were incorporated, including sleeves and various spiral wrapped configurations. Methods of sample preparation and testing are described and results are reported.
Date: July 1, 2007
Creator: Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G; Andreev, N.; Whitson, G.; Zlobin, A. & /Fermilab
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of voltage spikes in superconducting Nb3Sn magnets

Description: Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory has been developing a new generation of superconducting accelerator magnets based on Niobium Tin (Nb{sub 3}Sn). The performance of these magnets is influenced by thermo-magnetic instabilities, known as flux jumps, which can lead to premature trips of the quench detection system due to large voltage transients or quenches at low current. In an effort to better characterize and understand these instabilities, a system for capturing fast voltage transients was developed and used in recent tests of R&D model magnets. A new automated voltage spike analysis program was developed for the analysis of large amount of voltage-spike data. We report results from the analysis of large statistics data samples for short model magnets that were constructed using MJR and RRP strands having different sub-element size and structure. We then assess the implications for quench protection of Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Rahimzadeh-Kalaleh, S.; Ambrosio, G.; Chlachidze, G.; Donnelly, C. & Tartaglia, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conceptual design of the Mu2e production solenoid cold mass

Description: The Muon-to-Electron conversion experiment (Mu2e), under development at Fermilab, seeks to detect direct muon to electron conversion to provide evidence for a process violating muon and electron lepton number conservation that cannot be explained by the Standard Model of particle physics. The required magnetic field is produced by a series of superconducting solenoids of various apertures and lengths. This paper describes the conceptual design of the 5 T, 4 m long solenoid cold mass with 1.67 m bore with the emphasis on the magnetic, radiation and thermal analyses.
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Kashikhin, V.V.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Lamm, M.; Mokhov, N.V.; Nicol, T.H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternative Mechanical Structure for LARP Nb3Sn Quadrupoles

Description: An alternative structure for the 120 mm Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet presently under development for use in the upgrade for LHC at CERN is presented. The goals of this structure are to build on the existing technology developed in LARP with the LQ and HQ series magnets and to further optimize the features required for operation in the accelerator. These features include mechanical alignment needed for field quality and provisions for cold mass cooling with 1.9 K helium in a helium pressure vessel. The structure will also optimize coil azimuthal and axial pre-load for high gradient operation, and will incorporate features intended to improve manufacturability, thereby improving reliability and reducing cost.
Date: August 1, 2010
Creator: Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.; Ambrosio, G.; Caspi, S.; Felice, H.; Kovach, P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of critical current and instability threshold of rutherford-type nb3sn cables

Description: As part of a collaboration between FNAL and CERN, Nb{sub 3}Sn Rutherford-type cables made of different wires (MJR and PIT) have been assembled in the sample holder at FNAL and tested at FRESCA (CERN). All cable samples had 28 strands with 1-mm diameter, and a trapezoidal cross-section with 0.9-1 degree keystone angle. All samples were tested at 4.3 and 1.8 K. After the first series of tests both cables were retested with higher prestress. The PIT sample was extensively retested at 1.9 K. During the second run the MJR sample was also tested at constant current in sweeping field in order to characterize its stability. All samples showed signs of instability and several voltage spikes were detected and recorded. Critical current and instability threshold measurements are presented and compared with previous tests and magnet performances.
Date: December 1, 2005
Creator: Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bordini, B.; /Fermilab; Denarie, C.-H. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design study of 15-Tesla RHQT Nb3Al block type dipole magnet

Description: The design study of the block type 15-Tesla RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al dipole magnet, and its merits over Nb{sub 3}Sn magnets are presented. The copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand is now becoming commercially available for the application to the accelerator magnets. A 1 mm diameter RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand with filament size about 50 {mu}, non-copper Jc about 1000 A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2K, copper ratio of 50%, can now be produced over several hundred meters. The stress and strain characteristics of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand are superior to the Nb{sub 3}Sn strand. Another advantage is that it can tolerate a longitudinal strain up to 0.55%. The RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable will have less chance of contamination of the stabilizer, compared to Nb{sub 3}Sn cable. These characteristics of the RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al will be beneficial for designing and producing 15-Tesla dipole magnets. An example 15-Tesla magnet cross section, utilizing the RHQT Nb{sub 3}Sn strand is presented. A systematic investigation on RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strands, its Rutherford cables, and building a small racetrack magnet for cable testing are proposed.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Yamada, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Kashikin, V.; Kikuchi, A.; Novitski, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RHQT Nb3Al 15-Tesla magnet design study

