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Chemistry of water and sediment from the benthic boundary layer at a site in the Northwest Atlantic Ocean

Description: A primary objective of this study was to characterize the corrosive potential of the benthic boundary layer at a site where selected metal alloys were being exposed. Those properties of sea water and sediment likely to affect the corrosion of alloys that were measured in this study include salinity, pH, scale-forming cations, redox potential, dissolved gases, heavy metal ions, abrasive particulates, and microorganisms. The chemical properties of water from the benthic boundary layer do not appear to differ substantially from those of surface sea water. Salinity, pH and major ion content of this water appear to be representative of well-oxygenated, unpolluted oceanic water. On the basis of the properties examined, it is expected that corrosion of metals exposed in the deep sea would not differ greatly from that in surface waters having similar properties. However, the effect of pressure on corrosion rates and chemical forms of corrosion products may be an unknown factor of major importance. Increased calcite solubility at depth has been well-documented and the resulting inhibited formation of protective scale may be indicative of the effects of pressure on corrosion. The presence of sulfate-reducing bacteria in the bottom sediments at this site indicates that, if diffusion of O/sub 2/ into the sediment was inhibited, stainless steels buried in the mud would lose passivity and corrosion rates would increase. The eventual fate of corrosion products is dependent on their properties and the properties of their environment. In benthic boundary layer sea water it might be expected that corrosion products would be released as metal oxides. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Schmidt, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories, July 27-28, 1977

Description: The workshop on Potentially Disruptive Phenomena for Nuclear Waste Repositories brought together experts in the geosciences to identify and evaluate potentially disruptive events and processes and to contribute ideas on how to extrapolate data from the past into the next one million years. The analysis is to be used to model a repository in geologic media for long-term safety assessments of nuclear waste storage. The workshop included invited presentations on the following items: an overview of the Waste Isolation Safety Assessment Program (WISAP), simulation techniques, subjective probabilities and methodology of obtaining data, similar modeling efforts at Lawrence Livermore and Sandia Laboratories, and geologic processes or events.
Date: January 1, 1977
Creator: Jacobson, J. J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nutritional significance of Copper--Bering Intertidal System to spring-migrating shorebirds breeding in western Alaska. Annual report, April 1, 1977--March 31, 1978

Description: In the year ending 1 April 1978, significant new dimensions were added to an appraisal of the Copper River Delta system as critical habitat for Dunlins and Western Sandpipers in spring migration. Selective field work was conducted at other sites in Alaska along the migratory-to-breeding continuum of localities between the Copper Delta and northwestern Alaska. Predictions made last year about the differing physiological/behavioral/migration dynamics of the two species have been borne out by the documentation of predicted major stopovers by westerns in Kachemak Bay, Lower Cook Inlet, and the virtual absence of Dunlins from that region, as predicted. Close cooperation with Arneson (RU 3) and Gill (RU 341, Nelson Lagoon) has proven to be mutually advantageous in both putting the Copper Delta into context, and verifying that postulated different migration strategies characterize the two species in fall as well as in spring movements. Both species appear to be highly susceptible to any intertidal habitat degradation in the C-BRD system, although of the two, the Dunlin shows a higher degree of obligate habitat dependency on the C-BRD system itself. By contrast, current understanding leads us to regard habitat degradation in Lower Cook Inlet as at least as serious a threat to westerns as similar events in the Copper--Bering system. A final report of this phase of work is expected to be ready on 1 October 1978. Perturbation experiments (small plot oiling, exclosure pens) are under consideration for possible renewal proposals in 1979.
Date: April 1, 1978
Creator: Senner, S.E. & West, G.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Ocean thermal energy conversion ecological data report from OSS Researcher in Gulf of Mexico, (GOTEC-01), July 12-23, 1977

Description: Ecological measurements important for environmental assessment of the effect of an operating Ocean Thermal Energy Conversion plant were initiated in July 1977 at the proposed Gulf of Mexico site off the coasts of Louisiana, Mississippi, Alabama and Florida. The initial cruise of the OSS Researcher, in a joint effort with the Atlantic Oceanic and Meteorological Laboratories (AOML) of the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration (NOAA), and Lawrence Berkeley Laboratory (LBL) took place from 12 to 23 July 1977. The measurements were taken at 15 oceanographic stations to a maximum depth of 1000 m. Water was analyzed for trace metals, nutrients and chlorophyll a and ATP. Physical data, salinity and dissolved oxygen measurements were supplied by NOAA-AOML. Two bioassays were carried out using indigenous phytoplankton to estimate the effect of deep water on the rates of /sup 14/CO/sub 2/ uptake of photic zone algae. The Deep Scattering Layer (DSL) was monitored at the site by a continuously recording 12 kHz depth sounder at the Mobile site. This report presents data collected during the cruise.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Quinby-Hunt, M.S. (comp.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal resource and reservoir investigations of U. S. Bureau of Reclamation leaseholds at East Mesa, Imperial Valley, California

