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GAMMA RAY PRODUCTION CROSS SECTIONS

Description: Gamma production cross sections are presented as a function of l6 neutron lethargy groups and 11 photon energy groups for 13 elements and isotopes. They were computed by the program GAMMA-P and account for the production of gamma rays by neutron radiative capture, neutron inelastic scattering, neutron induced fissioning, and (n, alpha ) reactions. (auth)
Date: April 1, 1964
Creator: Edwards, W.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DYNAMIC ROCK MECHANICS INVESTIGATIONS FINAL REPORT, PROJECT COWBOY

Description: Strain gage instrumentation is reported of three Cowboy shots to measure the strain produced in salt by coupled and decoupled detonations. Linear array tests were made to develop a propagation law for strain, to determine particle velocity and acceleration in salt, to compare explosives, to determine the effect of impedance coupling between explosive and rock, and to investigate other seismic effects. Crater tests were made to determine the dynamic tensile breaking strength of salt. Tests were made to measure in situ, longitudinal (P) and shear (S) wave velocities and to calculate the dynamic elastic constants therefrom. Laboratory tests on core were made to determine the dynamic compressive and tensile breaking strength of salt. Physical properties tests were made under laboratory conditions for comparison with dynamic results. (W.L.H.)
Date: September 1, 1960
Creator: Nicholls, H.R.; Hooker, V. & Duvall, W.I.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

QUARTERLY REPORT, JANUARY 1, 1960-MARCH 31, 1960

Description: Three methods for the determination of radium were evaluated. In two methods, the radium is finally precipitated with barium sulfate as carrier and alpha-counted. In the other method, the radium is recovered in a carrierfree condition for alpha counting. A method for determining radium by removing interfering elements with solvent extraction technniques and precipitating the radium with barium sulfate is described. A method which gives a rapid estimation of radium isotopic composition in samples, based on precipitation with barium sulfate, conversion to the carbonate, and alpha counting, is described. Flowsheets are contained on all five processes discussed. Two processes for the determination of thorium were evaluated. One method consists essentially of extraction of carrierfree thorium in TTA-benzene, stripped in nitric acid, and direct plating of the nitric acid solution for counting. The second method consists of thorium precipitation on lanthanum hydroxide, then on lanthanum fluoride, dissolution in nitric acid aluminum nitrate, thorium extraction into TTA solution, stripping into nitric acid, and counting. Flowsheets for the processes are given. The effects of pH, sulfate ion concentration, calcium and other contaminants, and temperature on the adsorption of radium from acid leach liquors by barite were studied. Coprecipitation studies of radium with barium sulfate from mill effluent streams were investigated. (For preceding period see WlN-115.) (C.J.G.)
Date: October 31, 1960
Creator: Herrington, A.C. comp. and ed.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PHYSICS DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT

Description: Half lives were determined for 10 transitions in low-lying energy levels, excited by slow neutron capture, in Mn/sup 5//sup 6/, Rh/sup 1//sup 0// sup 4/, Cu/sup 6//sup 4/, Al/sup 2//sup 8/, and I/sup 1//sup 2//sup 8/. Internal ma gnetic fields at the nuclei of Fe/sup 5//sup 7/ and Sn/sup 1//sup 1//sup 9/ in various magnetic media were studied with the Mossbauer effect, and their nuclear Zeeman effects were snalyzed. Energy spectra, angular distributions, and reduced widths were obtained for (d,t) reactions on Fe/sup 5//sup 4/, Fe/sup 5//sup 8/, Ni/sup 5//sup 8/, Ni/sup 6//sup 0/, and Ni/sup 6/>s1< s, and the data used to provide information on the ground-state wave functions of these isotopes. The beta and gamma radiations associated with Er/sup 1//sup 7//sup 2/ decay were measured and a decay scheme proposed for Er/sup 1//sup 7//sup 2/. The level structure of F/sup 2//sup 0/ at 1 to 150 kev above the neutron binding energy was studied by the F/sup 1//sup 9/(n,n)F/sup 1//sup 9/ ess. The region around 100 kev was found to contain a cluster of levels. A polystyrene film was prepared with a thickness of 530 A and its vacuum ultraviolet spectrum determined in the range 1100 to 2300 A. Experimental data on the kinetic energies of fragments from electron bombardment of ethylene and acetylene are interpreted in terms of a "temperature." The form factors for the inelastic scattering of high-energy electrons are calculated for Sm/sup 1//sup 5//sup 2/ with the collective model of a deformed nucleus. A singleparticle rotational model, which includes band mixing, was found to give a qualitative fit to many of the properties of the low- lying states in Fe/sup 5//sup 7/ with the exception of those depending on the intrinsic wave function of the 1/2/sup -/ ground state. (D.L.C.)
Date: March 1, 1961
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ENVIRONMENTAL RADIOACTIVITY AT ARGONNE NATIONAL LABORATORY. Report for the Year 1959

