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High power couplers for Project X

Description: Project X, a multi-megawatt proton source under development at Fermi National Accelerator Laboratory. The key element of the project is a superconducting (SC) 3GV continuous wave (CW) proton linac. The linac includes 5 types of SC accelerating cavities of two frequencies.(325 and 650MHz) The cavities consume up to 30 kW average RF power and need proper main couplers. Requirements and approach to the coupler design are discussed in the report. New cost effective schemes are described. Results of electrodynamics and thermal simulations are presented.
Date: March 1, 2011
Creator: Kazakov, S.; Champion, M.S.; Yakovlev, V.P.; Kramp, M.; Pronitchev, O.; Orlov, Y. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DNA Sequencing Using capillary Electrophoresis

Description: The overall goal of this program was to develop capillary electrophoresis as the tool to be used to sequence for the first time the Human Genome. Our program was part of the Human Genome Project. In this work, we were highly successful and the replaceable polymer we developed, linear polyacrylamide, was used by the DOE sequencing lab in California to sequence a significant portion of the human genome using the MegaBase multiple capillary array electrophoresis instrument. In this final report, we summarize our efforts and success. We began our work by separating by capillary electrophoresis double strand oligonucleotides using cross-linked polyacrylamide gels in fused silica capillaries. This work showed the potential of the methodology. However, preparation of such cross-linked gel capillaries was difficult with poor reproducibility, and even more important, the columns were not very stable. We improved stability by using non-cross linked linear polyacrylamide. Here, the entangled linear chains could move when osmotic pressure (e.g. sample injection) was imposed on the polymer matrix. This relaxation of the polymer dissipated the stress in the column. Our next advance was to use significantly lower concentrations of the linear polyacrylamide that the polymer could be automatically blown out after each run and replaced with fresh linear polymer solution. In this way, a new column was available for each analytical run. Finally, while testing many linear polymers, we selected linear polyacrylamide as the best matrix as it was the most hydrophilic polymer available. Under our DOE program, we demonstrated initially the success of the linear polyacrylamide to separate double strand DNA. We note that the method is used even today to assay purity of double stranded DNA fragments. Our focus, of course, was on the separation of single stranded DNA for sequencing purposes. In one paper, we demonstrated the success of our approach ...
Date: May 9, 2011
Creator: Karger, Dr. Barry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron Anomalous Magnetic Moment in Basis Light-Front Quantization Approach

Description: We apply the Basis Light-Front Quantization (BLFQ) approach to the Hamiltonian field theory of Quantum Electrodynamics (QED) in free space. We solve for the mass eigenstates corresponding to an electron interacting with a single photon in light-front gauge. Based on the resulting non-perturbative ground state light-front amplitude we evaluate the electron anomalous magnetic moment. The numerical results from extrapolating to the infinite basis limit reproduce the perturbative Schwinger result with relative deviation less than 1.2%. We report significant improvements over previous works including the development of analytic methods for evaluating the vertex matrix elements of QED.
Date: February 17, 2012
Creator: Zhao, Xingbo; U., /Iowa State; Honkanen, Heli; U., /Jyvaskyla; Maris, Pieter; Vary, James P. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Potentially Missing Physics of the Early Universe: Nonlinear Vacuum Polarization in Intense Blackbody Radiation

Description: The standard Big Bang universe model is mainly based on linear interactions, except during exotic periods such as inflation. The purpose of the present proposal is to explore the effects, if any, of vacuum polarization in the very high energy density environment of the early universe. These conditions can be found today in astrophysical settings and may also be emulated in the laboratory using high intensity advanced lasers. Shortly after the Big Bang, there once existed a time when the energy density of the universe corresponded to a temperature in the range 10{sup 8} - 10{sup 9} K, sufficient to cause vacuum polarization effects. During this period, the nonlinear vacuum polarization may have had significant modifications on the propagation of radiation. Thus the thermal spectrum of the early universe may have been starkly non-Planckian. Measurements of the cosmic microwave background today show a spectrum relatively close to an ideal blackbody. Could the early universe have shown spectral deviations due to nonlinear vacuum effects? If so, is it possible to detect traces of those relic photons in the universe today? Found in galactic environments, compact objects such as blazars and magnetars can possess astronomically large energy densities that far exceed anything that can be created in the laboratory. Their field strengths are known to reach energy levels comparable to or surpassing the energy corresponding to the Schwinger critical field E {approx} 10{sup 18} V/m. Nonlinear vacuum effects become prominent under these conditions and have garnered much interest from the astronomical and theoretical physics communities. The effects of a nonlinear vacuum may be of crucial importance for our understanding of these objects. At energies of the order of the electron rest mass, the most important interactions are described by quantum electrodynamics (QED). It is predicted that nonlinear photon-photon interactions will occur at ...
Date: April 13, 2010
Creator: Wu, S Q & Hartemann, F V
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Optical properties of the Ce and La ditelluride charge density wave compounds

Description: The La and Ce di-tellurides LaTe{sub 2} and CeTe{sub 2} are deep in the charge-density-wave (CDW) ground state even at 300 K. We have collected their electrodynamic response over a broad spectral range from the far infrared up to the ultraviolet. We establish the energy scale of the single particle excitation across the CDW gap. Moreover, we find that the CDW collective state gaps a very large portion of the Fermi surface. Similarly to the related rare earth tri-tellurides, we envisage that interactions and Umklapp processes play a role in the onset of the CDW broken symmetry ground state.
Date: February 15, 2010
Creator: Lavagnini, M.; Sacchetti, A.; Degiorgi, L.; Shin, K. Y. & Fisher, I. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Observation of the doubly strange b-Baryon Omega(b)-

