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Meso-Machining Capabilities

Description: Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femtosecond laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale mechanical components and actuators which require meso-scale parts fabricated in a variety of materials. Subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes expand the functionality of meso-scale components and complement silicon based MEMS and LIGA technologies.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P. & YANG,PIN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools for Fabricating Curvilinear Features

Description: This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, curvilinear features in a variety of workpiece materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting widths as small as 13 {micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used for ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide to create a number of critically aligned facets. Sputtering produces rake facets of desired angle and cutting edges having radii of curvature equal to 0.4 {micro}m. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from a particular ion beam/target geometry that accounts for the sputter yield dependence on incidence angle. It is believed that geometrically specific cutting tools of this dimension have not been made previously. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close match between tool width and feature size. Microtools are used to machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061 Al cylindrical workplaces. Micro-grooving tools are also used to fabricate sinusoidal cross-section features in planar metal samples.
Date: July 24, 2000
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,MICHAEL J. & KRISHNAN,A.S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Meso-scale machining capabilities and issues

Description: Meso-scale manufacturing processes are bridging the gap between silicon-based MEMS processes and conventional miniature machining. These processes can fabricate two and three-dimensional parts having micron size features in traditional materials such as stainless steels, rare earth magnets, ceramics, and glass. Meso-scale processes that are currently available include, focused ion beam sputtering, micro-milling, micro-turning, excimer laser ablation, femto-second laser ablation, and micro electro discharge machining. These meso-scale processes employ subtractive machining technologies (i.e., material removal), unlike LIGA, which is an additive meso-scale process. Meso-scale processes have different material capabilities and machining performance specifications. Machining performance specifications of interest include minimum feature size, feature tolerance, feature location accuracy, surface finish, and material removal rate. Sandia National Laboratories is developing meso-scale electro-mechanical components, which require meso-scale parts that move relative to one another. The meso-scale parts fabricated by subtractive meso-scale manufacturing processes have unique tribology issues because of the variety of materials and the surface conditions produced by the different meso-scale manufacturing processes.
Date: May 15, 2000
Creator: BENAVIDES,GILBERT L.; ADAMS,DAVID P. & YANG,PIN
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ion Beam Sputter Fabrication of Micro-Grooving and Micro-Threading Tools

Description: This paper presents techniques for fabricating microscopic, nonplanar features in a variety of materials. Micro-grooving and micro-threading tools having cutting dimensions of 10-30{micro}m are made by focused ion beam sputtering and used in ultra-precision machining. Tool fabrication involves directing a 20 keV gallium beam at polished cylindrical punches made of cobalt M42 high-speed steel or C2 tungsten carbide. This creates cutting edges having radii of curvature less than 0.4 {micro}m, and rake features similar to conventional lathe tools. Clearance for minimizing frictional drag of a tool results from the sputter yield dependence on ion herd target incidence angle. Numerically controlled, ultra-precision machining with micro-grooving tools results in a close matching between tool width and feature size. Microtools controllably machine 13 {micro}m wide, 4 {micro}m deep, helical grooves in polymethyl methacrylate and 6061-T6 Al cylindrical substrates. Micro-grooving tools also fabricate sinusoidal waveform features in polished metal substrates.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J. & KRISHNAN,A.S.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Micromilling of Metal Alloys with Focused Ion Beam-Fabricated Tools

Description: This work combines focused ion beam sputtering and ultra-precision machining as a first step in fabricating microstructure in metals and alloys. Specifically, {approx}25{micro}m diameter micro-end mills are made from cobalt M42 high-speed steel and C2 micrograin tungsten carbide tool blanks by ion beam sputtering. A 20 keV focused gallium beam defines tool cutting edges having radii of curvature < 0.1{micro}m. Micro-end mills having 2, 4 and 5 cutting edges successfully machine small trenches in 6061-T4 aluminum, brass, 4340 steel and polymethyl methacrylate. Machined trench widths are approximately equal to the tool diameters and surface roughnesses (rms) are {approx}150 nm or less. Microtools are robust and operate for more than 6 hours without fracture. Results from ultra-precision machining aluminum at feed rates as high as 50 mm/minute are included.
Date: November 5, 1999
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; VASILE,M.J.; BENAVIDES,GILBERT L. & CAMPBELL,ANN N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Composition and structure of sputter deposited erbium hydride thin films

Description: Erbium hydride thin films are grown onto polished, a-axis {alpha} Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} (sapphire) substrates by reactive ion beam sputtering and analyzed to determine composition, phase and microstructure. Erbium is sputtered while maintaining a H{sub 2} partial pressure of 1.4 x 10{sup {minus}4} Torr. Growth is conducted at several substrate temperatures between 30 and 500 C. Rutherford backscattering spectrometry (RBS) and elastic recoil detection analyses after deposition show that the H/Er areal density ratio is approximately 3:1 for growth temperatures of 30, 150 and 275 C, while for growth above {approximately}430 C, the ratio of hydrogen to metal is closer to 2:1. However, x-ray diffraction shows that all films have a cubic metal sublattice structure corresponding to that of ErH{sub 2}. RBS and Auger electron that sputtered erbium hydride thin films are relatively free of impurities.
Date: May 10, 2000
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; ROMERO,JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ,MARK A.; FLORO,JERROLD A. & BANKS,JAMES C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evolution of Stress in ScD{sub 2}/Cr Thin Films Fabricated by Evaporation and High Temperature Reaction

