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Volatile organic compounds in indoor air: A review ofconcentrations measured in North America since 1990

Description: Central tendency and upper limit concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) measured in indoor air are summarized and reviewed. Data were obtained from published cross-sectional studies of residential and office buildings conducted in North America from 1990through the present. VOC concentrations in existing residences reported in 12 studies comprise the majority of the data set. Central tendency and maximum concentrations are compared between new and existing residences and between existing residences and office buildings. Historical changes in indoor VOC concentrations since the Clean Air Act Amendments of 1990 are explored by comparing the current data set with two published reviews of previous data obtained primarily in the 1980s. These historical comparisons suggest average indoor concentrations of some toxic air contaminants, such as 1,1,1-trichloroethane have decreased.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: ATHodgson@lbl.gov
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Laser Hazard Analysis for Ultra-Fast Sub-Nanosecond, Mode-Locked Near Infrared Lasers Operated with Pulse Repetition Frequencies Above the Critical Frequency

Description: Ultra fast, sub-nanosecond (picosecond to femtosecond) duration, laser pulses present unique challenges when performing laser safety analysis involving mode-locked lasers, which operate at pulse repetition frequencies above the critical frequency in the near infrared wavelength bands. Two specific cases are presented, one such case that agrees and one that disagrees with the general rule on critical frequency. The results show that in all cases the appropriate maximum permissible exposure is always the smallest of the values calculated from ANSI rule 1, 2 and 3.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: AUGUSTONI, ARNOLD L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiological Dose Calculations for Fusion Facilities

Description: This report summarizes the results and rationale for radiological dose calculations for the maximally exposed individual during fusion accident conditions. Early doses per unit activity (Sieverts per TeraBecquerel) are given for 535 magnetic fusion isotopes of interest for several release scenarios. These data can be used for accident assessment calculations to determine if the accident consequences exceed Nuclear Regulatory Commission and Department of Energy evaluation guides. A generalized yearly dose estimate for routine releases, based on 1 Terabecquerel unit releases per radionuclide, has also been performed using averaged site parameters and assumed populations. These routine release data are useful for assessing designs against US Environmental Protection Agency yearly release limits.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Abbott, Michael L.; Cadwallader, Lee C. & Petti, David A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Electricity: The Road Toward Restructuring

Description: The Public Utility Holding Company Act of 1935 (PUHCA) and the Federal Power Act (FPA) were enacted to eliminate unfair practices and other abuses by electricity and gas holding companies by requiring federal control and regulation of interstate public utility holding companies. Comprehensive energy legislation has passed the House and Senate. The House passed H.R. 6 on April 11, 2003. On July 31, 2003, the Senate suspended debate on S. 14, inserted the text of H.R. 4 (107th Congress) as a substitute, and passed H.R. 6. A conference agreement was reached November 17, 2003, and passed by the House the next day. H.R. 6 includes an electricity title that would, in part, repeal PUHCA, would prospectively repeal the mandatory purchase requirement under PURPA, and would create an electric reliability organization. On June 15, 2004, H.R. 4503, a comprehensive energy policy bill, passed the House.
Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Abel, Amy & Parker, Larry
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evolution of Electronic Properties of (Cu(In,Ga)Se2 (CIGS)-Based Solar Cells During a 3-Stage Growth Process: Preprint

Description: We investigated the electronic properties of ZnO/CdS/CIGS /Mo/SLG polycrystalline thin-film solar cells with compositions ranging from Cu-rich to In(Ga)-rich by deep-level transient spectroscopy (DLTS) and capacitance-voltage (C-V) measurements. This compositional change represents the evolution of the film during growth by the 3-stage process. Two sets (four samples each) of CIGS thin films were prepared with Ga/(In+Ga) ratios of~0.3 (low Ga) and~0.6 (high Ga). The Cu/(In+Ga) ratio ranges from 1.24 (Cu-rich) to 0.88 (In(Ga)-rich). The films were treated with NaCN to remove the Cu2-xSe phase where needed. Key results include: (1) For low-Ga devices, DLTS data show that acceptor-like traps dominate in samples where CIGS grains do not go through the Cu-rich to In(Ga)-rich transition, whereas donor-like traps dominate in In(Ga)-rich samples. Therefore, we see a clear transformation of defects from acceptor-like to donor-like traps. The activation energies of these traps range from 0.12 to 0.63 eV. We also observed that NaCN treatment eliminates a deep minority trap in the In(Ga)-rich devices, (2) For high-Ga devices, only majority-carrier traps were detected. These traps again range from shallow to deep, (3) The carrier concentration around the junction and the density of traps decrease as the CIGS becomes more In(Ga)-rich.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: AbuShama, J. A.; Johnston, S.; Ahrenkiel, R.; Crandall, R.; Young, D. & Noufi, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Education Vouchers: Constitutional Issues and Cases

