Final LDRD report : design and fabrication of advanced device structures for ultra high efficiency solid state lighting.
Description: The goal of this one year LDRD was to improve the overall efficiency of InGaN LEDs by improving the extraction of light from the semiconductor chip. InGaN LEDs are currently the most promising technology for producing high efficiency blue and green semiconductor light emitters. Improving the efficiency of InGaN LEDs will enable a more rapid adoption of semiconductor based lighting. In this LDRD, we proposed to develop photonic structures to improve light extraction from nitride-based light emitting diodes (LEDs). While many advanced device geometries were considered for this work, we focused on the use of a photonic crystal for improved light extraction. Although resonant cavity LEDs and other advanced structures certainly have the potential to improve light extraction, the photonic crystal approach showed the most promise in the early stages of this short program. The photonic crystal (PX)-LED developed here incorporates a two dimensional photonic crystal, or photonic lattice, into a nitride-based LED. The dimensions of the photonic crystal are selected such that there are very few or no optical modes in the plane of the LED ('lateral' modes). This will reduce or eliminate any radiation in the lateral direction so that the majority of the LED radiation will be in vertical modes that escape the semiconductor, which will improve the light-extraction efficiency. PX-LEDs were fabricated using a range of hole diameters and lattice constants and compared to control LEDs without a photonic crystal. The far field patterns from the PX-LEDs were dramatically modified by the presence of the photonic crystal. An increase in LED brightness of 1.75X was observed for light measured into a 40 degree emission cone with a total increase in power of 1.5X for an unencapsulated LED.
Date: April 1, 2005
Creator: Koleske, Daniel David; Bogart, Katherine Huderle Andersen; Shul, Randy John; Wendt, Joel Robert; Crawford, Mary Hagerott; Allerman, Andrew Alan et al.
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