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The Effect of Long-Term Moderate Amounts of Ethanol on Paraventricular Nuclei Activity on Cold Stressed Adult Rats

Description: The effects of moderate, long-term intake of ethanol on the hypothalamic response to cold stress were examined. The long-term experimental animals were given .25 ml of 28% ethanol or .25 ml of water orally once a day, five days a week for fourteen months. A stainless steel electrode was then surgically implanted into the paraventricular nucleus, after which the animal was subjected to cold stress (-150 C, 10 min.). Recordings were taken in the forms of frequency and activity. The data clearly indicate that: (1) alcohol fed rats exhibited a suppressed response to cold stress compared to sham-fed rats; (2) this suppression of activity occurred at the level of the hypothalamus, and (3) mortality was significantly lower in alcohol-fed males than it was in sham fed males. This study clearly points out the need for further work in the area of the beneficial effects of moderate doses of alcohol.
Date: December 1990
Creator: McKinnon, Mark S. (Mark Steven)
Partner: UNT Libraries

``Clean`` fuels: Does the new direction make environmental sense?

Description: This paper examines the ramifications of this a three-pronged energy philosophy, with special reference to its expected environmental impact if it is fully implemented as policy. To recapitulate, the three prongs are to rely on a free energy market to determine winners and losers, which could certainly include Reformulated Gasoline (RFG) if it remains relatively cheap and clean; refocus the bulk of government-sponsored transportation energy research toward a ``great leap ahead`` to fully renewable and essentially pollution-free fuels such as hydrogen and fuel cells; and discontinue AFV pump priming. Of special interest is a premise that appears common to all prongs--that none of these measures represents a retreat from environmental goals or accomplishments on record since the National Environmental Policy Act of 1969 was passed.
Date: May 1996
Creator: Saricks, C. L. & Wang, M. Q.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly report, January 1, 1996--March 31, 1996

Description: Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane.
Date: October 1, 1996
Creator: Eckert, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Advance concepts for the conversion of syngas to liquids. Quarterly report No. 8, October 1, 1996--December 31, 1996

Description: Large pore Metal Substituted Aluminophosphate Molecular sieves, (H-MAPO-5, H-MnAPO-5, H-CoAPO-5 and H-MAPO-36) were evaluated for the conversion of ethanol in a continuous flow fixed microreactor. At 400{degrees}C, high conversion levels were observed. Ethylene and diethyl ether were the two major products obtained however the catalysts were more selective for ethylene under the reaction conditions. At 500{degrees}C ethylene was the only product detected. The low concentration of acid sites combined with the possibly mild acid strengths of the molecular sieves were speculated to be possible reasons for the absence of higher hydrocarbons form the reaction products. Trends for the catalytic behavior of the various catalysts were unpredictable due to a number of reasons. Among these are (1) differing levels of divalent metal substitution, (2) varying amount of extraframework species which can have tremendous negative impact on catalytic performance, (3) differing levels of H{sup +} exchange, and (4) differing levels of crystallinity and thermal stability.
Date: June 1, 1997
Creator: Szostak, R. & Ingram, C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Comparison of vapor sampling system (VSS) and in situ vapor sampling (ISVS) methods on Tanks C-107, BY-108, and S-102

Description: The objective of this report is to evaluate the equivalency of two methods used to sample nonradioactive gases and vapors in the Hanford Site high-level waste tank headspaces. In addition to the comparison of the two sampling methods, the effects of an in-line fine particle filter on sampling results are also examined to determine whether results are adversely affected by its presence. This report discusses data from a January 1996 sampling.
Date: May 1, 1996
Creator: Huckaby, J. L.; Edwards, J. A. & Evans, J. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bench-scale demonstration of biological production of ethanol from coal synthesis gas. Topical report 5, Process analysis

Description: The economics of converting coal to ethanol by a biological process is quite attractive. When processing 1500 tons of coal per day, the plant generates 85 million gallons of ethanol per year. The return on investment for the process is 110 percent and the payout is 0.9 years.
Date: November 1, 1995
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Performance of co-immobilized yeast and glucoamylase in a fluidized bed reactor for fuel ethanol production