Description: This report details the constitutional standards that currently apply to indirect aid programs and summarizes all of the pertinent state and federal court decisions, including the Ohio case that will be heard by the Supreme Court. On September 25, 2001, the Supreme Court agreed to review a case raising the controversial issue of the constitutionality of education vouchers. In Zelman v. Simmons-Harris the Sixth Circuit held Ohio’s Pilot Scholarship Program, which provided up to $2500 to help low-income students in Cleveland’s public schools attend private schools in the city, to violate the establishment of religion clause of the First Amendment.
Date: April 8, 2003
Creator: Ackerman, David M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Orientation for New State WAP Directors and Staff

Description: NASCSP has been providing The Orientation for New Weatherization Assistance Program (WAP) State Directors and Staff yearly for the past four years. This report is a general description of the trainings and supporting documentation from the most recent event. The Orientation and Training provides attendees with a comprehensive overview of the WAP from the federal, state, and local perspectives. A variety of presenters make information available on a wide range of subjects deemed necessary to effectively operate the Program. During the first day of training, staff from the Department of Energy WAP office, NASCSP, the National Energy Assistance Director's Association, Economic Opportunity Studies, and Oak Ridge National Laboratory present materials and participate in open discussion with the attendees about the federal program requirements. Some of the day's subjects include: History of the WAP; Funding, Rules, Regulations, and Program Guidance Documents; WAP State Plan Application Process and Submission; Training and Technical Assistance Activity; Administration and Federal/State Monitoring Requirements; and National Significance of WAP and the Political Process. The second day focuses on implementation strategies for the Program. Presenters from state offices and local management provide their perspective on the following subjects: Utility Restructuring Integration Strategies; Program Expansion Issues; Integration of New Technologies and Funding Sources into the WAP; and Local Agency Integration of WAP.
Date: April 14, 2003
Creator: Adams, Robert & Barone, Tracy
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computation Directorate and Science& Technology Review Computational Science and Research Featured in 2002

Description: Thank you for your interest in the activities of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Computation Directorate. This collection of articles from the Laboratory's Science & Technology Review highlights the most significant computational projects, achievements, and contributions during 2002. In 2002, LLNL marked the 50th anniversary of its founding. Scientific advancement in support of our national security mission has always been the core of the Laboratory. So that researchers could better under and predict complex physical phenomena, the Laboratory has pushed the limits of the largest, fastest, most powerful computers in the world. In the late 1950's, Edward Teller--one of the LLNL founders--proposed that the Laboratory commission a Livermore Advanced Research Computer (LARC) built to Livermore's specifications. He tells the story of being in Washington, DC, when John Von Neumann asked to talk about the LARC. He thought Teller wanted too much memory in the machine. (The specifications called for 20-30,000 words.) Teller was too smart to argue with him. Later Teller invited Von Neumann to the Laboratory and showed him one of the design codes being prepared for the LARC. He asked Von Neumann for suggestions on fitting the code into 10,000 words of memory, and flattered him about ''Labbies'' not being smart enough to figure it out. Von Neumann dropped his objections, and the LARC arrived with 30,000 words of memory. Memory, and how close memory is to the processor, is still of interest to us today. Livermore's first supercomputer was the Remington-Rand Univac-1. It had 5600 vacuum tubes and was 2 meters wide by 4 meters long. This machine was commonly referred to as a 1 KFlop machine [E+3]. Skip ahead 50 years. The ASCI White machine at the Laboratory today, produced by IBM, is rated at a peak performance of 12.3 TFlops or E+13. We've improved computer …
Date: April 4, 2003
Creator: Alchorn, A L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

Description: The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. Each of the EECP subsystems were assessed for technical risks and barriers. A plan was identified to mitigate the identified risks (Phase II RD&T Plan, October 2000). The RD&T Plan identified petroleum coke characteristics as a potential technical risk. The composition of petroleum coke varies from one refinery to another. Petroleum coke characteristics are a function of the crude oil slate available at the refinery and the coker …
Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Ali, Abdalla H.; Anderson, John H.; Berry, Earl R.; Schrader, Charles H. & Shah, Lalit S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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EARLY ENTRANCE COPRODUCTION PLANT

