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Construction and testing of arc dipoles and quadrupoles for the relativistic heavy ion collider (RHIC) at BNL

Description: The production run of superconducting magnets for the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) project at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is well underway. Of the 288 arc dipoles needed for the collider, more than 120 have been delivered. More than 150 arc quadrupoles have been delivered. All of these magnets have been accepted for RHIC. This paper reports the construction and performance of these magnets. Novel features of design and test, introduced to enhance technical performance and control costs, are also discussed. Other papers submitted to this Conference summarize work on the sextupoles and tuning quads, arc correctors, and combined corrector-quadrupole-sextupole assemblies (CQS).
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Wanderer, P.; Muratore, J. & Anerella, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconducting sextupoles and trim quadrupoles for RHIC

Description: RHIC requires 288 sextupole and 72 trim quadrupole magnets. These iron poletip superconducting magnets have been constructed by Everson Electric Co. Room temperature field measurements have been completed for 75% of these magnets with acceptable results. Approximately 15% of them have been tested at 4.6 K for maximum (quench) current. The quench performance for the early magnets was good and improved to excellent during the production run. These magnets have more than 100% margin at quench.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Thompson, P.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Tuning shims for high field quality in superconducting magnets

Description: A high field quality in interaction region quadrupoles is crucial to the luminosity performance of high energy colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The field quality in magnets is limited in part by manufacturing tolerances in the parts and assembly. A tuning shim method has been developed to reduce the relative field errors ({Delta}B/B) from {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} to {approximately}10{sup {minus}5} at 2/3 of the coil radius. Eight tuning shims having a variable thickness of iron are inserted after the construction and measurement of field harmonics in the magnet. In this paper the tuning shim technique is described for RHIC interaction region quadrupoles. The results of calculations and measurement are also presented.
Date: August 1995
Creator: Gupta, R.; Anerella, M. & Cozzolino, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The magnet system of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC)

Description: The Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) is a colliding ring accelerator to be completed in 1999. Through collisions of heavy ions it is hoped to observe the creation of matter at extremely high temperatures and densities, similar to what may have occurred in the original "Big Bang." The collider rings will consist of 1740 superconducting magnet elements. Some of elements are being manufactured by industrial partners (Northrop Grumman and Everson Electric). Others are being constructed or assembled at BNL. A description is given of the magnet designs, the plan for manufacturing and test results. In the manufacturing of the magnets, emphasis has been placed on uniformity of their performance and on quality. Results so far indicate that this emphasis has been very successful.
Date: July 1995
Creator: Greene, A.; Anerella, M. & Cozzolino, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of internal forces in superconducting accelerator magnets with strain gauge transducers

Description: An improved method has been developed for the measurement of internal forces in superconducting accelerator magnets, in particular the compressive stresses in coils and the end restraint forces on the coils. The transducers have been designed to provide improved sensitivity to purely mechanical strain by using bending mode deflections for sensing the applied loads. Strain gauge resistance measurements are made with a new system that eliminates sources of errors due to spurious resistance changes in interconnecting wiring and solder joints. The design of the transducers and their measurement system is presented along with a discussion of the method of compensation for thermal and magnetic effects, methods of calibration with typical calibration data, and measured effect in actual magnets of the thermal stress changes from cooldown and the Lorentz forces during magnet excitation. 13 figs., 1 tab.
Date: January 1, 1988
Creator: Goodzeit, C.L.; Anerella, M.D. & Ganetis, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Test of eight superconducting arc quadrupoles for RHIC

Description: Test results from a group of eight superconducting quadrupoles at Brookhaven National Laboratory are presented. The magnets have been designed for use in the arc regions of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider now under construction at Brookhaven. Novel features of the design include a single-layer coil, the use of injection-molded phenolic for the pole spacers, and a yoke that also serves as a collar. This R&D series has been used to verify the magnet quench performance and field quality prior to the start of the production run in industry.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Partial lifetime test of an SSC Collider dipole

Description: Over a period of ten months, a 15 m-long, 50 mm-aperture superconducting SSC Collider dipole was taken through a series of thermal and power cycles to check for changes in performance. One quench below operating current was experienced during this period. Small changes in the coil preload and certain harmonics were observed.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Wanderer, P.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction details and test results from RHIC sextupoles

Description: Four 8 cm aperture sextupoles have been built at BNL to verify the magnetic performance of this magnet in the RHIC installation. Two significantly different mechanical configurations have been designed, and two magnets of each design have been built, and successfully tested, and have exceeded the required minimum quench current by a substantial margin. This report describes the assembly details of the second configuration, which is the final production configuration. In addition the first industry built production sextupole has been delivered and tested. This report presents the results of quench tests on all 5 magnets and field measurements on the first production sextupole.
Date: December 31, 1993
Creator: Lindner, M.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

