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Adult Chinook Salmon Abundance Monitoring in the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, 2000 Annual Report.

Description: Underwater time-lapse video technology has been used to monitor adult spring and summer chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) escapement into the Secesh River and Lake Creek, Idaho, since 1998. Underwater time-lapse videography is a passive methodology that does not trap or handle this Endangered Species Act listed species. Secesh River chinook salmon represent a wild spawning aggregate that has not been directly supplemented with hatchery fish. The Secesh River is also a control population under the Idaho Salmon Supplementation study. This project has demonstrated the successful application of underwater video adult salmon abundance monitoring technology in Lake Creek in 1998 and 1999. Emphasis of the project in 2000 was to determine if the temporary fish counting station could be installed early enough to successfully estimate adult spring and summer chinook salmon abundance in the Secesh River (a larger stream). Snow pack in the drainage was 93% of the average during the winter of 1999/2000, providing an opportunity to test the temporary count station structure. The temporary fish counting station was not the appropriate technology to determine adult salmon spawner abundance in the Secesh River. Due to its temporary nature it could not be installed early enough, due to high stream discharge, to capture the first upstream migrating salmon. A more permanent structure used with underwater video, or other technology needs to be utilized for accurate salmon escapement monitoring in the Secesh River. A minimum of 813 adult chinook salmon spawners migrated upstream past the Secesh River fish counting station to spawning areas in the Secesh River drainage. Of these fish, more than 324 migrated upstream into Lake Creek. The first upstream migrating adult chinook salmon passed the Secesh River and Lake Creek sites prior to operation of the fish counting stations on June 22. This was 17 and 19 days earlier …
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Faurot, Dave & Kucera, Paul A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During the fourth reporting quarter, laboratory-screening tests of more than 20 potential additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a new multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. An initial field trial of three additive formulations was also conducted at the City of Ames, Iowa Municipal Power Plant.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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ADVANCED FLUE GAS CONDITIONING AS A RETROFIT UPGRADE TO ENHANCE PM COLLECTION FROM COAL-FIRED ELECTRIC UTILITY BOILERS

Description: The U.S. Department of Energy and ADA Environmental Solutions has begun a project to develop commercial flue gas conditioning additives. The objective is to develop conditioning agents that can help improve particulate control performance of smaller or under-sized electrostatic precipitators on utility coal-fired boilers. The new chemicals will be used to control both the electrical resistivity and the adhesion or cohesivity of the flyash. There is a need to provide cost-effective and safer alternatives to traditional flue gas conditioning with SO{sub 3} and ammonia. During this reporting quarter, further laboratory-screening tests of additive formulations were completed. For these tests, the electrostatic tensiometer method was used for determination of flyash cohesivity. Resistivity was measured for each screening test with a multi-cell laboratory flyash resistivity furnace constructed for this project. Also during this quarter chemical formulation testing was undertaken to identify stable and compatible resistivity/cohesivity liquid products.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Baldrey, Kenneth E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
open access

Analysis of Depth-Sensing Indentation Tests with a Knoop Indenter

Description: The present work shows how data obtained in a depth-sensing indentation test using a Knoop indenter may be analyzed to provide elastic modulus and hardness of the specimen material. The method takes into account the elastic recovery along the direction of the short axis of the residual impression as the indenter is removed. If elastic recovery is not accounted for, the elastic modulus and hardness are overestimated by an amount that depends on the ratio of E/H of the specimen material. The new method of analysis expresses the elastic recovery of the short diagonal of the residual impression into an equivalent face angle for one side of the Knoop indenter. Conventional methods of analysis using this corrected angle provide results for modulus and hardness that are consistent with those obtained with other types of indenters.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Riester, L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Application of Chemically Accelerated Biotreatment to Reduce Risk in Oil-Impacted Soils Semi-Annual Report: November 2000-April 2001