Description: The overall objective of this project is the three phase development of an Early Entrance Coproduction Plant (EECP) which produces at least one product from at least two of the following three categories: (1) electric power (or heat), (2) fuels, and (3) chemicals using ChevronTexaco's proprietary gasification technology. The objective of Phase I is to determine the feasibility and define the concept for the EECP located at a specific site; develop a Research, Development, and Testing (RD&T) Plan to mitigate technical risks and barriers; and prepare a Preliminary Project Financing Plan. The objective of Phase II is to implement the work as outlined in the Phase I RD&T Plan to enhance the development and commercial acceptance of coproduction technology. The objective of Phase III is to develop an engineering design package and a financing and testing plan for an EECP located at a specific site. The project's intended result is to provide the necessary technical, economic, and environmental information needed by industry to move the EECP forward to detailed design, construction, and operation. The partners in this project are TES (a subsidiary of ChevronTexaco), General Electric (GE), Praxair, and Kellogg Brown & Root (KBR) in addition to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). TES is providing gasification technology and Fischer-Tropsch (F-T) technology developed by Rentech, GE is providing combustion turbine technology, Praxair is providing air separation technology, and KBR is providing engineering. During Phase I the team identified the integration of the water produced in the F-T synthesis section with the gasification section as an area of potential synergy. By utilizing the F-T water in the petroleum coke slurry for the gasifier, the EECP can eliminate a potential waste stream and reduce capital costs. There is a low technical risk for this synergy, however, the economic risk, particularly in regards …
Date: April 16, 2003
Creator: Ali, Abdalla H.; Kamarthi, Raj; Anderson, John H.; Berry, Earl R.; Schrader, Charles H. & Shah, Lalit S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Collaboration on DIII-D Five Year Plan

Description: This document summarizes Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory's (LLNL) plan for fusion research on the DIII-D Tokamak, located at General Atomics (GA) in San Diego, California, in the time period FY04-FY08. This document is a companion document to the DIII-D Five-Year Program Plan; which hereafter will be referred to as the ''D3DPP''. The LLNL Collaboration on DIII-D is a task-driven program in which we bring to bear the full range of expertise needed to complete specific goals of plasma science research on the DIII-D facility. This document specifies our plasma performance and physics understanding goals and gives detailed plans to achieve those goals in terms of experimental leadership, code development and analysis, and diagnostic development. Our program is designed to be consistent with the long-term mission of the DIII-D program as documented in the D3DPP. The overall DIII-D Program mission is ''to establish the scientific basis for the optimization of the tokamak approach to fusion energy production''. LLNL Magnetic Fusion Energy (MFE) supports this mission, and we contribute to two areas of the DIII-D program: divertor physics and advanced tokamak (AT) physics. We lead or contribute to the whole cycle of research: experimental planning, diagnostic development, execution of experiments, and detailed analysis. We plan to continue this style in the next five years. DIII-D has identified three major research themes: AT physics, confinement physics, and mass transport. The LLNL program is part of the AT theme: measurement of the plasma current profile, and the mass transport theme: measurement and modeling of plasma flow. In the AT area, we have focused on the measurement and modeling of the current profile in Advanced Tokamak plasmas. The current profile, and it's effect on MHD stability of the high-{beta} ''AT'' plasma are at the heart of the DIII-D program. LLNL has played a key role …
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Allen, S
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Intelligent Extruder

Description: ''Intelligent Extruder'' described in this report is a software system and associated support services for monitoring and control of compounding extruders to improve material quality, reduce waste and energy use, with minimal addition of new sensors or changes to the factory floor system components. Emphasis is on process improvements to the mixing, melting and de-volatilization of base resins, fillers, pigments, fire retardants and other additives in the :finishing'' stage of high value added engineering polymer materials. While GE Plastics materials were used for experimental studies throughout the program, the concepts and principles are broadly applicable to other manufacturers materials. The project involved a joint collaboration among GE Global Research, GE Industrial Systems and Coperion Werner & Pleiderer, USA, a major manufacturer of compounding equipment. Scope of the program included development of a algorithms for monitoring process material viscosity without rheological sensors or generating waste streams, a novel detection scheme for rapid detection of process upsets and an adaptive feedback control system to compensate for process upsets where at line adjustments are feasible. Software algorithms were implemented and tested on a laboratory scale extruder (50 lb/hr) at GE Global Research and data from a production scale system (2000 lb/hr) at GE Plastics was used to validate the monitoring and detection software. Although not evaluated experimentally, a new concept for extruder process monitoring through estimation of high frequency drive torque without strain gauges is developed and demonstrated in simulation. A plan to commercialize the software system is outlined, but commercialization has not been completed.
Date: April 24, 2003
Creator: AlperEker; Giammattia, Mark; Houpt, Paul; Kumar, Aditya; Montero, Oscar; Shah, Minesh et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Genomic Identification and Analysis of Shared Cis-regulator Elements in a Developmentally Critical homeobox Cluster

Description: The goals of this project were to isolate, characterize, and sequence the Dlx3/Dlx7 bigene cluster from twelve different species of mammals. The Dlx3 and Dlx7 genes are known to encode homeobox transcription factors involved in patterning of structures in the vertebrate jaw as well as vertebrate limbs. Genomic sequences from the respective taxa will subsequently be compared in order to identify conserved non-coding sequences that are potential cis-regulatory elements. Based on the comparisons they will fashion transgenic mouse experiments to functionally test the strength of the potential cis-regulatory elements. A goal of the project is to attempt to identify those elements that may function in coordinately regulating both Dlx3 and Dlx7 functions.
Date: April 1, 2003
Creator: Amemiya, Chris
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Surface engineering of glazing materials and structures using plasma processes