Description: Feasibility study of 15-Tesla dipole magnets wound with a new copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al Rutherford cable is presented. A new practical long copper stabilized RHQT Nb{sub 3}Al strand is presented, which is being developed and manufactured at the National Institute of Material Science (NIMS) in Japan. It has achieved a non-copper J{sub c} of 1000A/mm{sup 2} at 15 Tesla at 4.2K, with a copper over non-copper ratio of 1.04, and a filament size less than 50 microns. For this design study a short Rutherford cable with 28 Nb{sub 3}Al strands of 1 mm diameter will be fabricated late this year. The cosine theta magnet cross section is designed using ROXIE, and the stress and strain in the coil is estimated and studied with the characteristics of the Nb{sub 3}Al strand. The advantages and disadvantages of the Nb{sub 3}Al cable are compared with the prevailing Nb{sub 3}Sn cable from the point of view of stress-strain, J{sub c}, and possible degradation of stabilizer due to cabling. The Nb{sub 3}Al coil of the magnet, which will be made by wind and react method, has to be heat treated at 800 degree C for 10 hours. As preparation for the 15 Tesla magnet, a series of tests on strand and Rutherford cables are considered.
Date: September 1, 2005
Creator: Yamada, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Kashikin, V.; Kikuchi, A.; Novitski, I. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of Nb3Sn coils for LARP long magnets

Description: The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has a primary goal to develop, assemble, and test full size Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet models for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major milestone in this development is to assemble and test, by the end of 2009, two 4m-long quadrupole cold masses, which will be the first Nb3Sn accelerator magnet models approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQ), under development at FNAL and LBNL, with gradient higher than 200 T/m and aperture of 90 mm. The mechanical design will be chosen between two designs presently explored for the TQs: traditional collars and Al-shell based design (preloaded by bladders and keys). The fabrication of the first long quadrupole model is expected to start in the last quarter of 2007. Meanwhile the fabrication of 4m-long racetrack coils started this year at BNL. These coils will be tested in an Al-shell based supporting structure developed at LBNL. Several challenges have to be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. This paper presents these challenges with comments and solutions adopted or under study for these magnets. The coil design of these magnets, including conductor and insulation features, and quench protection studies are also presented.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Dietderich, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Final Development and test preparation of the first 3.7m long Nb3Sn quadrupole by LARP

Description: The test of the first LARP (LHC Accelerator Research Program) Long Quadrupole is a significant milestone toward the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupoles for LHC (Large Hadron Collider) Luminosity Upgrades. These 3.7-m long magnets, scaled from the 1-m long Technological Quadrupoles, are used to develop our capabilities to fabricate and assemble Nb{sub 3}Sn coils and structures with lengths comparable to accelerator magnet dimensions. The long quadruples have a target gradient of 200 T/m in a 90-mm aperture. Pre-stress and support are provided by an Al-shell-based structure pre-loaded using bladders and keys. The coils were fabricated at BNL and FNAL, the shell-based structure was designed and assembled at LBNL, the test is performed at FNAL. In this paper we present the final steps of the development of the first model (LQS01), several upgrades to the test facility, the test results of witness cables, and the short sample limit.
Date: October 1, 2009
Creator: Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bingham, B.; Bocian, D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development and coil fabrication for the LARP 3.7-m long Nb3Sn quadruple

Description: The U.S. LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has started the fabrication of 3.7-m long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole models. The Long Quadrupoles (LQ) are 'Proof-of-Principle' magnets which are to demonstrate that Nb3Sn technology is mature for use in high energy particle accelerators. Their design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupole (TQ) models, developed at FNAL and LBNL, which have design gradients higher than 200 T/m and an aperture of 90 mm. The plans for the LQ R&D and a design update are presented and discussed in this paper. The challenges of fabricating long accelerator-quality Nb{sub 3}Sn coils are presented together with the solutions adopted for the LQ coils (based on the TQ experience). During the fabrication and inspection of practice coils some problems were found and corrected. The fabrication at BNL and FNAL of the set of coils for the first Long Quadrupole is in progress.
Date: February 1, 2009
Creator: Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LARP Long Nb3Sn Quadrupole Design

Description: A major milestone for the LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) is the test, by the end of 2009, of two 4m-long quadrupole magnets (LQ) wound with Nb3Sn conductor. The goal of these magnets is to be a proof of principle that Nb3Sn is a viable technology for a possible LHC luminosity upgrade. The design of the LQ is based on the design of the LARP Technological Quadrupoles, presently under development at FNAL and LBNL, with 90-mm aperture and gradient higher than 200 T/m. The design of the first LQ model will be completed by the end of 2007 with the selection of a mechanical design. In this paper we present the coil design addressing some fabrication technology issues, the quench protection study, and three designs of the support structure.
Date: August 1, 2007
Creator: Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Steady State Heat Deposits Modeling in the Nb3Sn Quadrupole Magnets for the Upgrade of the LHC Inner Triplet

