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Dispute Settlement in the Proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA)

Description: The proposed U.S.-South Korea Free Trade Agreement (KORUS FTA) follows current U.S. free trade agreement (FTA) practice in containing two types of formal dispute settlement: (1) State- State, applicable to disputes between the KORUS FTA Parties, and (2) investor-State, applicable to claims by an investor of one KORUS FTA Party against the other Party for breach of an agreement investment obligation.
Date: May 11, 2001
Creator: Grimmett, Jeanne J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Characterization of a Washed 241-C-106 Sludge Sample

Description: An Envelope D Tank 241-C-106 sample was characterized for solids, elemental, and radioactive isotope content. The work was done by the Savannah River Technology Center (SRTC) to support the Hanford River Protection Project (RPP). The sludge from Hanford Tank 241-C-106 is high level waste that is to be included in the first ten years of processing by the RPP Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The sample was a composite of caustic-leached and washed sludge from previous work at the Pacific Northwest National Lab (PNNL). Sludge analysis results were found to compare well with those of previous researchers analyzing leached samples from Tank 241-C-106. Composition of the liquid accompanying the sample was also measured.
Date: May 15, 2001
Creator: Nash, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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LES SOFTWARE FOR THE DESIGN OF LOW EMISSION COMBUSTION SYSTEMS FOR VISION 21 PLANTS

Description: Further development of a Large Eddy Simulation (LES) code for the design of advanced gaseous combustion systems is described in this second quarterly report. CFD Research Corporation (CFDRC) is developing the LES module within the parallel, unstructured solver included in the commercial CFD-ACE+ software. CFDRC has implemented and tested Smagorinsky and localized dynamic subgrid turbulence models on a 2.1 million cell DOE-NETL combustor case and a 400,000 cell nonreacting backstep case. Both cases showed good agreement between predicted and experimental results. The large DOE-NETL case results provided better agreement with the measured oscillation frequency than previous attempts because massive parallel computing (on a cluster of 24 pcs) allowed the entire computational domain, including the swirler vanes and fuel spokes, to be modeled. Subgrid chemistry models, including the conditional moment closure (CMC) and linear eddy model (LEM), are being tested and implemented. Reduced chemical mechanisms have been developed for emissions, ignition delay, extinction, and flame propagation using a computer automated reduction method (CARM). A 19-species natural gas mechanism, based on GRI2.11 and Miller-NO{sub x}, was shown to predict rich NO{sub x} emissions better than any previously published mechanisms. The ability to handle this mechanism in CFD-ACE+ was demonstrated by implementing operator splitting and a stiff ODE solver (DVODE). Efficient tabulation methods, including in situ adaptation and artificial neural nets, are being studied and will be implemented in the LES code. The LES combustion code development and testing is on schedule. Next quarter, initial results (including the DOE-NETL unstable combustor) with the CMC and LEM subgrid chemistry models will be completed and summarized.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Cannon, Steve; Adumitroaie, Virgil; McDaniel, Keith & Smith, Cliff
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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FUELS IN SOIL TEST KIT: FIELD USE OF DIESEL DOG SOIL TEST KITS