Description: The stress of scandium dideuteride, ScD{sub 2}, thin films is investigated during each stage of vacuum processing including metal deposition via evaporation, reaction and cooldown. ScD{sub 2} films with thin Cr underlayers are fabricated on three different substrate materials: molybdenum-alumina cermet, single crystal sapphire and quartz. In all experiments, the evaporated Cr and Sc metal is relatively stress-free. However, reaction of scandium metal with deuterium at elevated temperature to form a stoichiometric dideuteride phase leads to a large compressive in-plane film stress. Compression during hydriding results from an increased atomic density compared with the as-deposited metal film. After reaction with deuterium, samples are cooled to ambient temperature, and a tensile stress develops due to mismatched coefficients of thermal expansion (CTE) of the substrate-film couple. The residual film stress and the propensity for films to crack during cooldown depends principally on the substrate material when using identical process parameters. Films deposited onto quartz substrates show evidence of stress relief during cooldown due to a large CTE misfit; this is correlated with crack nucleation and propagation within films. All ScD{sub 2} layers remain in a state of tension when cooled to 30 C. An in-situ, laser-based, wafer curvature sensor is designed and implemented for studies of ScD{sub 2} film stress during processing. This instrument uses a two-dimensional array of laser beams to noninvasively monitor stress during sample rotation and with samples stationary. Film stress is monitored by scattering light off the backside of substrates, i.e., side opposite of the deposition flux.
Date: June 1, 2001
Creator: ADAMS,DAVID P.; BROWN,LAURENCE E.; GOEKE,RONALD S.; ROMERO,JUAN A. & SILVA,ANDREW D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Microstructure, Phase Formation, and Stress of Reactively-Deposited Metal Hydride Thin Films

Description: This document summarizes research of reactively deposited metal hydride thin films and their properties. Reactive deposition processes are of interest, because desired stoichiometric phases are created in a one-step process. In general, this allows for better control of film stress compared with two-step processes that react hydrogen with pre-deposited metal films. Films grown by reactive methods potentially have improved mechanical integrity, performance and aging characteristics. The two reactive deposition techniques described in this report are reactive sputter deposition and reactive deposition involving electron-beam evaporation. Erbium hydride thin films are the main focus of this work. ErH{sub x} films are grown by ion beam sputtering erbium in the presence of hydrogen. Substrates include a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {l_brace}0001{r_brace}, a Al{sub 2}O{sub 3} {l_brace}1120{r_brace}, Si{l_brace}001{r_brace} having a native oxide, and polycrystalline molybdenum substrates. Scandium dideuteride films are also studied. ScD{sub x} is grown by evaporating scandium in the presence of molecular deuterium. Substrates used for scandium deuteride growth include single crystal sapphire and molybdenum-alumina cermet. Ultra-high vacuum methods are employed in all experiments to ensure the growth of high purity films, because both erbium and scandium have a strong affinity for oxygen. Film microstructure, phase, composition and stress are evaluated using a number of thin film and surface analytical techniques. In particular, we present evidence for a new erbium hydride phase, cubic erbium trihydride. This phase develops in films having a large in-plane compressive stress independent of substrate material. Erbium hydride thin films form with a strong <111> out-of-plane texture on all substrate materials. A moderate in-plane texture is also found; this crystallographic alignment forms as a result of the substrate/target geometry and not epitaxy. Multi-beam optical sensors (MOSS) are used for in-situ analysis of erbium hydride and scandium hydride film stress. These instruments probe the evolution of film stress during all ...
Date: May 1, 2002
Creator: ADAMS, DAVID P.; ROMERO, JUAN A.; RODRIGUEZ, MARK A.; FLORO, JERROLD A. & KOTULA, PAUL G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Process-Based Quality Tools to Verify Cleaning and Surface Preparation

Description: A test method, the Tensile Brazil Nut Sandwich (TBNS) specimen, was developed to measure mixed-mode interfacial toughness of bonded materials. Interfacial toughness measured by this technique is compared to the interfacial toughness of thin film adhesive coatings using a nanoindentation technique. The interfacial toughness of solvent-cast and melt-spun adhesive thin films is compared and found to be similar. Finally, the Johnson-Kendall-Roberts (JKR) technique is used to evaluate the cleanliness of aluminum substrates.
Date: May 1, 2003
Creator: EMERSON, JOHN A.; GIUNTA, RACHEL K.; REEDY JR., EARL DAVID; ADAMS, DAVID P.; LEMKE, PAUL ALBERT & MOODY, NEVILLE R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Exploring the Feasibility of Fabricating Micron-Scale Components Using Microcontact Printing LDRD Final Report

Description: Many microfabrication techniques are being developed for applications in microelectronics, microsensors, and micro-optics. Since the advent of microcomponents, designers have been forced to modify their designs to include limitations of current technology, such as the inability to make three-dimensional structures and the need for piece-part assembly. Many groups have successfully transferred a wide variety of patterns to both two-dimensional and three-dimensional substrates using microcontact printing. Microcontact printing is a technique in which a self-assembled monolayer (SAM) is patterned onto a substrate by transfer printing. The patterned layer can act as an etch resist or a foundation upon which to build new types of microstructures. We created a gold pattern with features as small as 1.2 {micro}m using microcontact printing and subsequent processing. This approach looks promising for constructing single-level structures such as microelectrode arrays and sensors. It can be a viable technique for creating three-dimensional structures such as microcoils and microsprings if the right equipment is available to achieve proper alignment, and if a means is available to connect the final parts to other components in subsequent assembly operations. Microcontact printing provides a wide variety of new opportunities in the fabrication of microcomponents, and increases the options of designers.
Date: June 1, 2003
Creator: MYERS, RAMONA L.; RITCHEY, M. BARRY; STOKES, ROBERT N.; CASIAS, ADRIAN L.; ADAMS, DAVID P.; OLIVER, ANDREW D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department