Description: The study included five parts: geology, seismicity, well testing, reservoir simulation, and geochemistry. Included in appendices are: production test data and discussion, interference tests, production tests in the northern portion of the East Mesa KGRA, conversion tables, chemical analysis of fluids from East Mesa wells, and results of laboratory studies of scale samples taken from the vertical tube evaporator. (MHR)
Date: October 1, 1978
Creator: Howard, J.; Apps, J.A. & Benson, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional systems development for geothermal energy resources: Pacific region (California and Hawaii). Task I: implementation plan development, topical report

Description: Eleven implementation plans were prepared. They represent some 21 reservoir-site developments and 48 geothermal power plant developments. The plans consist of three integrated elements: (1) a bar-chart schedule that depicts interdependencies among activities and shows significant milestones on the path from initial exploration to power on-line, (2) task descriptions, and (3) the responsible performers. During the preparation of the implementation plans, the tasks required for resource development at each KGRA were defined on a generalized work breakdown structure (WBS) diagram. A generalized WBS dictionary (task descriptions) was also compiled. In addition, a specific WBS for each KGRA was prepared in a tabular and indented format. The tasks formed the basis for the schedular activities. Institutional responsibilities, based upon the WBS, were identified and are also shown on the tabular WBS. In this manner, implementation plans evolved whose schedular, task, and responsibility elements were integrated with one another. In order to provide logically consistent time estimates, and a reasonable basis for comparison, schedule modules were developed for some recurring activities which are essentially common to all KGRAs. In the preparation of multiple plant schedules for a given KGRA, the interactive effects of power development on the ancillary resources of the area were considered so that interfaces and constraining situations would be identified. Within Imperial County, this process was taken one step further to include the influence that development at the several close-lying KGRAs would have upon one another. A set of recommendations for the accelerated development of geothermal energy resources was prepared and the potential implementors were suggested.
Date: March 26, 1979
Creator: Michler, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Regional Systems Development for Geothermal Energy Resources Pacific Region (California and Hawaii). Task 3: water resources evaluation. Topical report

Description: The fundamental objective of the water resources analysis was to assess the availability of surface and ground water for potential use as power plant make-up water in the major geothermal areas of California. The analysis was concentrated on identifying the major sources of surface and ground water, potential limitations on the usage of this water, and the resulting constraints on potentially developable electrical power in each geothermal resource area. Analyses were completed for 11 major geothermal areas in California: four in the Imperial Valley, Coso, Mono-Long Valley, Geysers-Calistoga, Surprise Valley, Glass Mountain, Wendel Amedee, and Lassen. One area in Hawaii, the Puna district, was also included in the analysis. The water requirements for representative types of energy conversion processes were developed using a case study approach. Cooling water requirements for each type of energy conversion process were estimated based upon a specific existing or proposed type of geothermal power plant. The make-up water requirements for each type of conversion process at each resource location were then estimated as a basis for analyzing any constraints on the megawatts which potentially could be developed.
Date: March 19, 1979
Creator: Sakaguchi, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Study of practical cycles for geothermal power plants. Final report