``B`` series RHIC arc quadrupoles

Description: A series of pre-production superconducting quadrupoles has been constructed at Brookhaven National Laboratory. These magnets have an operating gradient of 71 Telsa/meter with a coil bore of 80 mm. The eight magnets are exact prototypes of the quadrupoles which will be used in the arcs. These magnets were tested and measured and met the accelerator specifications.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Thompson, P.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Large aperture quadrupoles for RHIC interaction regions

Description: The ultimate luminosity performance of the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC) depends on the field quality in the large aperture (130 mm) superconducting quadrupoles in the interaction regions. In this paper we discuss the design features that are incorporated to obtain a good field quality. Coil midplane gap and pole shims may be adjusted to remove certain field harmonics due to systematic errors in construction. Iron tuning shims will be inserted at eight strategic locations in the assembled magnets to correct the measured values of harmonics in each magnet. The performance of two prototype magnets and upgrades under consideration will be discussed.
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Gupta, R.; Anerella, M. & Ganetis, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Quench propagation study for the BNL-built, full-length, 50mm aperture SSC model dipoles

Description: As part of the program to build and test SSC 50mm aperture prototype dipole magnets, a series of seven full-length dipoles were built and tested at BNL. Important part of the testing program was the study of quench propagation velocity and hot spot temperature over a range of experimental conditions in order to characterize the safety of the conductor during quenches experienced under different circumstances. Such studies are important tools in design, implementation, and verification of quench protection strategies in superconducting accelerator magnets. This investigation was facilitated by artificially inducing quenches under controlled experimental conditions with spot heaters placed at carefully chosen locations on the magnet coils. Such studies were done as part of the 15m-long magnet test program and were performed on five of the magnets in the series. All were equipped with spot heaters on an inner coil, and two of these also had spot heaters on an outer coil. Therefore, in addition to the studies in the inner coils, it was also possible to study quench propagation in the outer coils, where slower quench velocities and higher conductor temperatures are expected, in comparison to that in the inner coils. In spontaneous quenches, where there may be no voltage taps, it is not possible to measure the conductor hot spot temperature. It is straightforward to measure the number of MIITs generated, since only the magnet current and voltage need be measured. The concept of MIITs then becomes a valuable diagnostic tool which can characterize the temperature behavior of a conductor during quench and can be used to determine limits for safe operation of the coil. With spot heaters placed at known locations and closely bracketed by voltage taps, hot spot temperature can be measured. Research such as is described in this paper is therefore important in order to ...
Date: September 1, 1993
Creator: Muratore, J.; Anerella, M. & Cottingham, G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Construction progress of the RHIC electron lenses

Description: In polarized proton operation the RHIC performance is limited by the head-on beam-beam effect. To overcome this limitation two electron lenses are under construction. We give an overview of the construction progress. Guns, collectors and the warm electron beam transport solenoids with their power supplies have been constructed. The superconducting solenoids that guide the electron beam during the interaction with the proton beam are near completion. A test stand has been set up to verify the performance of the gun, collector and some of the instrumentation. The infrastructure is being prepared for installation, and simulations continue to optimize the performance.
Date: May 20, 2012
Creator: W., Fischer; Altinbas, Z.; Anerella, M.; Beebe, E. & al, et
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design, Construction and Test of Cryogen-Free HTS Coil Structure

Description: This paper will describe design, construction and test results of a cryo-mechanical structure to study coils made with the second generation High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) for the Facility for Rare Isotope Beams (FRIB). A magnet comprised of HTS coils mounted in a vacuum vessel and conduction-cooled with Gifford-McMahon cycle cryocoolers is used to develop and refine design and construction techniques. The study of these techniques and their effect on operations provides a better understanding of the use of cryogen free magnets in future accelerator projects. A cryogen-free, superconducting HTS magnet possesses certain operational advantages over cryogenically cooled, low temperature superconducting magnets.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Hocker, H.; Anerella, M.; Gupta, R.; Plate, S.; Sampson, W.; Schmalzle, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

TUNING SHIMS FOR HIGH FIELD QUALITY IN SUPERCONDUCTING MAGNETS.

Description: A high field quality in quadrupoles for the interaction region is crucial to the luminosity performance of high energy colliders such as the Relativistic Heavy Ion Collider (RHIC). The field quality in magnets is limited in part by manufacturing tolerances in the parts and assembly. A tuning shim method has been developed to reduce the relative field errors ({Delta}B/B) from {approximately}10{sup {minus}4} to {approximately}10{sup {minus}5} at 213 of the coil radius. Eight tuning shims having a variable thickness of iron are inserted after the construction and measurement of field harmonics in the magnet. In this paper the tuning shim technique is described for RHIC interaction region quadrupoles. The results of calculations and measurement are also presented.
Date: June 11, 1995
Creator: Gupta, R.; Anerella, M. & Cozzolino, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Industrial production of RHIC magnets