Description: The performance of co-immobilized Saccharomyces cerevisiae and glucoamylase was evaluated in a fluidized bed reactor. Soluble starch and yeast extract were used as feed stocks. The biocatalyst performed well and demonstrated no significant loss of activity or physical integrity during 10 weeks of continuous operation. The reactor was easily operated and required no pH control. No operational problems were encountered from bacterial contaminants even though the reactor was operated under non-sterile conditions over the entire course of experiments. Productivities ranged between 25 to 44 g ethanol L{sup -1} h{sup -1}. The experiments demonstrated that ethanol inhibition and bed loading had significant effects on bed performance.
Date: July 1, 1996
Creator: Sun, M.Y.; Bienkowski, P.R.; Davison, B.H.; Spurrier, M.A. & Webb, O.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigation of the effect of coal particle sizes on the interfacial and rheological properties of coal-water slurry fuels. Quarterly report No. 2, October 1, 1995--December 31, 1995

Description: Experiments have been performed to simulate the effects of high viscosity and surface tension of CWS fuel on its atomization. Aqueous solutions of glycerol simulated the high viscosity condition of CWS fuels and ethanol solutions allowed to separately investigate the effect of surface tension. A Fraunhofer diffraction particle sizing technique measured the spatial distribution of Sauter mean diameters (SMDs) for the cross injecting sprays which were previously described in the Quarterly Report No. 1. Experimentally determined parametric correlations reveals the dependence of the spray SMDs on the liquid viscosity, surface tension, the air flow rate, the liquid flow rate, the orifice nozzle diameter, and the measurement locations. This simulated correlation will provide important guidelines for the actual CWS spray experiment to be performed in the successive quarter.
Date: December 31, 1995
Creator: Kihm, K.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy and environmental research emphasizing low-rank coal: Task 5.7, Coal char fuel evaporation canister sorbent

Description: Atomobile evaporative emission canisters contain activated carbon sorbents that trap and store fuel vapors emitted from automobile fuel tanks during periods of hot ambient temperatures and after engine operation. When a vehicle is started, combustion air is pulled through the canister, and adsorbed vapors are removed from the sorbent and routed to the intake manifold for combustion along with fuel from the tank. The two primary requirements of an effective canister sorbent are that (1) it must be a strong enough adsorbent to hold on to the fuel vapors that contact it and (2) it must be a weak enough adsorbent to release the captured vapors in the presence of the airflow required by the engine for fuel combustion. Most currently available commercial canister sorbents are made from wood, which is reacted with phosphoric acid and heat to yield an activated carbon with optimum pore size for gasoline vapor adsorption. The objectives of Task 5.7 were to (1) design and construct a test system for evaluating the performance of different sorbents in trapping and releasing butane, gasoline, and other organic vapors; (2) investigate the use of lignite char as an automobile fuel evaporation canister sorbent; (3) compare the adsorbing and desorbing characteristics of lignite chars with those of several commercial sorbents; and (4) investigate whether the presence of ethanol in fuel vapors affects sorbent performance in any way. Tests with two different sorbents (a wood-derived activated carbon and a lignite char) showed that with both sorbents, ethanol vapor breakthrough took about twice as long as hydrocarbon vapor breakthrough. Possible reasons for this, including an increased sorbent affinity for ethanol vapors, will be investigated. If this effect is real (i.e., reproducible over an extensive series of tests under varying conditions), it may help explain why ethanol vapor concentrations in SHED test ...
Date: August 1, 1995
Creator: Aulich, T.R.; Grisanti, A.A. & Knudson, C.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A low-energy continuous reactor-separator for ethanol from starch, whey permeate, permeate mother liquor, molasses or cellulosics. Project final report, April 1, 1994--February 28, 1997

