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Evaluation of cellular glasses for solar mirror panel applications

Description: An analytic technique is developed to compare the structural and environmental performance of various materials considered for backing of second surface glass solar mirrors. Metals, ceramics, dense molded plastics, foamed plastics, forest products and plastic laminates are surveyed. Cellular glass is determined to be a prime candidate due to its low cost, high stiffness-to-weight ratio, thermal expansion match to mirror glass, evident minimal environmental impact and chemical and dimensional stability under conditions of use. While applications could employ this material as a foam core or compressive member of a composite material system, the present analysis addresses the bulk material only, allowing a basis for simple extrapolations. The current state of the art and anticipated developments in cellular glass technology are discussed. Material properties are correlated to design requirements using a Weibull weakest link statistical method appropriate for describing the behavior of such brittle materials. A mathematical model is presented which suggests a design approach which allows minimization of life cycle cost; given adequate information for a specific aplication, this would permit high confidence estimates of the cost/performance factor. A mechanical and environmental testing program is outlined, designed to providea material property basis for development of cellular glass hardware, together with methodology for collecting lifetime predictive data required by the mathematical treatment provided herein. Preliminary material property data from measurements is given.
Date: June 15, 1979
Creator: Giovan, M. & Adams, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Experimental determination of drag coefficients in low-density polyurethane foam

Description: We describe several experiments performed at the LLNL Site 300 firing range and on the LLNL 1/3 scale gun to investigate the deceleration of small projectiles (l {approx} 3-5 [mm]) in low-density foam ({rho} {approx} 0.08-0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). The experiments at the firing range researched a passive velocity diagnostic based on Faraday's law of induction, while experiments on the 1/3 scale gun investigated the effects of varying projectile surface area, projectile shape, and foam density on the drag coefficient c{sub d}. Analysis shows that the velocity diagnostic has an uncertainty on the order of 1 percent for projectiles with velocity v {approx} 0.8-1.2 [km/s]. The 1/3 scale gun experiments, dubbed the Krispy Kreme series, included nine shots considering the combinations of 3 projectile surface areas with 3 target densities. The experiments used Tantalum square surface area block projectiles (with an initial velocity v{sub 0} {approx} 1.2 [km/s], a common thickness T = 2.67 [mm], and square side lengths of 3, 4, and 5 [mm]) decelerating in polyurethane foams (with densities {rho}{sub f} of 0.08, 0.16 and 0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}]). Standard fluid models of the Krispy Kreme experiments predict Reynolds numbers Re {approx} 10{sup 5} - 10{sup 6}, Mach numbers Ma {approx} 0.5-2.0, and drag coefficients c{sub d} {approx} 2-3. However, the data indicate that c{sub d} = 1.1-1.2 (c{sub d} = 1.7) for all three block projectiles in the 0.08 and 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}] targets (0.32 [g/cm{sup 3}] target). First, we conclude that the drag force on projectiles in solid polyurethane foam is less than in fluids with equivalent dimensionless parameters. This result is also supported by an additional Krispy Kreme experiment that used a disk projectile (with diameter d = 4.51 [mm] and thickness T = 2.67 [mm]) penetrating a target with density {rho} = 0.16 [g/cm{sup 3}], i.e., ...
Date: April 18, 2006
Creator: Adams, M L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fracture mechanics of cellular glass

Description: Cellular glasses are prime candidate materials for the structural substrate of mirrored glass for solar concentrator reflecting panels. These materials are brittle, however, and susceptible to mechanical failure from slow crack growth caused by a stress corrosion mechanism. The results are detailed of one part of a program established to develop improved cellular glasses and to characterize the behavior of these and commercially available materials. Commercial and developmental cellular glasses were tested and analyzed using standard testing techniques and models developed from linear fracture mechanics. Two models describing the fracture behavior of these materials are developed. Slow crack growth behavior in cellular glass was found to be more complex than that encountered in dense glasses or ceramics. The crack velocity was found to be strongly dependent upon water vapor transport to the tip of the moving crack. The existence of a static fatigue limit was not conclusively established, however, it is speculated that slow crack growth behavior in Region I may be slower, by orders of magnitude, than that found in dense glasses.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Zwissler, J.G. & Adams, M.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tracer Stability and Chemical Changes in an Injected Geothermal Fluid During Injection-Backflow Testing at the East Mesa Geothermal Field