Description: Western Research Institute (WRI) is commercializing Diesel Dog Portable Soil Test Kits for performing analysis of fuel-contaminated soils in the field. The technology consists of a method developed by WRI (U.S. Patents 5,561,065 and 5,976,883) and hardware developed by WRI that allows the method to be performed in the field (patent pending). The method is very simple and does not require the use of highly toxic reagents. The aromatic components in a soil extract are measured by absorption at 254 nm with a field-portable photometer. WRI added significant value to the technology by taking the method through the American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) approval and validation processes. The method is designated ASTM Method D-5831-96, Standard Test Method for Screening Fuels in Soils. This ASTM designation allows the method to be used for federal compliance activities. In FY 99, twenty-five preproduction kits were successfully constructed in cooperation with CF Electronics, Inc., of Laramie, Wyoming. The kit components work well and the kits are fully operational. In the calendar year 2000, kits were provided to the following entities who agreed to participate as FY 99 and FY 00 JSR (Jointly Sponsored Research) cosponsors and use the kits as opportunities arose for field site work: Wyoming Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ) (3 units), F.E. Warren Air Force Base, Gradient Corporation, The Johnson Company (2 units), IT Corporation (2 units), TRC Environmental Corporation, Stone Environmental, ENSR, Action Environmental, Laco Associates, Barenco, Brown and Caldwell, Dames and Moore Lebron LLP, Phillips Petroleum, GeoSyntek, and the State of New Mexico. By early 2001, ten kits had been returned to WRI following the six-month evaluation period. On return, the components of all ten kits were fully functional. The kits were upgraded with circuit modifications, new polyethylene foam inserts, and updated instruction manuals.
Date: May 31, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PROCEEDINGS OF RIKEN BNL RESEARCH CENTER WORKSHOP ON SPIN PHYSICS AT RHIC IN YEAR-1 AND BEYOND.

Description: The much anticipated RHIC spin physics program will commence this fall when the first physics run with colliding beams of polarized protons is expected. More specifically, the planned year-1 RHIC-Spin measurements are (1) the double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL}{sup {pi}} in production of pions by collisions of longitudinally polarized protons (in order to obtain first information on the proton's spin-dependent gluon density, {Delta}g); (2) the transverse single-spin asymmetry A{sub N}{sup {pi}} for pion production. These two reactions provided part of the motivation for our workshop. On the first day there were informative talks on the specific plans of STAR (by Rakness) and PHENIX (by Goto) for the polarized run of Year-1. Some of the theoretical questions related to the double-spin asymmetry A{sub LL}{sup {pi}} were discussed on the first day by Vogelsang and Kretzer, which centered mostly around the questions of how well the unpolarized fragmentation functions are known, the need for next-to-leading order calculations, and on how sensitive the asymmetry is to the possible {Delta}g distributions. Vetterli presented HERMES measurements of fragmentation functions, which overlap in Q{sup 2} with the future lower-p{sub T} measurements at RHIC.
Date: May 14, 2001
Creator: Bland, L.; Boer, D.; Saito, N. & Vogelsang, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Superresolution and Synthetic Aperture Radar

Description: Superresolution concepts offer the potential of resolution beyond the classical limit. This great promise has not generally been realized. In this study we investigate the potential application of superresolution concepts to synthetic aperture radar. The analytical basis for superresolution theory is discussed. The application of the concept to synthetic aperture radar is investigated as an operator inversion problem. Generally, the operator inversion problem is ill posed. A criterion for judging superresolution processing of an image is presented.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Dickey, Fred M.; Romero, Louis & Doerry, Armin W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of Near-field and Far-field Air Monitoring of Plutonium-contaminated Soils from the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Description: Operation Roller Coaster, a series of nuclear material dispersal experiments, resulted in three areas (Clean Slates 1, 2, and 3) of widespread surface soil plutonium (Pu) contamination on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), located 225 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The State's Division of Environmental Protection raised concerns that dispersal of airborne Pu particles from the sites could result in undetected deposition further downwind that the background monitoring stations. Air monitoring data from different distances from the Clean Slate sites but during the same period of time were compared. From the available data, there is no indication that airborne PM10 particles are being transported to the farther distance,however, the data are statistically insufficient to conclude whether there is a difference in transport of respirable Pu particles to the closer verses the farther sites from the Clean Slate sites.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Bowen, John L. & Shafer, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Linear Collider Physics Resource Book for Snowmass 2001