Description: The overall program objective is to develop and evaluate integrated biological/physical/chemical co-treatment strategies for the remediation of wastes associated with the exploration and production of fossil energy. The specific objectives of this project are: chemical accelerated biotreatment (CAB) technology development for enhanced site remediation, application of the risk based analyses to define and support the rationale for environmental acceptable endpoints (EAE) for exploration and production wastes, and evaluate both the technological technologies in conjugation for effective remediation of hydrocarbon contaminated soils from E&P sites in the USA.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Paterek, J. R.; Bogan, W. W.; Lahner, L. M.; Trbovic, V. & Korach, E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Assessment of the Current Day Impact of Various Materials Associated with the U.S. Nuclear Test Program in the Marshall Island

Description: Different stable elements, and some natural and man-made radionuclides, were used as tracers or associated in other ways with nuclear devices that were detonated at Bikini and Enewetak Atolls as part of the U.S. nuclear testing program from 1946 through 1958. The question has been raised whether any of these materials dispersed by the explosions could be of sufficient concentration in either the marine environment or on the coral islands to be of a health concern to people living, or planning to live, on the atolls. This report addresses that concern. An inventory of the materials involved during the test period was prepared and provided to us by the Office of Defense Programs (DP) of the United States Department of Energy (DOE). The materials that the DOE and the Republic of the Marshall Islands (RMI) ask to be evaluated are--sulfur, arsenic, yttrium, tantalum, gold, rhodium, indium, tungsten, thallium, thorium-230,232 ({sup 230,232}Th), uranium-233,238 ({sup 233,238}U), polonium-210 ({sup 210}Po), curium-232 ({sup 232}Cu), and americium-241 ({sup 241}Am). The stable elements were used primarily as tracers for determining neutron energy and flux, and for other diagnostic purposes in the larger yield, multistage devices. It is reasonable to assume that these materials would be distributed in a similar manner as the fission products subsequent to detonation. A large inventory of fission product and uranium data was available for assessment. Detailed calculations show only a very small fraction of the fission products produced during the entire test series remain at the test site atolls. Consequently, based on the information provided, we conclude that the concentration of these materials in the atoll environment pose no adverse health effects to humans.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Robison, W L; Noshkin, V E; Hamilton, T F; Conrado, C L & Bogen, K T
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Assessment of the Fusion Energy Sciences Program. Final Report

Description: An assessment of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences (OFES) program with guidance for future program strategy. The overall objective of this study is to prepare an independent assessment of the scientific quality of the Office of Fusion Energy Sciences program at the Department of Energy. The Fusion Science Assessment Committee (FuSAC) has been appointed to conduct this study.
Date: May 1, 2001
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Backward Integration of the Equations of Motion to Correct for Free Surface Perturbations

Description: Window and free surface interfaces perturb the flow in compression wave experiments. The velocity of these interfaces is routinely measured in shock-compression experiments using interferometry (i.e., VISAR). Interface perturbations often must be accounted for before meaningful material property results can be obtained. For shockless experiments when stress is a single valued function of strain, the governing equations of motion are hyperbolic and can be numerically integrated forward or backward in either time or space with assured stability. Using the VISAR results as ''initial conditions'' the flow fields are integrated backward in space to the interior of the specimen where the VISAR interface has not perturbed the flow at earlier times and results can be interpreted as if the interface had not been present. This provides a rather exact correction for free surface perturbations. The method can also be applied to window interfaces by selecting the appropriate initial conditions. Applications include interpreting Z-accelerator ramp wave experiments. The method applies to multiple layers and multiple reverberations. For an elastic-plastic material model the flow is dissipative and the governing equations are parabolic. When the parabolic terms are small, the equations also can be successfully integrated backward in space. This is verified by using a traditional elastic-plastic wave propagation code with a backward-derived stress history as the boundary condition for a forward calculation. Calculated free surface histories match the starting VISAR record verifying that the backward method produced an accurate solution to the governing equations. With our cooperation, workers at Los Alamos have successfully applied the Sandia-developed backward technique for the time-dependent quasielastic material model and are analyzing stress histories at a spall plane using the VISAR free surface velocity measurement from a ''pullback'' experiment.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: HAYES,DENNIS BREWSTER
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BARRIER ISSUES TO THE UTILIZATION OF BIOMASS