Description: In hadron colliders such as the LHC, the energy deposited in the superconductors by the particles lost from the beams or coming from the collision debris may provoke quenches detrimental to the accelerator operation. In previous papers, a Network Model has been used to study the thermodynamic behavior of magnet coils and to calculate the quench levels in the LHC magnets for expected beam loss profiles. This model was subsequently used for thermal analysis and design optimization of Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnets, which LARP (US LHC Accelerator Research Program) is developing for possible use in the LHC luminosity upgrade. For these new magnets, the heat transport efficiency from the coil to the helium bath needs to be determined and optimized. In this paper the study of helium cooling channels and the heat evacuation scheme are presented and discussed.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: Bocian, D.; Ambrosio, G.; Felice, H.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Caspi, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design of Nb3Sn Coils for LARP Long Magnets

Description: The LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has a primary goal to develop, assemble, and test full size Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet models for a luminosity upgrade of the Large Hadron Collider (LHC). A major milestone in this development is to assemble and test, by the end of 2009, two 4 m-long quadrupole cold masses, which will be the first Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnet models approaching the length of real accelerator magnets. The design is based on the LARP Technological Quadrupoles (TQ), under development at FNAL and LBNL, with gradient higher than 200 T/m and aperture of 90 mm. The mechanical design will be chosen between two designs presently explored for the TQs: traditional collars and Al-shell based design (preloaded by bladders and keys). The fabrication of the first long quadrupole model is expected to start in the last quarter of 2007. Meanwhile the fabrication of 4 m-long racetrack coils started this year at BNL. These coils will be tested in an Al-shell based supporting structure developed at LBNL. Several challenges have to be addressed for the successful fabrication of long Nb{sub 3}Sn coils. This paper presents these challenges with comments and solutions adopted or under study for these magnets. The coil design of these magnets, including conductor and insulation features, and quench protection studies are also presented.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Ferracin, Paolo; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Anerella, M.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Field Quality Study of the LARP Nb3Sn 3.7m-Long Quadrupole Models of LQ Series

Description: After the successful test of the first long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole magnet (LQS01), the US LHC Accelerator Research Program (LARP) has assembled and tested a new 3.7 m-long Nb{sub 3}Sn quadrupole (LQS02). This magnet has four new coils made of the same conductor as LQS01 coils, and it is using the same support structure. LQS02 was tested at the Fermilab Vertical Magnet Test Facility with the main goal to confirm that the long models can achieve field gradient above 200 T/m, LARP target for 90-mm aperture, as well as to measure the field quality. These long models lack some alignment features and it is important to study the field harmonics. Previous field quality measurements of LQS01 showed higher than expected differences between measured and calculated harmonics compared to the short models (TQS) assembled in a similar structure. These differences could be explained by the use of two different impregnation fixtures during coil fabrication. In this paper, we present a comparison of the field quality measurements between LQS01 and LQS02 as well as a comparison with the short TQS models. If the result supports the coil fabrication hypothesis, another LQS assembly with all coils fabricated in the same fixture will be produced for understanding the cause of the discrepancy between short and long models.
Date: September 1, 2011
Creator: AMbrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Chlachidze, G.; DiMarco, J.; Kashikhin, V.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and test of 4m long Nb3Sn quadrupole coil made of RRP-114-127 strand

Description: Fermilab is collaborating with LBNL and BNL (US-LARP collaboration) to develop a large-aperture Nb{sub 3}Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade. Several two-layer quadrupole models of the 1-meter and 3.4-meter length with 90mm apertures have been fabricated and tested by the US-LARP collaboration. High-Jc RRP-54/61 strand was used for nearly all models. Large flux jumps typical for this strand due to the large sub-element diameter limited magnet quench performance at temperatures below 2.5-3K. This paper summarizes the fabrication and test by Fermilab of LQM01, a long quadrupole coil test structure (quadrupole mirror) with the first 3.4m quadrupole coil made of more stable RRP-114/127 strand. The coil and structure are fully instrumented with voltage taps, full bridge strain gauges and strip heaters to monitor preload, thermal properties and quench behavior. Measurements during fabrication are reported, including preload during the yoke welding process. Testing is done at 4.5K, 1.9K and a range of intermediate temperatures. The test results include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.
Date: June 1, 2011
Creator: Bossert, R.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Kashikhin, V.V. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and testing of Rutherford-type cables for react and wind accelerator magnets