Description: The American particle physics community can look forward to a well-conceived and vital program of experimentation for the next ten years, using both colliders and fixed target beams to study a wide variety of pressing questions. Beyond 2010, these programs will be reaching the end of their expected lives. The CERN LHC will provide an experimental program of the first importance. But beyond the LHC, the American community needs a coherent plan. The Snowmass 2001 Workshop and the deliberations of the HEPAP subpanel offer a rare opportunity to engage the full community in planning our future for the next decade or more. A major accelerator project requires a decade from the beginning of an engineering design to the receipt of the first data. So it is now time to decide whether to begin a new accelerator project that will operate in the years soon after 2010. We believe that the world high-energy physics community needs such a project. With the great promise of discovery in physics at the next energy scale, and with the opportunity for the uncovering of profound insights, we cannot allow our field to contract to a single experimental program at a single laboratory in the world. We believe that an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider is an excellent choice for the next major project in high-energy physics. Applying experimental techniques very different from those used at hadron colliders, an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider will allow us to build on the discoveries made at the Tevatron and the LHC, and to add a level of precision and clarity that will be necessary to understand the physics of the next energy scale. It is not necessary to anticipate specific results from the hadron collider programs to argue for constructing an e{sup +}e{sup {minus}} linear collider; in any …
Date: May 3, 2001
Creator: Abe, T.; Dawson, S.; Heinemeyer, S.; Marciano, W.; Paige, F.; Turcot, A. S. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Simulating Infiltration at the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test, INEEL

Description: This work involved using ITOUGH2 to simulate the Large-Scale Ponded Infiltration Test (LPIT) at Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) in order to calibrate parameters controlling the infiltration of water in fractured basalt using a dual-permeability modeling approach. This supports the higher objective of building confidence in the use of the dual-permeability approach for modeling flow and transport in unsaturated fractured rock systems. In particular, the objective of this work is to be able to understand transport of radionuclides at INEEL and subsequently at Yucca Mountain, Nevada. A 3-D dual-permeability mesh representing the geological conditions at the LPIT was constructed as shown by the cross-section on Figure 1a. The geology consisted of surficial sediments, two separate basalt flows (A and B basalts) underlain by a low permeability sedimentary interbed (BC interbed), with a lower C basalt constituting the bottom of the model. Water was allowed to infiltrate from the pond and then pool on top of the sedimentary interbed. Water pressure and {sup 75}Se breakthroughs were simulated at four wells screened within the fractured basalt on top of the sedimentary interbed (B04N11, C04C11, B06N11, C06C11) along two radial angles and at two radial distances. Model results were calibrated to field data using ITOUGH2.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Unger, Andre & Ardyth Simmons, Gudmundur Bodvarsson
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Expansion Rate Measurements at Moderate Pressure of Nonneutral Electron Plasmas in the Electron Diffusion Gauge (EDG) Experiment

Description: Measurements of the expansion rate of pure-electron plasmas have been performed on the Electron Diffusion Gauge (EDG) device at background helium gas pressures in the 5 x 10(superscript -8) Torr to 1 x 10(superscript -5) Torr range, where plasma expansion due to electron-neutral collisions dominates over plasma expansion due to trap asymmetries. It is found that the expansion rate, defined as the time rate of change of the particles' mean-square radius, scales approximately linearly with pressure and inversely as the square of the magnetic field strength in this regime, in agreement with classical predictions.
Date: May 18, 2001
Creator: Morrison, Kyle A.; Davidson, Ronald C.; Paul, Stephen F.; Belli, Emily A. & and Chao, Edward H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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RADIOLOGICAL EMISSIONS AND ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING FOR BROOKHAV EN NATIONAL LABORATORY, 1947 - 1961.