Description: In summary, stoker-fired boilers that cofire or switch to biomass fuel may potentially have to deal with ash behavior issues such as production of different concentrations and quantities of fine particulate or aerosols and ash-fouling deposition. Stoker boiler operators that are considering switching to biomass and adding potential infrastructure to accommodate the switch may also at the same time be looking into upgrades that will allow for generating additional power for sale on the grid. This is the case for the feasibility study being done currently for a small (<1-MW) stoker facility at the North Dakota State Penitentiary, which is considering not only the incorporation of a lower-cost biomass fuel but also a refurbishing of the stoker boiler to burn slightly hotter with the ability to generate more power and sell excess energy on the grid. These types of fuel and boiler changes can greatly affect ash behavior issues.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Weber, Greg F. & Zygarlicke, Christopher J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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CARBON DIOXIDE CAPTURE FROM FLUE GAS USING DRY REGENERABLE SORBENTS

Description: Electrobalance studies of calcination and carbonation of sodium bicarbonate materials were conducted at Louisiana State University. Calcination in an inert atmosphere was rapid and complete at 120 C. Carbonation was temperature dependent, and both the initial rate and the extent of reaction were found to decrease as temperature was increased between 60 and 80 C. A fluidization test apparatus was constructed at RTI and two sodium bicarbonate materials were fluidized in dry nitrogen at 22 C. The bed was completely fluidized at between 9 and 11 in. of water pressure drop. Kinetic rate expression derivations and thermodynamic calculations were conducted at RTI. Based on literature data, a simple reaction rate expression, which is zero order in carbon dioxide and water, was found to provide the best fit against reciprocal temperature. Simulations based on process thermodynamics suggested that approximately 26 percent of the carbon dioxide in flue gas could be recovered using waste heat available at 240 C.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Green, David A.; Turk, Brian S.; Gupta, Raghubir P.; Lopez-Ortiz, Alejandro; Harrison, Douglas P. & Liang, Ya
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Chemical Reaction Mechanisms for Modeling the Fluorocarbon Plasma Etch of Silicon Oxide and Related Materials

Description: As part of a project with SEMATECH, detailed chemical reaction mechanisms have been developed that describe the gas-phase and surface chemistry occurring during the fluorocarbon plasma etching of silicon dioxide and related materials. The fluorocarbons examined are C{sub 2}F{sub 6}, CHF{sub 3} and C{sub 4}F{sub 8}, while the materials studied are silicon dioxide, silicon, photoresist, and silica-based low-k dielectrics. These systems were examined at different levels, ranging from in-depth treatment of C{sub 2}F{sub 6} plasma etch of oxide, to a fairly cursory examination of C{sub 4}F{sub 8} etch of the low-k dielectric. Simulations using these reaction mechanisms and AURORA, a zero-dimensional model, compare favorably with etch rates measured in three different experimental reactors, plus extensive diagnostic absolute density measurements of electron and negative ions, relative density measurements of CF, CF{sub 2}, SiF and SiF{sub 2} radicals, ion current densities, and mass spectrometric measurements of relative ion densities.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Ho, Pauline; Johannes, Justine E.; Buss, Richard J. & Meeks, Ellen
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Cloud to CAD

Description: This paper documents work performed to convert scanned range data to CAD solid model representation. The work successfully developed surface fitting algorithms for quadric surfaces (e.g. plane, cone, cylinder, and sphere), and a segmentation algorithm based entirely on surface type, rather than on a differential metric like Gaussian curvature. Extraction of all CAD-required parameters for quadric surface representation was completed. Approximate face boundaries derived from the original point cloud were constructed. Work to extrapolate surfaces, compute exact edges and solid connectivity was begun, but left incomplete due to funding reductions. The surface fitting algorithms are robust in the face of noise and degenerate surface forms.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: AMES,ARLO L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparative guide to emerging diagnostic tools for large commercial HVAC systems