Description: ``Doing more with less`` has always been the signature of the military man and is especially true of Air Force weapons handlers. However, as the military drawdown continues, the phase takes on new meaning and becomes an unmistakable way of life for many. Unfortunately, all the resourcefulness in the world cannot overcome some obstacles, forcing a review of utility and mission effectiveness. How can we continue to reduce our resources and still meet our requirements? This paper documents the efforts under way to create a new tool for high fidelity, dexterous, heavy payload manipulation tasks. The ultimate goal of the Next Generation Munitions Handler Advanced Technology Demonstrator (ATD) is the identification and integration of the enabling technologies necessary to produce a system that reduces weapon loading times and operator workload while addressing mobility requirements.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Anerella, M.D.; Fisher, D.H.; Sheedy, E. & McGuire, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Stress relaxation studies of CBA and SSC coil sections

Description: Instrumented fixtures were built to measure coil assembly stress and relaxation rates in samples of CBA and SSC coil sections. The effects of constant temperature and thermal cycling on short and long term relaxation are presented. Conclusions and suggestions are presented to achieve minimum long term stress relaxation during the assembly and installation of the SSC rings. 5 refs., 5 figs., 3 tabs.
Date: January 1, 1985
Creator: Anerella, M.; Hoffman, A.; Jackimowicz, R.; Lenz, W.; Skaritka, J. & Tuttle, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effect of Axial Stress on YBCO Coils

Description: The large aspect ratio of typical YBCO conductors makes them ideal for constructing solenoids from pancake style coils. An advantage of this method is that each subunit can be tested before assembly into the finished magnet. The fact that conductors are available in relatively short lengths is another reason for using such a fabrication technique. The principal drawback is the large number of joints required to connect the coils together. When very high field solenoids such as those contemplated for the muon collider are built in this way the magnetic forces between pancakes can be very large. Extensive measurements have been made on the effect of stress on short lengths of conductor, but there is little or no data on the effect of intercoil loading. The experiment described in this paper was designed to test the ability of YBCO coils to withstand these forces. A spiral wound 'pancake' coil made from YBCO coated conductor has been stressed to a pressure of 100MPa in the axial direction at 77K. In this case axial refers to the coil so that the force is applied to the edge of the conductor. The effect on the critical current was small and completely reversible. Repeatedly cycling the pressure had no measureable permanent effect on the coil. The small current change observed exhibited a slight hysteretic behaviour during the loading cycle.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Sampson, W.; Anerella, M.; Cozzolino, J.P.; Gupta, R.C.; Shiroyanagi, Y. & Evangelou, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Vibration Measurements to Study the Effect of Cryogen Flow in Superconducting Quadrupole.

Description: The conceptual design of compact superconducting magnets for the International Linear Collider final focus is presently under development. A primary concern in using superconducting quadrupoles is the potential for inducing additional vibrations from cryogenic operation. We have employed a Laser Doppler Vibrometer system to measure the vibrations in a spare RHIC quadrupole magnet under cryogenic conditions. Some preliminary results of these studies were limited in resolution due to a rather large motion of the laser head as well as the magnet. As a first step towards improving the measurement quality, a new set up was used that reduces the motion of the laser holder. The improved setup is described, and vibration spectra measured at cryogenic temperatures, both with and without helium flow, are presented.
Date: June 25, 2007
Creator: He,P.; Anerella, M.; aydin, S.; Ganetis, G. Harrison, M.; Jain, A. & Parker, B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Design Construction and Test Results of a HTS Solenoid For Energy Recovery Linac

Description: An innovative feature of the proposed Energy Recovery Linac (ERL) is the use of a solenoid made with High Temperature Superconductor (HTS) with the Superconducting RF cavity. The use of HTS allows solenoid to be placed in close proximity to the cavity and thus provides early focusing of the electron beam. In addition, cryogenic testing at {approx}77 K is simpler and cheaper than 4 K testing. This paper will present the design, construction and test results of this HTS solenoid. The HTS solenoid in the proposed ERL will be situated in the transition region between the superconducting cavity at {approx}4 K and the cryostat at the room temperature. Solenoid inside the cryogenic structure provides an early focusing and hence low emittance beam. The temperature in the transition region will be too high for a conventional low temperature superconductor and resistive heat load from copper coils will be too high on cryogenic system. HTS coils also allow much higher current density and significant reduction in size as compared to copper coils. Hence HTS solenoid provide a unique and technically superior solution. The use of a HTS solenoid with superconducting cavity offers a unique option as it can be placed in a cold to warm transition region to provide early focussing without using additional space. Construction and test results so far are very encouraging for its use in the ERL project.
Date: March 28, 2011
Creator: Anerella, M.; Ben-Zvi, I.; Kayran, D.; McIntyre, G.; Muratore, J.; Plate, S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department