Description: The results of the environmental monitoring program at Argonne National Laboratory for 1959 are given. The radioactive content of the environment was measured by performing radiochemical analyses and total activity measurements on several types of materials collected on the ANL site and from locations approximately 10, 25, and 100 miles from the Laboratory. The sampling locations are given in Part II. The average total activities in samples of water, material from the beds of lakes and streams (bottom silt), soil, and plants during 1959 are tabulated. For purposes of comparison, the results obtnined from 1952 through 1959 are included. Air-filter results are also tabulated. Fallout activity was present in most samples at all locations. The amount of fall-out was relatively high during the first part of the year, but decreased markedly during the latter half. By the end of the year the shorter-lived fission products from fall-out were at the lowest level since 1955. Airborne beta activity from fall-out decreased from a maximum of about 5 mu mu c/m/sup 3/ in April to less than 0.1 mu mu c/m/sup 3/ in December. The average for the year, about 2.3 mu mu c/m/sup 3/, was 25% less than for 1958, but approximately twice as high as the average from 1953 to 1957. The long-lived airborne alpha activity has not changed appreciably since 1953. Air-filter samples were collected both on the site and at four locations from 6 to 20 miles from the Laboratory. The activities were essentially the same both on and off the site, and no indication of activity originating at Argonne was found in the samples. (auth)
Date: January 1, 1961
Creator: Sedlet, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

KINETICS OF PARTICLE GROWTH IN A FLUIDIZED CALCINER

Description: Fluidized calcination involves the injection of an atomized feed solution containing dissolved solids into a bed of fluidized partioles at elevated temperatures suitable for drying and calcining. The study was conducted in a threeinch diameter fluidized column using aluminum oxide as bed material and aqueous aluminum nitrate solution as feed. Products were removed at regular intervals to maintain a constant bed weight. Particle growth was traced by adding radioactive aluminum oxide seeds of a given size to the starting bed and following their progress as they grew into successively larger sieve fractions. The effects on the growth rate of operating variables and physical properties of the feed were studied, including fluidizing air velocity, atomizing air rate, column temperature, feed concentration, feed rate, and viscosity and surface tension of the feed. For each product using screen analysis and gammacounting data a volume-surface mean diameter of the seedcontaining particles was calculated. Upon statistical analysis a linear relationship between the mean diameter of seed-containing particles and time exhibited very strong correlation, substantiating the hypothesis that particle growth was proportional to its surface area. From this linear relationship the over-all growth constant, equal to the slope, was obtained. Attrition effect of the atomizing air was found statistically to be non-significant. Normal growth far outweighed attrition and for steady-state operation other methods to produce seeds, such as jet or target attrition must be employed to balance normal growth. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1960
Creator: Lee, B. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COUNTING METHODS FOR THE ASSAY OF RADIOACTIVE SAMPLES

Description: A guide is presented for problems involved in counting methods and techniques used in avoiding or correcting . them. Beta, alpha, and gamma counting is treated. Among the items discussed are the geometry factor, absorption, scattering, and background. A bibliography of 164 references is included. (D.J.C.)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Steinberg, E.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDIES OF METAL-WATER REACTIONS AT HIGH TEMPERATURES: I. THE CONDENSER DISCHARGE EXPERIMENT: PRELIMINARY RESULTS WITH ZIRCONIUM