Description: A common coil design for a high-field accelerator dipole magnet using a Nb{sub 3}Sn cable with the React-and-Wind approach is pursued by a collaboration between Fermilab and LBNL. The design requirements for the cable include a high operating current so that a field of 10-11 T can be produced, together with a low critical current degradation due to bending around a 90 mm radius. A program, using ITER strands of the internal tin type, was launched to develop the optimal cable design for React-and-Wind common coil magnets. Three prototype cable designs, all 15 mill wide, were fabricated: a 41-strand cable with 0.7 mm diameter strands; a 57-strand cable with 0.5 mm diameter strands; and a 259 strand multi-level cable with a 6-around-1 sub-element using 0.3 mm diameter wire. Two versions of these cables were fabricated: one with no core and one with a stainless steel core. Additionally, the possibility of a wide (22 mm) cable made from 0.7 mm strand was explored. This paper describes the first results of the cable program including reports on cable fabrication and reaction, first winding tests and first results of the measurement of the critical current degradation due to cabling and bending.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Bauer, P.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Dietderich, D.; Ewald, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of Nb3Sn RRP strands and cables based on a 108/127 stack design

Description: The high performance Nb{sub 3}Sn strand produced by Oxford Superconducting Technology (OST) with the Restack Rod Process (RRP) is presently considered as a baseline conductor for the Fermilab's accelerator magnet R&D program. To improve the strand stability in the current and field range expected in magnet models, the number of subelements in the strand was increased by a factor of two (from 54 to 108), which resulted in a smaller effective filament size. The performance of the 1.0 and 0.7 mm strands of this design was studied using virgin and deformed strand samples. 27-strand Rutherford cables made of 1 mm strand were also tested using a superconducting transformer, small racetrack and 1-m shell-type dipole coils. This paper presents the RRP strand and cable parameters, and reports the results of strand, cable and coil testing.
Date: August 1, 2006
Creator: Barzi, E.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R.; Feher, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and test of LARP technological quadrupole models of TQC series

Description: In support of the development of a large-aperture Nb3Sn superconducting quadrupole for the Large Hadron Collider (LHC) luminosity upgrade, several two-layer technological quadrupole models of TQC series with 90 mm aperture and collar-based mechanical structure have been developed at Fermilab in collaboration with LBNL. This paper summarizes the results of fabrication and test of TQC02a, the second TQC model based on RRP Nb3Sn strand, and TQC02b, built with both MJR and RRP strand. The test results presented include magnet strain and quench performance during training, as well as quench studies of current ramp rate and temperature dependence from 1.9K to 4.5K.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Bossert, R.C.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Chlachidze, G.; Feher, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nb3Sn accelerator magnet technology scale up using cos-theta dipole coils

Description: Fermilab is working on the development of Nb{sub 3}Sn accelerator magnets using shell-type dipole coils and the wind-and-react method. As a part of the first phase of technology development, Fermilab built and tested six 1 m long dipole model magnets and several dipole mirror configurations. The last three dipoles and two mirrors reached their design fields of 10-11 T. The technology scale up phase has started by building 2 m and 4 m dipole coils and testing them in a mirror configuration in which one of the two coils is replaced by a half-cylinder made of low carbon steel. This approach allows for shorter fabrication times and extensive instrumentation preserving almost the same level of magnetic field and Lorentz forces in the coils as in a complete dipole model magnet. This paper presents details on the 2 m (HFDM07) and 4 m long (HFDM08) Nb{sub 3}Sn dipole mirror magnet design and fabrication technology, as well as the magnet test results which are compared with 1 m long models.
Date: June 1, 2007
Creator: Nobrega, F.; Andreev, N.; Ambrosio, G.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench performance of a 4-m long Nb3Sn shell-type dipole coil

Description: Fermilab has finished the first phase of Nb{sub 3}Sn technology scale up by testing 2-m and 4-m long shell-type dipole coils in a 'magnetic mirror' configuration. The 2-m long coil, made of Powder-in-Tube (PIT) Nb{sub 3}Sn strand, reached its short sample limit at a field level of 10 T. The 4-m long coil, made of advanced Nb{sub 3}Sn strand based on the Restack Rod Process (RRP) of 108/127 design, has been recently fabricated and tested. Coil test results at 4.5 K and 2.2 K are reported and discussed.
Date: August 1, 2008
Creator: Chlachidze, G.; Ambrosio, G.; Andreev, N.; Barzi, E.; Bossert, R.; Carcagno, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department