Description: The stabilities of several tracers were tested under geothermal conditions while injection-backflow tests were conducted at East Mesa. The tracers I and Br were injected continuously while SCN (thiocyanate), B, and disodium fluorescein were each injected as a point source (slug). The tracers were shown to be stable, except where the high concentrations used during slug injection induced adsorption of the slug tracers. However, adsorption of the slug tracers appeared to ''armor'' the formation against adsorption during subsequent tests. Precipitation behavior of calcite and silica as well as Na/K shifts during injection are also discussed.
Date: January 22, 1985
Creator: Adams, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Anomalous low mass e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair production in 17 GeV/c. pi. /sup -/p collisions

Description: An experiment was performed at the Multiparticle Spectrometer using 17 GeV/c ..pi../sup -/ from the BNL AGS, triggering upon inclusive e/sup +/e/sup -/ production. Electron identification was based on two transition radiator detectors and lead-scintillator shower detectors. Good acceptance for the e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair covered the region x/sub F/ > 0.3 for all p/sub T/ and pair masses. Charged particles and photons associated with the e/sup +/e/sup -/ pair are detected over a large solid angle. e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs of mass up to 1.2 GeV/c/sup 2/ were produced. A clear peak due to rho, ..omega.. ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/ is observed. For e/sup +/e/sup -/ masses below the rho, ..omega.., an excess of events is found over those expected from known sources such as eta ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/..gamma.. and ..omega.. ..-->.. e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup 0/. This anomalous excess is more strongly produced at small x/sub F/. The structure of events containing anomalous e/sup +/e/sup -/ pairs is reported in an attempt to elucidate their origin. In particular, effective mass distributions of e/sup +/e/sup -/..gamma.., e/sup +/e/sup -/..pi../sup 0/, e/sup +/e/sup -/ charged hadrons are presented.
Date: January 1, 1980
Creator: Abshire, G; Adams, M & Brown, C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SOME METALLURGICAL APPLICATIONS OF AUTORADIOGRAPHY

Description: Macro- and high-resolution methods for autoradiography were used to investigate a number of problems concerning the distribution of uranium and other active elements in metal specimens. Illustrations are presented of the behavior of some of these materials with various henting and cooling treatments and in the presence of metals with which intermetallic phases are formed. Techniques are discussed for handling and examining autoradiographic stripping films by means of various types of metallurgical and conventional microscopic equipment. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1961
Creator: Adams, M.D. & Steunenberg, R.K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Boundary-projection acceleration: A new approach to synthetic acceleration of transport calculations

Description: We present a new class of synthetic acceleration methods which can be applied to transport calculations regardless of geometry, discretization scheme, or mesh shape. Unlike other synthetic acceleration methods which base their acceleration on P1 equations, these methods use acceleration equations obtained by projecting the transport solution onto a coarse angular mesh only on cell boundaries. We demonstrate, via Fourier analysis of a simple model problem as well as numerical calculations of various problems, that the simplest of these methods are unconditionally stable with spectral radius less than or equal toc/3 (c being the scattering ratio), for several different discretization schemes in slab geometry. 28 refs., 4 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1987
Creator: Adams, M.L. & Martin, W.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Transfer of Plutonium Hexafluoride in the Vapor Phase

Description: Plutonium hexafluoride is decomposed by heat, by its alpha radiation, and by reactions with most materials of construction. Laboratory experiments were performed to investigate means by which plutonium losses due to these reactions can be minimized during vapor-phase transfers of the compound. The experiments showed that plutonium hexafluoride vapor could be transferred satisfactorily through well fluorinated nickel equipment in a stream of fluorine or helium. The decomposition product of plutonium hexafluoride was refluorinated at 250 deg C by fluorine. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Adams, M. D.; Steunenberg, R. K. & Vogel, R. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Standard Electronic Format Specification for Tank Characterization Data Loader Version 3.0

Description: The purpose of this document is to describe the standard electronic format for data files that will be sent for entry into the Tank Characterization Database (TCD). There are 2 different file types needed for each data load: Analytical Results; and Sample Descriptions. The first record of each file must be a header record. The content of the first 5 fields is ignored. They were used previously to satisfy historic requirements that are no longer applicable. The sixth field of the header record must contain the Standard Electronic Format (SEF) version ID (SEF3.0). The remaining records will be formatted as specified below. Fields within a record will be separated using the ''|'' symbol. The ''|''symbol must not appear anywhere in the file except when used as a delimiter.
Date: August 12, 1999
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