Description: The condenser-discharge method of conducting molten metal- water reactions at high temperatures was refined. Two methods to measure energy input to specimen wires and, therefore, to compute initial metal temperatures were developed. Calculated metal temperatures were estimated to be accurate to within 100 deg C. Two reaction cells were designed, one for operation at atmospheric pressure with water at room temperature, and the other for operation at high pressure and with water at elevated temperature. Means were developed to determine the surface area of metal exposed to reaction and to determine the total extent of reaction. Pressure transducers were used to record the rate of reactions. The zirconium- water reaction was studied with initial metal temperatures from 1100 to 4000 deg C with 30 and 60-mil wires in room-temperature water. Initial pressures in these runs were the vapor pressures of water at room temperature (20-30 mm). Runs were made with 60-mil wires in water heated to 200 deg C (225 psi). Results in room-temperature water indicated that the reaction became explosive at an initial metal temperature of 2600 deg C. Below this temperature, 20% or less reaction occurred. At higher water temperatures, reaction ranged from 40 to 70%. Runs in heated water showed markedly greater reaction, reaching 50% for fully melted metal at the melting point (1840 deg C). Results suggested that the rates of both solid-state processes and the diffusion of water vapor through the hydrogen blanket surrounding reacting particles must be considered. (auth)
Date: May 1, 1961
Creator: Baker, L. Jr.; Warchal, R.L.; Vogel, R.C. & Kilpatrick, M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHARGED PARTICLE OPTICS OF MAGNETIC SECTOR SPECTROMETERS WITH H = H$sub 0$ $alpha$r$sup -$ (z,r, /phi/ CYLINDRICAL COORDINATES WITH THE z-AXIS THE OBJECT-IMAGE LINE

Description: The charged particle optics of symmetric and asymmetric spectrometers was developed, taking into account the effects of fringing fields. Formulas are given for: the image of point and extended sources, and their resolution and transmission. The suppression of ghost peaks arising from multiloop trajectories was studied. Methods and tables for the calculation of instruments are given. A comparison was made between various instruments already constructed, and some general considerations concerning the choice of design parameters are presented. The correction (for fringing field effects) of sector profiles of instruments already constructed was analyzed, and formulas are given which permit the calculation of modifications of the profiles necessary to insure good focusing with high transmission. Tables include: general trajectory functions; profile curves; and dispersion and transmission functions for symmetrical instruments. (auth)
Date: November 1, 1960
Creator: Jaffey, A. H.; Mallmann, C. A.; Suarez-Etchepare, J. & Suter, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

EXACT FORM FOR SCATTERING AMPLITUDE IN REGGE POLE THEORY

Description: The exact form for the contribution of a single Regge pole is given both for positive and negative angular momentum without making the usual approximations. This exact form involves Legendre functions of the first and second kind with nonintegral index and argument greater than one. These functions are plotted. A one-parameter fit is made to the high-energy p-p elastic scattering data that give good agreement with experiment. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1963
Creator: Read, A.L.; Orear, J. & Bethe, H.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

PROPERTIES OF RADIOACTIVE Re$sup 18$$sup 9$

Description: The isotope Re/sup 189/ was produced by fsst neutron irradiation of osmium and by the ( alpha ,p) reaction on tungsten. The rhenium was separated chemically from the target material, and beta, gamma, and internal conversion spectra were measured. The mass assignment is confirmed by the observation of eleven electromagnetic transitions in the Os/sup 189/ daughter, including the 30.8-kev isomeric transition (8 hr), all of which were known from the decay of Ir/ sup 189/. Re/sup 189/ has a half-life of 23.4 plus or minus 1.0 hr and emits betaray groups with end-point energies 1000, 780, and 725 kev, and probably others. Results of coincidence measurements lead to some new information about the level scheme of Os/sup 189/ Evidence was found for strong rotation-particle coupling between low-lying K =1/2 and K = 3/2 bands in Os/sup 189/. 40 references. (auth)
Date: March 29, 1963
Creator: Crasemann, B.; Emery, G. T.; Kane, W. R. & Perlman, M. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT OF POLARIZATION IN pi- p ELASTIC SCATTERING FROM 229TO 3 90 MeV