Description: A variety of coatings is commercially produced on a very large scale, including transparent conducting oxides and multi-layer silver-based low-emissivity and solar control coatings. A very brief review of materials and manufacturing process is presented and illustrated by ultrathin silver films and chevron copper films. Understanding the close relation between manufacturing processes and bulk and surface properties of materials is crucial for film growth and self-assembly processes.
Date: April 10, 2003
Creator: Anders, Andre & Monteiro, Othon R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Post Hoc Evaluation of Long-Term Goals for Energy Savings in the Buildings Sector: Lessons from Hindsight

Description: This report is one of two that re-examines the forecasted impact of individual programs currently within the Buildings Technology Program (BT) and the Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP) that appeared in the FY2000 Presidential Budget request. This report outlines the effects of re-estimating the FY 2000 budget request based on overlaying project data from subsequent years essentially revised out-year forecasts of project benefits. It shows that year-to-year long-term projections of primary energy savings can vary widely as models improve and programs change. Note that the FY2000 budget request was originally analyzed under the former Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS), where BT and WIP were previously combined. Throughout the document, reference will be made to the predecessor of the BT and WIP programs, BTS, as FY2000 reflected that organization. A companion report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to be captured in the project benefits analysis. The point estimates in this paper are not influenced by uncertainty or risk. That report develops potential methods for allowing inherent risk to affect the benefits analysis via Monte Carlo simulation.
Date: April 28, 2003
Creator: Anderson, Dave M. & Hostick, Donna J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Methodological Framework for Analysis of GPRA Metrics: Application to FY04 Projects in BT and WIP

Description: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) estimated the fiscal year (FY) 2004 energy, environmental, and financial benefits (i.e., metrics) of the technologies and practices in the U.S. Department of Energy's (DOE's) former Office of Building Technology, State and Community Programs (BTS) within the DOE's Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy (EERE). During the development of the estimates, EERE went through a large-scale reorganization, resulting in the reallocation of the former BTS projects (along with the other former offices) into two new Program Offices: the Office of Building Technologies Program (BT) and the Office of Weatherization and Intergovernmental Program (WIP). The remainder of this document will refer to these projects as BT/WIP for the sake of simplicity. This effort is referred to as GPRA Metrics because it stems from the requirements of the Government Performance and Results Act (GPRA) of 1993, which mandates the reporting of performance goals and measures. The benefits developed for EERE through the GPRA Metrics effort are submitted to EERE's Office of Planning, Budget Formulation, and Analysis (PBFA) as part of EERE's budget request. The GPRA estimates are also used in the formulation of EERE's performance measures. This report includes sections that detail the approach and methodology used to estimate future energy, environmental, and financial benefits produced by technologies and practices supported by BT/WIP in the FY 2004. An overview describes the GPRA process and the models used to estimate savings. The body of the document describes the models used and the diffusion curve estimates. Appendixes contain tables of forecasted benefits for all projects through 2030, along with individual project characterizations and overall results of the FY 2004 GPRA effort.
Date: April 14, 2003
Creator: Anderson, Dave M.; Belzer, David B.; Cort, Katherine A.; Dirks, James A.; Elliott, Douglas B.; Hostick, Donna J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DEVELOPMENT OF METALLIC HOT GAS FILTERS

Description: Successful development of metallic filters with high temperature oxidation/corrosion resistance for fly ash capture is a key to enabling advanced coal combustion and power generation technologies. Compared to ceramic filters, metallic filters can offer increased resistance to impact and thermal fatigue, greatly improving filter reliability. A beneficial metallic filter structure, composed of a thin-wall (0.5mm) tube with uniform porosity (about 30%), is being developed using a unique spherical powder processing and partial sintering approach, combined with porous sheet rolling and resistance welding. Alloy choices based on modified superalloys, e.g., Ni-16Cr-4.5Al-3Fe (wt.%), are being tested in porous and bulk samples for oxide (typically alumina) scale stability in simulated oxidizing/sulfidizing atmospheres found in PFBC and IGCC systems at temperatures up to 850 C. Recent ''hanging o-ring'' exposure tests in actual combustion systems at a collaborating DOE site (EERC) have been initiated to study the combined corrosive effects from particulate deposits and hot exhaust gases. New studies are exploring the correlation between sintered microstructure, tensile strength, and permeability of porous sheet samples.
Date: April 23, 2003
Creator: Anderson, I.E.; Gleeson, B. & Terpstra, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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