LMHC/TWRS year 2000 equipment project renovation and contingency plan

Description: A program has been completed to assess, renovate and document tank farm field equipment year 2000 compliance. A communication plan has also been prepared (see section 8.0). The objective of the program was to assure that no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to the advent of year 2000. The purposes of this document are to: describe the process used to assess field equipment; document items found to be compliant; document items found to be non-compliant including options for making the equipment year 2000 functional and/or tolerant; describe location and management of field equipment year 2000 documentation; assess overall vulnerability of TWRS field equipment with regard to year 2000 problems and describe plans to communicate year 2000 equipment review results and corrective actions.
Date: May 12, 1999
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Protocol for disposition of tank farm equipment lists and tank farm drawings for year 2000 compliance

Description: A program has been initiated to assess, renovate, document and certify tank farm field equipment for year 2000 compliance. The program is necessary to assure no adverse effects occur in tank farm operations as a result of equipment malfunction due to what is widely known as the ''millennium bug''. This document elaborates the protocols for reviewing field equipment lists and tank farm drawings for the purpose of identifying and resolving year 2000 compliance problems in tank farm equipment.
Date: February 23, 1999
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tank waste remediation system process engineering instruction manual

Description: The purpose of the Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) Process Engineering Instruction Manual is to provide guidance and direction to TWRS Process Engineering staff regarding conduct of business. The objective is to establish a disciplined and consistent approach to business such that the work processes within TWRS Process Engineering are safe, high quality, disciplined, efficient, and consistent with Lockheed Martin Hanford Corporation Policies and Procedures. The sections within this manual are of two types: for compliance and for guidance. For compliance sections are intended to be followed per-the-letter until such time as they are formally changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. For guidance sections are intended to be used by the staff for guidance in the conduct of work where technical judgment and discernment are required. The guidance sections shall also be changed per Section 2.0 of this manual. The required header for each manual section is illustrated in Section 2.0, Manual Change Control procedure. It is intended that this manual be used as a training and indoctrination resource for employees of the TWRS Process Engineering organization. The manual shall be required reading for all TWRS Process Engineering staff, matrixed, and subcontracted employees.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design review report, 241-S-102 cover plate review

Description: The design for the cover plate and lead plate for shielding on 241-S-102 was reviewed on 10/21/98. All Review Comment Record comments were resolved to the satisfaction of the reviewers. Additional comments were taken during the meeting and were also resolved. A design calculation for the Radiological Design Review Screening was presented as criteria for the use of 1 inch lead plate. The review concluded that the use of 2 inch steel plate and 1 inch lead plate provided the required safety function required by HNF-SD-WM-810-001, 5.3.2.20, Basis for Interim Operation. The design was approved with the incorporated comments as recorded on RCR's and meeting minutes.
Date: November 4, 1998
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Year 2000 TWRS Maintenance procedure review report

Description: A concern exists that some equipment in use might contain microprocessors that are dependent upon a time date function. The majority of the software programming for microprocessors has only utilized a 2 digit identifier for the year. With the approach of the year 2000, (Y2K), there is concern that the date function will not be correctly recognized and some functions will not operate properly. TWRS maintenance procedures have been reviewed to identify equipment components that may not be Y2K compliant. Engineering judgment was utilized to eliminate procedures and equipment that is obviously not impacted by Y2K.
Date: February 24, 1999
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FY2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis & Waste Information Requirements Document

Description: The Fiscal Year 2001 Tank Characterization Technical Sampling Basis and Waste Information Requirements Document (TSB-WIRD) has the following purposes: (1) To identify and integrate sampling and analysis needs for fiscal year (FY) 2001 and beyond. (2) To describe the overall drivers that require characterization information and to document their source. (3) To describe the process for identifying, prioritizing, and weighting issues that require characterization information to resolve. (4) To define the method for determining sampling priorities and to present the sampling priorities on a tank-by-tank basis. (5) To define how the characterization program is going to satisfy the drivers, close issues, and report progress. (6)To describe deliverables and acceptance criteria for characterization deliverables.
Date: August 2, 2000
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Letter of Intent for RPP Characterization Program Process Engineering and Hanford Analytical Services and Characterization Project

Description: The Characterization Project level of success achieved by the River Protection Project (RPP) is determined by the effectiveness of several organizations across RPP working together. The requirements, expectations, interrelationships, and performance criteria for each of these organizations were examined in order to understand the performances necessary to achieve characterization objectives. This Letter of Intent documents the results of the above examination. It formalizes the details of interfaces, working agreements, and requirements for obtaining and transferring tank waste samples from the Tank Farm System (RPP Process Engineering, Characterization Project Operations, and RPP Quality Assurance) to the characterization laboratory complex (222-S Laboratory, Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility, and the Hanford Analytical Service Program) and for the laboratory complex analysis and reporting of analytical results.
Date: February 25, 2000
Creator: ADAMS, M.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department