Description: The polarization parameter in elastic {pi}{sup -}p scattering has been measured, at the Berkeley 184 synchrocyclotron,l with the use of a polarized proton target. At 318, 337 and 390 Mev incident pion kinetic energy, the angular range from 70{sup o} to 180{sup o} in the center of mass system was covered. At 229 Mev polarization measurements were made in the angular range 150{sup o} to 180{sup o}. Phase shift analyses using these and other published data were made at the two lowest energies.
Date: September 1, 1967
Creator: Arens, John F.; Chamberlain, Owen; Dost, Helmut E.; Hansroul,Michel J.; Holloway, Leland E.; Johnson, Claiborne K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

MEASUREMENT OF THE SIGMA- POLARIZATION IN THE REACTION pi- + p-->SIGMA- + K+

Description: The average polarization of the {Sigma}{sup -} produced in the reaction {pi}{sup -} + p {yields} {Sigma}{sup -} + K{sup +} has been measured between center-of-mass angles 134{sup o} and 166{sup o} for an incident {pi}{sup -} momentum of 1145 MeV/c. A polarized proton target was used, and the {Sigma}{sup -} polarization was found by measuring the difference in the production-rate of K{sup +} mesons for protons polarized along the production-plane normal and against it. Spark chambers were used to record the {pi}{sup -} and K{sup +} trajectories, and the {pi}{sup -} momentum was obtained from a magnetic spectrometer while the K{sup +} momentum was obtained from a range telescope. Each event was kinematically reconstructed in a one constraint fit to help eliminate events produced from protons bound in heavy nuclei of the target. The {Sigma}{sup -} polarization was found to be -0.36 {+-} 0.46.
Date: October 1, 1967
Creator: Weldon, D.; Steiner, H.; Shapiro, G.; Schultz, C; Johnson, C.H.; Holloway, L. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Momentum Spectra of Charged Pions Produced in Proton-ProtonInteractions between 13 and 28.5 GeV/c

Description: Proton-proton interactions with four or more charged particles in the final state are studied over a range of incident momenta between 13 and 28.5 GeV/c. Topology cross sections are presented. The center-of-mass momentum distributions of {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} are determined and are successfully parameterized. The {pi}{sup +} and {pi}{sup -} momentum spectra are found to have approximately the same shape. Multiple fireball production is not required by our data.
Date: August 1, 1969
Creator: Smith, Dennis B.; Sprafka, Robert J. & Anderson, Jared A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Response and Physical Reoperties of NTA* Personnel NeutronDosimeter Nuclear Track Film

Description: This paper reports the chemical and physical properties of the NTA film packet. It correlates with these properties the response of this packet to neutrons of various energies. In this correlation the concept of the track unit is introduced as a basic unit for reporting film-packet response.
Date: March 13, 1961
Creator: Lehman, Richard L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE Epsilon*/Lambda BRANCHING RATIO OF Y*1

Description: Recently a T = 1 resonance in the {Lambda}{pi} system called Y*{sub 1} has been observed with a mass of 1385 Mev. Two types of resonances have been predicted that might relate this observation to other elementary-particle interactions: (1) P 3/2 resonances in the {Lambda}{pi} and {Sigma}{pi} systems predicted by global symmetry corresponding to the (3/2, 3/2) resonance of the {pi}N system; (2) a spin-1/2 Y-{pi} resonance resulting from a bound state in the KN system. The position and width of the observed Y*{sub 1} resonance agree with both theories, but since the spin and parity have not yet been determined, it is impossible at present to distinguish between the two theoretical interpretations.
Date: April 25, 1961
Creator: Alston, Margaret H.; Alvarez, Luis W.; Eberhard, Philippe; Good,Myron L.; Graziano, William; Ticho, Harold K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STUDIES ON THE CHEMICAL AND PHOTOCHEMICAL OXIDATION OFBACTERIOCHLOROPHYLL