Description: This thesis reports the first experimental evidence of the doubly strange b-baryon {Omega}{sub b}{sup -} (ssb) following the decay channel {Omega}{sub b}{sup -} {yields} J/{psi}(1S) {mu}{sup +}{mu}{sup -} {Omega}{sup -} {Lambda} K{sup -} p {pi}{sup -} in p{bar p} collisions at {radical}s = 1.96 Tev. Using approximately 1.3 fb{sup -1} of data collected with the D0 detector at the Fermilab Tevatron Collider, they observe 17.8 {+-} 4.9(stat) {+-} 0.8(syst) {Omega}{sub b}{sup -} signal events at 6.165 {+-} 0.010(stat) {+-} 0.013(syst) GeV/c{sup 2} with a corresponding significance of 5.4 {sigma}, meaning that the probability of the signal coming from a fluctuation in the background is 6.7 x 10{sup -8}. The theoretical model we have to describe what we believe are the building blocks of nature and the interactions between them, is known as Standard Model. The Standard Model is the combination of Electroweak Theory and Quantum Chromodynamics into a single core in the attempt to include all interactions of subatomic particles except those due to gravity in a simple framework. This model has proved highly accurate in predicting certain interactions, but it does not explain all aspects of subatomic particles. For example, it cannot say how many particles there should be or what their masses are. The search goes on for a more complete theory, and in particular an unified field theory describing the strong, weak, and electromagnetic forces. Twelve elementary particles are known in the Standard Model: the Fermions. They have spin -1/2 and obey the Pauli Exclusion Principle. Fermions are divided into six Quarks: up u, down d, charm c, strange s, top t and, bottom b; and six Leptons: electron e, muon {mu}, tau {tau}, electron neutrino {nu}{sub e}, muon neutrino {nu}{sub {mu}} and, tau neutrino {nu}{sub {tau}}. Quarks interact via the strong force because they carry color ...
Date: February 1, 2011
Creator: Hernandez Orduna, de Jesus, Jose
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The $\hbar$ Expansion in Quantum Field Theory

Description: We show how expansions in powers of Planck's constant {h_bar} = h = 2{pi} can give new insights into perturbative and nonperturbative properties of quantum field theories. Since {h_bar} is a fundamental parameter, exact Lorentz invariance and gauge invariance are maintained at each order of the expansion. The physics of the {h_bar} expansion depends on the scheme; i.e., different expansions are obtained depending on which quantities (momenta, couplings and masses) are assumed to be independent of {h_bar}. We show that if the coupling and mass parameters appearing in the Lagrangian density are taken to be independent of {h_bar}, then each loop in perturbation theory brings a factor of {h_bar}. In the case of quantum electrodynamics, this scheme implies that the classical charge e, as well as the fine structure constant are linear in {h_bar}. The connection between the number of loops and factors of {h_bar} is more subtle for bound states since the binding energies and bound-state momenta themselves scale with {h_bar}. The {h_bar} expansion allows one to identify equal-time relativistic bound states in QED and QCD which are of lowest order in {h_bar} and transform dynamically under Lorentz boosts. The possibility to use retarded propagators at the Born level gives valence-like wave-functions which implicitly describe the sea constituents of the bound states normally present in its Fock state representation.
Date: October 27, 2010
Creator: Brodsky, Stanley J.; /SLAC /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins; Hoyer, Paul & /Southern Denmark U., CP3-Origins /Helsinki U. /Helsinki Inst. of Phys.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Atoms in Flight: The Remarkable Connections between Atomic and Hadronic Physics

Description: Atomic physics and hadron physics are both based on Yang Mills gauge theory; in fact, quantum electrodynamics can be regarded as the zero-color limit of quantum chromodynamics. I review a number of areas where the techniques of atomic physics provide important insight into the theory of hadrons in QCD. For example, the Dirac-Coulomb equation, which predicts the spectroscopy and structure of hydrogenic atoms, has an analog in hadron physics in the form of light-front relativistic equations of motion which give a remarkable first approximation to the spectroscopy, dynamics, and structure of light hadrons. The renormalization scale for the running coupling, which is unambiguously set in QED, leads to a method for setting the renormalization scale in QCD. The production of atoms in flight provides a method for computing the formation of hadrons at the amplitude level. Conversely, many techniques which have been developed for hadron physics, such as scaling laws, evolution equations, and light-front quantization have equal utility for atomic physics, especially in the relativistic domain. I also present a new perspective for understanding the contributions to the cosmological constant from QED and QCD.
Date: February 16, 2012
Creator: Brodsky, Stanley J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Forward-Backward Asymmetry at High Mass in $t\bar{t}$ Production in $p\bar{p}$ Collisions at $\sqrt{s} = 1.96$ TeV

Description: Current understanding of particle physics postulates that there are 17 fundamental particles that interact via four fundamental forces - gravity, the strong force, the weak force, and the electromagnetic force. These fundamental particles can be classified by their spins into bosons, which are the force-carrying particles with integer spins, and fermions, which have half-integer spins. Fermions can be further divided into quarks and leptons. The particles and three of the four forces - all but gravity - are described by the Standard Model, a local SU(3) x SU(2) x U(1) gauge theory. Electromagnetic and weak interactions as described by Electroweak Theory or Quantum Electrodynamics, SU(2) x U(1). Strong interactions are described by Quantum Chromodynamics or QCD, SU(3). Fermions are grouped into three generations as shown in Table 1.1. Each generation consists of a leptonic doublet containing a charged and a neutral lepton and a weak isospin doublet containing two quarks. The first generation, containing the electron, the electron neutrino, the up quark, and the down quark, is the lightest generation and is thus the most frequently found in nature. The second generation contains the muon, the muon neutrino, the strange quark, and the charm quark. The third generation contains the tau, the tau neutrino, the bottom quark, and the top quark.
Date: April 1, 2011
Creator: Eppig, Andrew
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department