Description: A comparison is made of the performance and cost of geothermal power cycles designed specifically, utilizing existing technology, to exploit the high temperature, high salinity resource at Niland and the moderate temperature, moderately saline resource at East Mesa in California's Imperial Valley. Only two kinds of cycles are considered in the analysis. Both employ a dual flash arrangement and the liberated steam is either utilized directly in a condensing steam turbine or used to heat a secondary working fluid in a closed Rankine (binary) cycle. The performance of several organic fluids was investigated for the closed cycle and the most promising were selected for detailed analysis with the given resource conditions. Results show for the temperature range investigated that if the noncondensible gas content in the brine is low, a dual flash condensing steam turbine cycle is potentially better in terms of resource utilization than a dual flash binary cycle. (The reverse is shown to be true when the brine is utilized directly for heat exchange.) It is also shown that despite the higher resource temperature, the performance of the dual flash binary cycle at Niland is degraded appreciably by the high salinity and its output per unit of brine flow is almost 20 percent lower than that of the steam turbine cycle at East Mesa. Turbine designs were formulated and costs established for power plants having a nominal generating capacity of 50 MW. Three cycles were analyzed in detail. At East Mesa a steam turbine and a binary cycle were compared. At Niland only the binary cycle was analyzed since the high CO/sub 2/ content in the brine precludes the use of a steam turbine there. In each case only the power island equipment was considered and well costs and the cost of flash separators, steam scrubbers and piping ...
Date: April 1, 1977
Creator: Eskesen, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Thermal depletion of a geothermal reservoir with both fracture and pore permeability

Description: A method for estimating the useful lifetime of a reservoir in porous rock where the injection and production wells intersect a fracture system is presented. Equations were derived for the pore-fluid and fracture-fluid temperatures averaged over large regions of the geothermal field. Problems such as incomplete areal sweep and interfingering of cool and hot fluids are ignored. Approximate equations relating average temperatures to the heat flowing from rock to fluid were developed, and their use is justified by comparing the results with solutions of the exact equations. The equations for the temperature decline can be solved quickly. In the model, fractures are characterized by three parameters: aperture w, permeability k/sub fr/, and spacings between fractures D. For certain values of these parameters, cool reinjected fluid in fractures may reach the production wells long before all the warm pore fluid has been tapped, shortening the useful lifetime of the field. The traditional (and important) problems of reservoir engineering, flow rate determination, drawdown, sweep patterns, etc. were ignored. Thus the results are most useful in providing a correction factor which can be applied to lifetime estimates obtained from a detailed simulation of a field assuming porous rock. That correction factor is plotted for clean fractures (k/sub fr/ = w/sup 2//12) as a function of w and D for several lifetime ranges. Small-scale fractures seen in cores from the Salton Sea Geothermal Field are too closely spaced to reduce lifetime estimates. However, large-scale fault systems exist within that field, and they are attractive drilling targets because they produce large flow rates. If large scale faults communicate between injection and production wells, they may reduce the useful lifetime of those wells.
Date: August 10, 1976
Creator: Kasameyer, P.W. & Schroeder, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary report: Qattara Project material properties

Description: Measurements of strength under triaxial loading and compressibility under hydrostatic loading for four representative materials along a proposed route of a canal from the Mediterranean Sea to the Qattara Depression are reported. The results of these measurements are used in computer calculations for cratering profiles using nuclear explosives. Considerations of the lithology along the route have led to a characterization of earth material type using four descriptors: (1) limestone; (2) sandstone; (3) high sand; and (4) clay/silt. The memo is a preliminary report of the work and data reduction. A more complete account will be published at a later date.
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Costantino, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Studies of brine chemistry, precipitation of solids, and scale formation at the Salton Sea geothermal field

Description: Factors affecting the precipitation of solids and deposition of scale from the hypersaline brines of the Salton Sea geothermal field - two potential problems in the proposed utilization of these brines for electric power generation - were investigated. The average physical and chemical composition of the fluid from Magmamax No. 1 well was noted and the effects of changes in well flowrate on the chemistry of the brine and the formation of solids were determined. The effects of pH on the process stream chemistry and on the composition and rates of formation of solids and scale that precipitated from this brine were studied. Reduction of the pH from 6 to 4-5 decreased the scaling rates and increased the proportions of bariun sulfate and calcium fluoride in the scales and precipitated solids. These studies were conducted using a small-scale four-stage brine flash system constructed at the site.
Date: January 8, 1979
Creator: Harrar, J.E.; Otto, C.H. Jr.; Deutscher, S.B.; Ryon, R.W. & Tardiff, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Removal of silica from spent geothermal brine

Description: Preliminary survey experiments conducted at the LLL Salton Sea Geothermal Test Site in April and May, 1977 are reported. The addition of caustic to raise the brine pH to approximately 6 precipitated silica and other materials. The addition of flocculating agents, such as ferric hydroxide, aids settling and filtration. Small-scale pilot plant studies are recommended.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Ryon, R.W. & Hill, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water for long-term geothermal enegy production in the Imperial Valley

