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Development of a coal fired pulse combustor for residential space heating. Technical progress report, January--March 1987

Description: The systematic development of the residential combustion system is divided into three phases. Only Phases I and II are detailed here. Phase I constitutes the design, fabrication, testing, and evaluation of a pulse combustor sized for residential space heating. Phase II is an optional phase to develop an integrated system including a heat exchanger. Phase III is projected as a field test of the integrated coal-fired residential space heater. The program logic is depicted in Figure 3-1. The objective of Phase I is to develop an ` advanced pulse coal combustor at the 100,000 Btu/hr scale which can later be integrated with a heat exchanger and controls to form a residential space heater. Phase I is comprised of four technical tasks which are described. The initial test fuels for the Phase I and II effort were expected to be coal slurries. However, it soon became obvious that the availability of the slurries during the development stage would be somewhat problematic and could become an impediment to maintaining progress and schedule. It was therefore decided, after discussions with the DOE Project Manager, to focus the Phase I and II effort upon the use of dry micronized coal and to consider the slurries for a product improvement activity in later phases of the program. This change will not affect the cost, schedule, or technical objectives of the Statement of Work.
Date: December 31, 1987
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 1, October 16, 1986--January 15, 1987

Description: The United States will need to be able to convert coal to liquid fuels should current supplies be interrupted. The indirect method for producing fuel liquids is the gasification of the coal to synthesis gas (syngas) followed by Fischer-Tropsch synthesis to convert syngas to hydrocarbons. However, both the gasifier and the FTS processes result in the production of methane and/or light hydrocarbon by-product that negatively affect the economics of the production of liquid fuel from coal. The goal of SRI`s research is thus to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. SRI project 2678 is exploring two approaches to achieving the stated goal. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare earth exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surfaceconfined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. We will then decompose the organometallic complexes to obtain very stable, highly dispersed catalysts. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. We will test the catalysts in a fixed-bed isothermal microreactor in a downflow mode at {approximately}100 psi. During the first quarter of this project, we have concentrated on methane oxidation to methanol. We have synthesized phthalocyanine oxidation catalysts containing different metals (Co, Fe, and Ru) within zeolite pores. our examination of their ability to oxidize methane to methanol has indicated preliminary positive results.
Date: February 23, 1987
Creator: Wilson, R.B. Jr. & Chan, Yee Wai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 2, January 16, 1987--April 15, 1987

Description: The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. In this program we are exploring two approaches to developing such catalysts. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare-earth-exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surfaceconfined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. During the second quarter of this project, we concentrated on methane reforming. Two ruthenium clusters (Ru{sub 4} and Ru{sub 6}) supported on three types of support materials ({beta}-alumina, 5 {Angstrom} molecular sieves, and {gamma}-zeolite) were tested for methane reforming. The effects of cluster size, supporting material, and reaction conditions were evaluated. The methane conversions range from 1.74 to 10.11% at 750{degrees}C. The reaction product contains hydrogen, C{sub 2} hydrocarbons, and C{sub 6} or higher hydrocarbons. Up to 48.34% yield of hydrocarbon (C{sub 2}+) is obtained based on reacted methane. Some of these catalysts show very good coking resistance compared with a commercial ruthenium catalyst. Addition of oxygen to these reactions significantly increases the percent methane conversion at lower reaction temperature. However, carbon dioxide and water are the major products in the presence of oxygen.
Date: May 21, 1987
Creator: Wilson, R.B. Jr. & Chan, Yee Wai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 3, April 16--July 15, 1987