Description: In this project, a novel bio-reactor technology in which reaction is coupled with product separation was developed to pilot/demonstration scale. Combining reaction with separation during a fermentation allows the fermentation of highly concentrated feeds and allows the fermentation of streams with high levels of salts/non-fermentable inhibitors. Simultaneous saccharification and fermentation of polysaccharides such as starch and cellulose can also be combined with ethanol separation in the Continuous Stirred Reactor Separator (CSRS). Application of the bio-reactor to various substrates was investigated on a lab scale with fermentation of raw starch, cane molasses, xylose, whey permeate and permeate mother liquor. Flocculating yeast strains for high density sucrose/glucose fermentation were selected and adapted to form fast settling pellets. A strain of K marxianus capable of fermenting high salt permeate mother liquor was also selected and adapted. A low energy solvent ethanol recovery system was developed for ethanol recovery from the vapors leaving the reactor/separator. This Solvent Absorption/Extractive Distillation (SAED) process gives a low energy method for purifying the ethanol to an anhydrous product. The amount of energy needed to recover an anhydrous ethanol product from a CSRS stage running at 8% ethanol was calculated to be under 8,000 BTU/gallon. This process may also have further application in VOC (volatile organic carbon compounds) removal from air streams. During this project, a 24,000 Liter CSRS was designed, fabricated, installed, and operated at a small batch ethanol plant (Permeate Refining Inc) in NE Iowa. The reactor was operated on a semi-continuous basis over a period of 18 months. A Solvent Absorption Extractive Distillation (SAED) system was also recently completed and installed at the Permeate Refining Inc. site for ethanol recovery/dehydration.
Date: April 14, 1997
Creator: Dale, M.C. & Moelhman, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermodynamic and kinetic consistency of calculated binary nucleation rates

Description: To establish the accuracy and applicability of analytical expressions for the steady state rate of binary nucleation, we numerically solved the birth-death equations for the vapor-to-liquid transition. These calculations were performed using rate coefficients that are consistent with the principle of detailed balance and a new self-consistent form of the equilibrium distribution function for binary cluster concentrations. We found that the customary saddle point and growth path approximations are almost always valid and can fail only if the nucleating solution phase is significantly nonideal. For example, problems can arise when the vapor composition puts the system on the verge of partial liquid phase miscibility. When this occurs for comparable monomer impingement rates, nucleation still occurs through the saddle point, but the usual quadratic expansion for the cluster free energy is inadequate. When the two impingement rates differ significantly, however, the major particle flux may bypass the saddle point and cross a low ridge on the free energy surface. The dependence of the saddle point location on the gas phase composition is also important in initiating or terminating ridge crossing nucleation.
Date: April 2, 1996
Creator: Wilemski, G. & Wyslouzil, B.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Fuel Ethanol Use on Fuel-Cycle Energy and Greenhouse Gas Emissions

Description: We estimated the effects on per-vehicle-mile fuel-cycle petroleum use, greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions, and energy use of using ethanol blended with gasoline in a mid-size passenger car, compared with the effects of using gasoline in the same car. Our analysis includes petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with chemicals manufacturing, farming of corn and biomass, ethanol production, and ethanol combustion for ethanol; and petroleum use, energy use, and emissions associated with petroleum recovery, petroleum refining, and gasoline combustion for gasoline. For corn-based ethanol, the key factors in determining energy and emissions impacts include energy and chemical usage intensity of corn farming, energy intensity of the ethanol plant, and the method used to estimate energy and emissions credits for co-products of corn ethanol. The key factors in determining the impacts of cellulosic ethanol are energy and chemical usage intensity of biomass farming, ethanol yield per dry ton of biomass, and electricity credits in cellulosic ethanol plants. The results of our fuel-cycle analysis for fuel ethanol are listed below. Note that, in the first half of this summary, the reductions cited are per-vehicle-mile traveled using the specified ethanol/gasoline blend instead of conventional (not reformulated) gasoline. The second half of the summary presents estimated changes per gallon of ethanol used in ethanol blends. GHG emissions are global warming potential (GWP)-weighted, carbon dioxide (CO2)-equivalent emissions of CO2, methane (CH4), and nitrous oxide (N2O).
Date: February 8, 1999
Creator: Saricks, C.; Santini, D. & Wang, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of ethanol from refinery waste gases. Phase 2, technology development, annual report