Description: A simplified procedure is described for the preparation of crystalline bacteriochlorophyll from R. rubrum. The chemical dehydrogenation of bacteriochlorophyll with quinones is shown to give high yields of 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a, whereas the photo-oxidation of bacteriochlorophyll results in a mixture of products of which 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a is only a minor constituent. A number of interesting results have been observed spectrophotometrically during these oxidations under different reaction conditions. These observations are discussed and possible reaction mechanisms are outlined. The proton magnetic resonance spectrum of 2-desvinyl-2acetyl-chlorophyll a in deuteroacetone and the visible absorption spectra of this pigment and its magnesium-free derivative in acetone are reported. As expected, these spectra exhibit a marked resemblance to chlorophyll a and pheophytin a.
Date: June 1, 1966
Creator: Smith, John R. Lindsay & Calvin, Melvin
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A STUDY OF RESONANCES OF THE Z-7r SYSTEM

Description: Recently a T = 1 resonance in the {Lambda}-{pi} system called Y{sub 1} has been observed with a mass of 1385 MeV. Two types of resonances have been predicted that might relate this observation to other elementary-particle interactions: (1) P 3/2 resonances in the {Lambda}-{pi} and {Sigma}-{pi} systems predicted by global symmetry, corresponding to the (3,2/ 3/2) resonance of the {pi}-N system, (2) a spin-1/2 Y-{pi} resonance resulting from a bound state in the {bar K}-N system. The position and the width of the observed Y{sub 1} resonance agree with both theories, but since the spin and parity have not yet been determined, they cannot distinguish between the two theoretical interpretations.
Date: May 23, 1961
Creator: Alston, M.H.; Alvarez, L.W.; Eberhard, P.; Good, M.L.; Graziano,W.; Ticho, H.K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Properties of the eta prime meson

Description: The {eta}'(958) meson has been studied in the reaction K{sup -}p {yields} {Lambda}{eta}', with K{sup -} beam momenta ranging from 1.70 to 2.65 Gev/c. The Dalitz plots of {eta}' decay into {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{eta} and {pi}{sup +}{pi}{sup -}{gamma} have been examined, and from them we have determined that the most likely quantum numbers of the {eta}' are I{sup G}J{sup P} = 0{sup +}0{sup -}, although J{sup P} = 2{sup -} cannot be completely ruled out. They have also shown that the decay into {pi}{sup +}{sup -}{gamma} is mediated by the decay {eta}' {yields} {rho}{sup o}{gamma}. An examination of the production process has yielded further evidence for the J{sup P} = 0{sup -} assignment and suggested that the process takes place via K*(891) exchange in the t channel. Branching fractions and cross sections have been determined, and finally a search for a negatively charged {eta}' in the deuterium reaction K{sup -}d {yields} p{Lambda}{eta}' has confirmed the I = 0 assignment for the {eta}'.
Date: June 4, 1969
Creator: Rittenberg, Alan
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HIGH-ENERGY-PHYSICS EXPERIMENTS WITH POLARIZED TARGETS

Description: If we are to do a workmanlike job of studying the strong interactions it is imperative that we have knowledge of the spin dependence of the forces. This implies that polarization experiments are essential. Already Bareyre, Bricman, Stirling and Villet have shown that pion-proton polarization experiments should be interpreted as indicating two new resonances not previously seen by other methods. The present-day approach to determining detailed pion-proton scattering amplitudes is to use measured differential cross sections, polarization measurements, dispersion relations, and isospin conservation rules. Further assumptions are unitarity of the S matrix and the short-range nature of strong interactions. In the more distant future I hope we may see the day when the scattering experiments will be sufficiently detailed that the dispersion relations will not be necessary to the interpretation of results. Then the dispersion relations may themselves be checked experimentally, rather than being assumed. I see, then, an early period of polarization experiments followed by a later period in which more extensive experimental results will be called for. For the pion-proton system the first period seems well progressed, based on measurements of differential cross section and P, the polarization. In the second period more complex experiments should be required, such as measurements of the parameters R and A . In R and A measurements, the protons have a known polarization before the collision takes place. After the pion scatters on the proton, one asks how much residual polarization the proton has. The nucleon-nucleon (N-N) system is susceptible to similar analysis, but there are more amplitudes to be determined, so more experiments must be performed. The N-N system is less well analyzed at present than the {pi}-N system.
Date: December 1, 1966
Creator: Chamberlain, Owen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department