Description: Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL) has monitored its releases to the environment since its inception in 1947. From 1962 to 1966 and from 1971 to the present, annual reports,were published that recorded the emissions and releases to the environment from Laboratory operations. In 1998, a report was written to summarize the environmental data for the years 1967 to 1970. One of the purposes of the current report is to complete BNL's environmental history by covering the period from 1948 through 1961. The activities in 1947 were primarily organizational and there is no information on the use of radiation at the Laboratory before 1948. An additional objective of this report is to provide environmental data to the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). The report does not provide an estimate of the doses associated with BNL operations. The report is comprised of two parts. The first part is a summary of emissions, releases, and environmental monitoring information including a discussion of the uncertainties in these data. Part two contains the detailed information on the approach taken to estimate the releases from the fuel cartridge failures at the Brookhaven Graphite Research Reactor (BGRR). A series of appendices present more detailed information on these events in tabular form. The approach in this report is to be reasonable, conservative, (pessimistic), and transparent in estimating releases from fuel cartridge ruptures. Clearly, reactor stack monitoring records and more extensive records would have greatly improved this effort, but in accordance with Atomic Energy Commission (AEC) Appendix 0230 Annex C-9, many of the detailed records from this time were not retained.
Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: MEINHOLD,C.B. & MEINHOLD,A.F. (EDITED BY BOND,P.D.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of hydroxamic acid in uranium extraction process : literature review.

Description: The Uranium Extraction (UREX) process is being developed for the spent oxide fuel from light water reactors as part of the Accelerator Transmutation of Waste Project. The UREX process is similar to the Plutonium and Uranium Extraction (PUREX) process in that it involves solvent extraction based on a tributyl phosphate extractant. To assure that actinide reduction and complexation are effective, the reductant/complexant aceto-hydroxamic acid is being considered for use in the UREX process. The following literature review describes the solvent extraction, kinetics, oxidation-reduction, and complexation properties of aceto-hydroxamic acid and its derivatives.
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Nunez, L. & Vandegrift, G. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Noninductive Current Generation in NSTX using Coaxial Helicity Injection

Description: Coaxial Helicity Injection (CHI) on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX) has produced 240 kA of toroidal current without the use of the central solenoid. Values of the current multiplication ratio (CHI produced toroidal current/injector current) up to 10 were obtained, in agreement with predictions. The discharges which lasted for up to 200 ms, limited only by the programmed waveform, are more than an order of magnitude longer in duration that any CHI discharges previously produced in a Spheromak or a Spherical Torus (ST).
Date: May 10, 2001
Creator: Raman, R.; Jarboe, T. R.; Mueller, D.; Schaffer, M. J.; Maqueda, R.; Nelson, B. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Ion Heating by Fast Particle Induced Alfvin Turbulence

Description: A novel mechanism that directly transfers energy from Super-Alfvenic energetic ions to thermal ions in high-beta plasmas is described. The mechanism involves the excitation of compressional Alfvin eigenmodes (CAEs) in the frequency range with omega less than or approximately equal to omega(subscript ci). The broadband turbulence resulting from the large number of excited modes causes stochastic diffusion in velocity space, which transfers wave energy to thermal ions. This effect may be important on the National Spherical Torus Experiment (NSTX), and may scale up to reactor scenarios. This has important implications for low aspect ratio reactor concepts, since it potentially allows for the modification of the ignition criterion.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Gates, D.; Gorelenkov, N. & White, and R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Concentration of (236)Pu Daughters in Plutonium for Application to MOX Production from Plutonium from Dismantled US Nuclear Weapons

Description: The isotope {sup 236}Pu in the weapons-grade plutonium to be used in the US MOX (mixed-oxide) plant is of concern because the daughter products of {sup 236}Pu are sources of high-energy gamma rays. The {sup 208}Tl daughter of {sup 236}Pu emits intense, high-energy gamma rays that are important for radiation exposure calculations for plant design. It is generally thought that the concentrations of {sup 236}Pu and its daughters are well below 10{sup {minus}10}, but these concentrations are generally below the detection limits of most analytical techniques. One technique that can be used to determine the concentration {sup 208}Tl is the direct measurement of the intensity of the {sup 208}Tl gamma rays in the gamma-ray spectrum from plutonium. Thallium-208 will be in equilibrium with {sup 228}Th, and may very well be in equilibrium with {sup 232}U for most aged plutonium samples. We have used the FRAM isotopic analysis software to analyze dozens of archived high-resolution gamma ray spectra from various samples of US and foreign plutonium. We are able to quantify the ratio of minor isotopes with measurable gamma-ray emissions to the major isotope of plutonium and hence, through the measurement of the plutonium isotopic distribution of the sample, to elemental plutonium itself. Excluding items packaged in fluoropolymer vials, all samples analyzed with {sup 240}Pu < 9% gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 3.4 e-012 and all samples of US-produced plutonium, including {sup 240}Pu values up to 16.4%, gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 9.4 e-012. None of these values is significant from a radiation dose standpoint.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Sampson, T.E. & Cremers, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Analysis of RFSA Campaign No.2 Dissolver Solution for Hg(I) and Hg(II)