Description: Oil refineries discharge large volumes of H{sub 2}, CO, and CO{sub 2} from cracking, coking, and hydrotreating operations. This program seeks to develop a biological process for converting these waste gases into ethanol, which can be blended with gasoline to reduce emissions. Production of ethanol from all 194 US refineries would save 450 billion BTU annually, would reduce crude oil imports by 110 million barrels/year and emissions by 19 million tons/year. Phase II efforts has yielded at least 3 cultures (Clostridium ljungdahlii, Isolate O-52, Isolate C-01) which are able to produce commercially viable concentrations of ethanol from CO, CO{sub 2}, and H{sub 2} in petroleum waste gas. Single continuous stirred tank reactor studies have shown that 15-20 g/L of ethanol can be produced, with less than 5 g/L acetic acid byproduct. Culture and reactor optimization in Phase III should yield even higher ethanol concentrations and minimal acetic acid. Product recovery studies showed that ethanol is best recovered in a multi-step process involving solvent extraction/distillation to azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation, or direct distillation to the azeotrope/azeotropic distillation or pervaporation. Projections show that the ethanol facility for a typical refinery would require an investment of about $30 million, which would be returned in less than 2 years.
Date: July 1, 1995
Creator: Arora, D.; Basu, R.; Phillips, J.R.; Wikstrom, C.V.; Clausen, E.C. & Gaddy, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Economic analysis of ethanol production from switchgrass using hybrid thermal/biological processing

Description: The economics of ethanol production from switchgrass using Waterloo fast pyrolysis with a fermentation step is investigated. Standard chemical engineering methods are used to estimate capital investment and operating costs. Order of magnitude method is employed for preliminary approximation of capital investment. The azeotropic ethanol production capacity used in this case study is 189 million liters/year (50 million gallons/year). All cost figures are updated to 1997 US $. Total capital investment is estimated to be $142 million, while the annual operating cost is about $118 million with an ethanol selling price of $0.62/l ($2.35/gal). This compares to $0.58/l ($2.20/gal) for ethanol from popular wood as determined in a previous study of the Waterloo fast pyrolysis process. Conservation of energy, especially, in the separation and purification steps, and generation of steam from lignin to meet energy requirements are evaluated in terms of energy saving costs. Additional steam has to be purchased, at $0.30 million/year, in order to meet the heat energy requirement of the process. Sensitivity analyses of feedstock cost and yield of sugar fermentation on the selling price of ethanol show that feedstock cost is positively related to ethanol selling price, while the yield has a negative relationship with selling price.
Date: December 31, 1998
Creator: So, K.S.; Brown, R.C. & Scott, D.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Supercritical fluid reactions for coal processing. Quarterly progress report, April 1, 1996--June 30, 1996

Description: Exciting opportunities exist for the application of supercritical fluid (SCF) reactions for the pre-treatment of coal. Utilizing reactants which resemble the organic nitrogen containing components of coal, we propose to develop a method to tailor chemical reactions in supercritical fluid solvents for the specific application of coal denitrogenation. The tautomeric equilibrium of a Schiff base was chosen as the model system and was investigated in supercritical ethane and cosolvent modified supercritical ethane.
Date: November 1, 1996
Creator: Eckert, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

BioFacts: Fueling a stronger economy, Global warming and biofuels emissions

Description: The focus of numerous federal and state regulations being proposed and approved today is the reduction of automobile emissions -- particularly carbon dioxide (CO{sub 2}), which is the greenhouse gas considered responsible for global warming. Studies conducted by the USDOE through the National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL) indicate that the production and use of biofuels such as biodiesel, ethanol, and methanol could nearly eliminate the contribution of net CO{sub 2} from automobiles. This fact sheet provides and overview of global warming, followed by a summary of NREL`s study results.
Date: December 1, 1994
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Sustainable biomass products development and evaluation, Hamakua project. Final draft report