Description: The geothermal resources of California's Imperial Valley have the potential for the production of an estimated 3000 to 5000 MW/yr of electricity for 30 yr, provided that adeuqate cooling water is available for power plants. There are five possible sources of cooling water: irrigation water, waste waters from agriculture, steam condensate, ground water, and water from the Salton Sea. Technical, environmental, and regulatory constraints, however, could limit the availability of the water supplies. Of particular concern are the constraints that could be imposed if different water policies were implemented. To study how future policies could affect geothermal development, six combinations of various policies were defined to represent potential regulatory controls. A range of future water balances in the valley was also specified. The water balances plus the six policy combinations were used to determine whether deficits of cooling water would eventually constrain low, medium, or high levels of geothermal energy production. A companion analysis of changes in the elevation and salinity of the Salton Sea resulting from the use of agricultural waters for cooling was also made.
Date: September 22, 1978
Creator: Layton, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Water-related impacts of geothermal energy production in California's Imperial Valley

Description: To successfully develop the geothermal resources of the Imperial Valley, adequate supplies of cooling water must be obtained. The primary sources of water include waste waters from agricultural lands, condensate from flashed-steam facilities, and irrigation water. The major advantages and disadvantages of these supplies are examined and then the consequences of adopting six sets of water policies to support three scenarios of geothermal energy production are assessed. The assessment includes analyses of potential constraints to development as a result of restrictive water policies. It also includes predictions of changes in the Salton Sea's elevation and salinity caused by the consumption of agricultural drain water for cooling.
Date: July 5, 1979
Creator: Layton, D.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

[News Clip: Turtle]

Description: Video footage from the KXAS-TV/NBC station in Fort Worth, Texas, to accompany a news story.
Date: August 8, 1979, 5:00 p.m.
Creator: KXAS-TV (Television station : Fort Worth, Tex.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Special Collections

Energy use in the Marine Transportation Industry. Task II. Regulations and tariffs

Description: The regulatory framework of the commercial marine transportation industry is defined and these regulations are evaluated in terms of their energy impact. The approach used in the evaluation of the energy impacts of regulations and tariffs was structured around three sequential steps: identification of agencies and organizations that impact the commercial marine transportation industry; identification of existing or proposed regulations that were perceived to have a significant energy impact; and quantification of the energy impacts. Each of these three steps is described in detail. The report is organized around nine chapters. Chapter I contains an introduction and summary of the results and conclusions. Chapter II describes the regulatory structure of the commercial marine transportation industry and includes: a description of the role of each organization and the legislative basis for their jurisdiction; and an identification of major areas of regulation and those areas that have an energy impact. Chapters III through IX each address one of the seven existing or proposed regulatory or legislative actions that have an energy impact. The results of each of these seven case studies are summarized. (MCW)
Date: June 30, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy study of ship-transportation systems: mid term technical review Booz, Allen Applied Research, Bethesda, Maryland

Description: A review of the study on ship-transportation systems is presented. The objectives and project schedule are given. Summary information on Task I (Energy Utilization Analysis Approach); Task II (Potential Case Studies); and Task III (Martime Market for Bottom-Cycle Applications) are given. (MCW)
Date: November 19, 1976
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy use in the marine transportation industry. Task III. Efficiency improvements. Draft report

Description: Research and development areas that hold promise for maritime energy conservation are identified and evaluated. The methodology used is discussed in Chapter II. The technology base of the commercial marine transportation industry relating to energy usage is made up of: main propulsion plants, propulsors, hydrodynamics, vessel operations, and fuels. Fifteen specific program areas in the first four generic technologies are identified and are evaluated. An economic and energy impact analysis and technological risk assessment was performed on the specific program areas and the results are summarized in Chapter III. The first five appendices address the generic technologies. The sixth appendix contains the baseline operating and cost parameters against which the 15 program areas were evaluated, and the last appendix contains sample printouts of the MTEM model used to evaluate the energy consumption and economic impacts associated with the candidate technology areas. (MCW)
Date: June 2, 1977
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GTF test program

Description: The goal of the GTF (Geothermal Test Facility) Test Program is to evaluate the geothermal resources in the Niland area and determine if they can be effectively converted into electric power. This program will examine the four critical areas of geothermal power development: (I) reservoir analysis, (II) energy extraction and conversion, (III) environmental effects, and (IV) operation and maintenance. These areas are discussed and a detailed test program is presented.
Date: December 31, 1975
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department