Description: TA 2-1083, under which RFSA processing is conducted, calls for a nominal mercuric ion concentration in the dissolver solution of 0.006M with a maximum of 0.01 M. The second RFSA campaign operated according to these guidelines with the initial Hg(II) concentration being 0.0068 M. Part of this study is to ascertain optimum excess Hg(I) for chloride removal.
Date: May 17, 2001
Creator: Holcomb, H.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Constitutive Relations for Unsaturated Flow in a Fracture Network

Description: A commonly used approach for modeling water flow in unsaturated fractured rocks is the continuum approach, in which the constitutive relation models originally developed for porous media have often been borrowed to represent constitutive relations for the fracture continuum. While these models have been successfully used for soils and other porous media, their usefulness and limitations have not been investigated for the fracture continuum. The objective of this study is to present an evaluation of the commonly used van Genuchten and Brooks-Corey models and to develop improved constitutive relation models based on the evaluation results.
Date: May 31, 2001
Creator: Liu, H. H. & Bodvarsson, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enhanced Geothermal Systems Project Development Solicitation - Final Report - 09/30/2000 - 02/01/2001

Description: The Enhanced Geothermal System concept is to develop the technology required to extract energy from the reduced permeability zones that underlie all high-temperature geothermal systems. Our concept is that injection wells will be drilled into the high temperature zone. The wells will identify fractures that are only poorly connected to the overlying reservoir. Water injected into these fractures will cause them to propagate through thermal contraction, increase in hydrostatic pressure, and reduction of effective stress. The fractures will connect with the overlying normal temperature reservoir, and steam will be produced from existing production wells. The injection water will generate high thermal quality steam while mitigating problems relating to high gas and chloride.
Date: May 7, 2001
Creator: Nielson, Dennis L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Overview of Residential Ventilation Activities in the Building America Program (Phase I)

Description: This report provides an overview of issues involved in residential ventilation; provides an overview of the various ventilation strategies being evaluated by the five teams, or consortia, currently involved in the Building America Program; and identifies unresolved technical issues.
Date: May 21, 2001
Creator: Barley, D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Radiological Emergency Response Health and Safety Manual

Description: This manual was created to provide health and safety (H&S) guidance for emergency response operations. The manual is organized in sections that define each aspect of H and S Management for emergency responses. The sections are as follows: Responsibilities; Health Physics; Industrial Hygiene; Safety; Environmental Compliance; Medical; and Record Maintenance. Each section gives guidance on the types of training expected for managers and responders, safety processes and procedures to be followed when performing work, and what is expected of managers and participants. Also included are generic forms that will be used to facilitate or document activities during an emergency response. These ensure consistency in creating useful real-time and archival records and help to prevent the loss or omission of information.
Date: May 2001
Creator: Bowman, D. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

Description: Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Green, David A.; Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro; Harrison, Douglas P. & Liang, Ya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hanford Site Climatological Data Summary 2000 with Historical Data

Description: This document presents the climatological data measured at the U.S. Department of Energy's Hanford Site for calendar year 2000.
Date: May 30, 2001
Creator: Hoitink, Dana J; Burk, Kenneth W & Ramsdell Jr, Van
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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