Description: The PICHTR Sustainable Biomass Energy Program was developed to evaluate the potential to cultivate crops for energy production as an alternative use of lands made available by the closing of large sugar plantations. In particular, the closing of the Hamakua Sugar Company on the island of Hawaii brought a great deal of attention to the future of agriculture in this region and in the state. Many options were proposed. Several promising alternatives had been proposed for cane lands. These included dedicated feedstock supply systems (DFSS) for electrical energy production, cultivation of sugarcane to produce ethanol and related by-products, and the production of feed and crops to support animal agriculture. Implementation of some of the options might require preservation of large tracts of land and maintenance of the sugar mills and sugar infrastructure. An analysis of the technical, financial, and other issues necessary to reach conclusions regarding the optimal use of these lands was required. At the request of the Office of State Planning and Senator Akaka`s office, the Pacific International Center for High Technology Research (PICHTR) established and coordinated a working group composed of state, county, federal, and private sector representatives to identify sustainable energy options for the use of idle sugar lands on the island of Hawaii. The Sustainable Biomass Energy Program`s Hamakua Project was established to complete a comprehensive evaluation of the most viable alternatives and assess the options to grow crops as a source of raw materials for the production of transportation fuel and/or electricity on the island of Hawaii. The motivation for evaluating biomass to energy conversion embraced the considerations that Hawaii`s energy security would be improved by diversifying the fuels used for transportation and reducing dependency on imported fossil fuels. The use of waste products as feedstocks could divert wastes from landfills.
Date: May 1998
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Determination of alternative fuels combustion products: Phase 3 report

Description: This report describes the laboratory efforts to characterize particulate and gaseous exhaust emissions from a passenger vehicle operating on alternative fuels. Tests were conducted at room temperature (nominally 72 F) and 20 F utilizing the chassis dynamometer portion of the FTP for light-duty vehicles. Fuels evaluated include Federal RFG, LPG meeting HD-5 specifications, a national average blend of CNG, E85, and M85. Exhaust particulate generated at room temperature was further characterized to determine polynuclear aromatic content, trace element content, and trace organic constituents. For all fuels except M85, the room temperature particulate emission rate from this vehicle was about 2 to 3 mg/mile. On M85, the particulate emission rate was more than 6 mg/mile. In addition, elemental analysis of particulate revealed an order of magnitude more sulfur and calcium from M85 than any other fuel. The sulfur and calcium indicate that these higher emissions might be due to engine lubricating oil in the exhaust. For RFG, particulate emissions at 20 F were more than six times higher than at room temperature. For alcohol fuels, particulate emissions at 20 F were two to three times higher than at room temperature. For CNG and LPG, particulate emissions were virtually the same at 72 F and 20 F. However, PAH emissions from CNG and LPG were higher than expected. Both gaseous fuels had larger amounts of pyrene, 1-nitropyrene, and benzo(g,h,i)perylene in their emissions than the other fuels.
Date: December 1, 1997
Creator: Whitney, K.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A pilot plant scale reactor/separator for ethanol from cellulosics. Quarterly report No. 1 & 2, October 1, 1997--March 30, 1998

Description: The basic objective of this project is to develop and demonstrate a continuous, low energy process for the conversion of cellulosics to ethanol. This process involves a pretreatment step followed by enzymatic release of sugars and the consecutive saccharification/fermentation of cellulose (glucans) followed by hemi-cellulose (glucans) in a multi-stage continuous stirred reactor separator (CSRS). During year 1, pretreatment and bench scale fermentation trials will be performed to demonstrate and develop the process, and during year 2, a 130 L or larger process scale unit will be operated to demonstrate the process using straw or cornstalks. Co-sponsors of this project include the Indiana Biomass Grants Program, Bio-Process Innovation, Xylan Inc as a possible provider of pretreated biomass.
Date: June 1998
Creator: Dale, M. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The production of fuels and chemicals from food processing wastes & cellulosics. Final research report