Description: This guide compares emerging diagnostic software tools that aid detection and diagnosis of operational problems for large HVAC systems. We have evaluated six tools for use with energy management control system (EMCS) or other monitoring data. The diagnostic tools summarize relevant performance metrics, display plots for manual analysis, and perform automated diagnostic procedures. Our comparative analysis presents nine summary tables with supporting explanatory text and includes sample diagnostic screens for each tool.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Friedman, Hannah & Piette, Mary Ann
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparison of Near-field and Far-field Air Monitoring of Plutonium-contaminated Soils from the Tonopah Test Range, Nevada

Description: Operation Roller Coaster, a series of nuclear material dispersal experiments, resulted in three areas (Clean Slates 1, 2, and 3) of widespread surface soil plutonium (Pu) contamination on the Tonopah Test Range (TTR), located 225 miles northwest of Las Vegas, Nevada. The State's Division of Environmental Protection raised concerns that dispersal of airborne Pu particles from the sites could result in undetected deposition further downwind that the background monitoring stations. Air monitoring data from different distances from the Clean Slate sites but during the same period of time were compared. From the available data, there is no indication that airborne PM10 particles are being transported to the farther distance,however, the data are statistically insufficient to conclude whether there is a difference in transport of respirable Pu particles to the closer verses the farther sites from the Clean Slate sites.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Bowen, John L. & Shafer, David S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Conbined noble gas and stable isotope constraints on nitrogen gas sources within sedimentary basins. Final report for period 15 March 1996 - 14 March 1999 extended to 14 March 2000

Description: Nitrogen is one of the major non-hydrocarbon gases found in natural gas reservoirs. The objective of this work was to combine the information available from both noble gas and stable isotope systematics to understand the origin of nitrogen and related gas sources, transport behavior, and mass balance within natural gas reservoirs and sedimentary basin systems. The goals achieved are summarized under the following headings: Noble gas and stable isotopes in nitrogen-rich natural gases; Noble gases in groundwater; and Characterization of magmatic and crustal noble gas input into basin systems. Lists of publications and presentations are included.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Ballentine, C.J.; Halliday, Alexander N. & Lollar, B. Sherwood
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Concentration of (236)Pu Daughters in Plutonium for Application to MOX Production from Plutonium from Dismantled US Nuclear Weapons

Description: The isotope {sup 236}Pu in the weapons-grade plutonium to be used in the US MOX (mixed-oxide) plant is of concern because the daughter products of {sup 236}Pu are sources of high-energy gamma rays. The {sup 208}Tl daughter of {sup 236}Pu emits intense, high-energy gamma rays that are important for radiation exposure calculations for plant design. It is generally thought that the concentrations of {sup 236}Pu and its daughters are well below 10{sup {minus}10}, but these concentrations are generally below the detection limits of most analytical techniques. One technique that can be used to determine the concentration {sup 208}Tl is the direct measurement of the intensity of the {sup 208}Tl gamma rays in the gamma-ray spectrum from plutonium. Thallium-208 will be in equilibrium with {sup 228}Th, and may very well be in equilibrium with {sup 232}U for most aged plutonium samples. We have used the FRAM isotopic analysis software to analyze dozens of archived high-resolution gamma ray spectra from various samples of US and foreign plutonium. We are able to quantify the ratio of minor isotopes with measurable gamma-ray emissions to the major isotope of plutonium and hence, through the measurement of the plutonium isotopic distribution of the sample, to elemental plutonium itself. Excluding items packaged in fluoropolymer vials, all samples analyzed with {sup 240}Pu < 9% gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 3.4 e-012 and all samples of US-produced plutonium, including {sup 240}Pu values up to 16.4%, gave {sup 228}Th/Pu ratios < 9.4 e-012. None of these values is significant from a radiation dose standpoint.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Sampson, T.E. & Cremers, T.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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COPPER CABLE RECYCLING TECHNOLOGY