Description: High strength food wastes of about 15-20 billion pounds solids are produced annually by US food producers. Low strength food wastes of 5-10 billion pounds/yr. are produced. Estimates of the various components of these waste streams are shown in Table 1. Waste paper/lignocellulosic crops could produce 2 to 5 billion gallons of ethanol per year or other valuable chemicals. Current oil imports cost the US about $60 billion dollars/yr. in out-going balance of trade costs. Many organic chemicals that are currently derived from petroleum can be produced through fermentation processes. Petroleum based processes have been preferred over biotechnology processes because they were typically cheaper, easier, and more efficient. The technologies developed during the course of this project are designed to allow fermentation based chemicals and fuels to compete favorably with petroleum based chemicals. Our goals in this project have been to: (1) develop continuous fermentation processes as compared to batch operations; (2) combine separation of the product with the fermentation, thus accomplishing the twin goals of achieving a purified product from a fermentation broth and speeding the conversion of substrate to product in the fermentation broth; (3) utilize food or cellulosic waste streams which pose a current cost or disposal problem as compared to high cost grains or sugar substrates; (4) develop low energy recovery methods for fermentation products; and finally (5) demonstrate successful lab scale technologies on a pilot/production scale and try to commercialize the processes. The scale of the wastes force consideration of {open_quotes}bulk commodity{close_quotes} type products if a high fraction of the wastes are to be utilized.
Date: June 15, 1997
Creator: Dale, M. C.; Okos, M. & Burgos, N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The ethanol heavy-duty truck fleet demonstration project

Description: This project was designed to test and demonstrate the use of a high- percentage ethanol-blended fuel in a fleet of heavy-duty, over-the- road trucks, paying particular attention to emissions, performance, and repair and maintenance costs. This project also represents the first public demonstration of the use of ethanol fuels as a viable alternative to conventional diesel fuel in heavy-duty engines.
Date: June 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preparation for commercial demonstration of biomass-to-ethanol conversion technology. Final report

Description: The objective of this program was to complete the development of a commercially viable process to produce fuel ethanol from renewable cellulosic biomass. The program focused on pretreatment, enzymatic hydrolysis, and fermentation technologies where Amoco has a unique proprietary position. Assured access to low-cost feedstock is a cornerstone of attractive economics for cellulose to ethanol conversion in the 1990s. Most of Amoco`s efforts in converting cellulosic feedstocks to ethanol before 1994 focused on using paper from municipal solid waste as the feed. However, while many municipalities and MSW haulers expressed interest in Amoco`s technology, none were willing to commit funding to process development. In May, 1994 several large agricultural products companies showed interest in Amoco`s technology, particularly for application to corn fiber. Amoco`s initial work with corn fiber was encouraging. The project work plan was designed to provide sufficient data on corn fiber conversion to convince a major agriculture products company to participate in the construction of a commercial demonstration facility.
Date: July 1, 1997
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fabrication and testing of an enhanced ignition system to reduce cold-start emissions in an ethanol (E85) light-duty truck engine

Description: This report describes an experimental investigation of the potential for an enhanced ignition system to lower the cold-start emissions of a light-duty vehicle engine using fuel ethanol (commonly referred to as E85). Plasma jet ignition and conventional inductive ignition were compared for a General Motors 4-cylinder, alcohol-compatible engine. Emission and combustion stability measurements were made over a range of air/fuel ratios and spark timing settings using a steady-state, cold-idle experimental technique in which the engine coolant was maintained at 25 C to simulate cold-running conditions. These tests were aimed at identifying the degree to which calibration strategies such as mixture enleanment and retarded spark timing could lower engine-out hydrocarbon emissions and raise exhaust temperatures, as well as determining how such calibration changes would affect the combustion stability of the engine (as quantified by the coefficient of variation, or COV, of indicated mean effective pressure calculated from successive cylinder pressure measurements). 44 refs., 39 figs.
Date: September 1, 1997
Creator: Gardiner, D.; Mallory, R. & Todesco, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department