Description: The United States Department of Energy (DOE) continually seeks safer and more cost-effective technologies for use in deactivation and decommissioning (D&D) of nuclear facilities. The Deactivation and Decommissioning Focus Area (DDFA) of the DOE's Office of Science and Technology (OST) sponsors large-scale demonstration and deployment projects (LSDDPs). At these LSDDPs, developers and vendors of improved or innovative technologies showcase products that are potentially beneficial to the DOE's projects and to others in the D&D community. Benefits sought include decreased health and safety risks to personnel and the environment, increased productivity, and decreased costs of operation. The Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) generated a list of statements defining specific needs and problems where improved technology could be incorporated into ongoing D&D tasks. One such need is to reduce the volume of waste copper wire and cable generated by D&D. Deactivation and decommissioning activities of nuclear facilities generates hundreds of tons of contaminated copper cable, which are sent to radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology separates the clean copper from contaminated insulation and dust materials in these cables. The recovered copper can then be reclaimed and, more importantly, landfill disposal volumes can be reduced. The existing baseline technology for disposing radioactively contaminated cables is to package the cables in wooden storage boxes and dispose of the cables in radioactive waste disposal sites. The Copper Cable Recycling Technology is applicable to facility decommissioning projects at many Department of Energy (DOE) nuclear facilities and commercial nuclear power plants undergoing decommissioning activities. The INEEL Copper Cable Recycling Technology Demonstration investigated the effectiveness and efficiency to recycle 13.5 tons of copper cable. To determine the effectiveness of separating out radioactive contamination, the copper cable was coated with a surrogate contaminant. The demonstration took place at the Bonneville County Technology Center in …
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Hubbard, Chelsea
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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DATA MINING AT THE NEBRASKA OIL & GAS COMMISSION

Description: The purpose of this study of the hearing records is to identify factors that are likely to impact the performance of a waterflood in the Nebraska panhandle. The records consisted of 140 cases. Most of the hearings were held prior to 1980. Many of the records were incomplete, and data believed to be key to estimating waterflood performance such as Dykstra-Parson permeability distribution or relative permeability were absent. New techniques were applied to analyze the sparse, incomplete dataset. When information is available, but not clearly understood, new computational intelligence tools can decipher correlations in the dataset. Fuzzy ranking and neural networks were the tools used to estimate secondary recovery from the Cliff Farms Unit. The hearing records include 30 descriptive entries that could influence the success or failure of a waterflood. Success or failure is defined by the ratio of secondary to primary oil recovery (S/P). Primary recovery is defined as cumulative oil produced at the time of the hearing and secondary recovery is defined as the oil produced since the hearing date. Fuzzy ranking was used to prioritize the relevance of 6 parameters on the outcome of the proposed waterflood. The 6 parameters were universally available in 44 of the case hearings. These 44 cases serve as the database used to correlate the following 6 inputs with the respective S/P. (1) Cumulative Water oil ratio, bbl/bbl; (2) Cumulative Gas oil ratio, mcf/bbl; (3) Unit area, acres; (4) Average Porosity, %; (5) Average Permeability, md; (6) Initial bottom hole pressure, psi. A 6-3-1 architecture describes the neural network used to develop a correlation between the 6 input parameters and their respective S/P. The network trained to a 85% correlation coefficient. The predicted Cliff Farms Unit S/P is 0.315 or secondary recovery is expected to be 102,700 bbl.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Weber, James R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Deep Borehole Instrumentation Along San Francisco Bay Bridges - 2001

Description: This is a progress report on the Bay Bridges downhole network. Between 2 and 8 instruments have been spaced along the Dumbarton, San Mateo, Bay, and San Rafael bridges in San Francisco Bay, California. The instruments will provide multiple use data that is important to geotechnical, structural engineering, and seismological studies. The holes are between 100 and 1000 ft deep and were drilled by Caltrans. There are twenty-one sensor packages at fifteen sites. The downhole instrument package contains a three component HS-1 seismometer and three orthogonal Wilcox 731 accelerometers, and is capable of recording a micro g from local M = 1.0 earthquakes to 0.5 g strong ground motion form large Bay Area earthquakes. This report list earthquakes and stations where recordings were obtained during the period February 29, 2000 to November 11, 2000. Also, preliminary results on noise analysis for up and down hole recordings at Yerba Buena Island is presented.
Date: May 1, 2001
Creator: Hutchings, L.; Kasameyer, P.; Long, L.; McEvilly, T.; Clymer, R.; Urhhammer, R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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