Description: The goal of this research is to develop catalysts that directly convert methane and light hydrocarbons to intermediates that can, as economics dictate, be subsequently converted either to liquid fuels or value-added chemicals. In this program we are exploring two approaches to developing such catalysts. The first approach consists of developing advanced catalysts for reforming methane. We will prepare the catalysts by reacting organometallic complexes of transition metals (Fe, Ru, Rh, and Re) with zeolitic and rare-earth-exchanged zeolitic supports to produce surface-confined metal complexes in the zeolite pores. Our second approach entails synthesizing the porphyrin and phthalocyanine complexes of Cr, Mn, Ru, Fe, and/or Co within the pores of zeolitic supports for use as selective oxidation catalysts for methane and light hydrocarbons. During this reporting period, we concentrated on synthesizing and testing methane oxidation catalysts using the automated GC sampling system. We modified our preparation method of zeolite-encapsulated phthalocyanines (PC). The catalysts have higher complex loading, and the uncomplexed metal ions were back-exchanged by sodium ions (to remove any uncomplexed metal ions). Four metal ions were used: cobalt, iron, ruthenium, and manganese. We also synthesized four zeolite-encapsulated tetraphenylporphyrin (TPP) complexes using the same metals. These catalysts were tested for methane oxidation in the temperature range from 300{degrees} to 500{degrees}C at 50 psig pressure. The RUPC, COTPP, and MNTPP showed activity toward the formation of methanol. The RUPC zeolite gave the best methanol yield. The methane conversion was 4.8%, and the selectivity to methanol is 11.3% at 375{degrees}C. Again, the major products are carbon dioxide and water in every catalyst we tested during this reporting period.
Date: August 28, 1987
Creator: Wilson, R.B. Jr. & Chan, Yee Wai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct catalytic conversion of methane and light hydrocarbon gases. Quarterly report No. 4, August 16--October 15, 1987

Description: The goals of this research project are to increase the methane conversion and improve the hydrocarbon production. For methane reforming, we achieved a conversion of up to 43% by adjusting the reaction conditions. Ruthenium clusters are effective catalysts but the selectivity to hydrocarbons needs to be improved. In evaluating the effect of cluster size for mononuclear, tetranuclear, and hexanuclear ruthenium complexes we found that the tetraruthenium cluster was by far the most effective catalyst. We began to study the mixed metal catalysts by synthesizing a FeRu{sub 3} cluster. We plan to vary the ratio of Fe to Ru by synthesizing Fe{sub 2}Ru{sub 2} and Fe{sub 3}Ru clusters. The type of the support also plays an important role in methane reforming. We briefly tested a basic support, magnesia, in addition to the acidic supports tested previously (alumina, 5A molecular sieve, and Y-zeolite). The results are promising. We will continue to investigate the role of the support. The effectiveness of using a hydrogen removal membrane is still in question. We purchased a new Pd/Ag membrane tube inside which a stainless steel spring is inserted. The steel spring will increase the strength of the otherwise fragile tube and it will support the tube during bending. We will build a new reactor using this membrane tube.
Date: November 19, 1987
Creator: Wilson, R.B. Jr. & Chan, Yee Wai
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Gas content of Gladys McCall reservoir brine

Description: On October 8, 1983, after the first full day of production from Sand No.8 in the Gladys McCall well, samples of separator gas and separator brine were collected for laboratory P-V-T (pressure, volume, temperature) studies. Recombination of amounts of these samples based upon measured rates at the time of sample collection, and at reservoir temperature (290 F), revealed a bubble point pressure of 9200 psia. This is substantially below the reported reservoir pressure of 12,783 psia. The gas content of the recombined fluids was 30.19 SCF of dry gas/STB of brine. In contrast, laboratory studies indicate that 35.84 SCF of pure methane would dissolve in each STB of 95,000 mg/L sodium chloride brine. These results indicate that the reservoir brine was not saturated with natural gas. By early April, 1987, production of roughly 25 million barrels of brine had reduced calculated flowing bottomhole pressure to about 6600 psia at a brine rate of 22,000 STB/D. If the skin factor(s) were as high as 20, flowing pressure drop across the skin would still be only about 500 psi. Thus, some portion of the reservoir volume was believed to have been drawn down to below the bubble point deduced from the laboratory recombination of separator samples. When the pressure in a geopressured geothermal reservoir is reduced to below the bubble point pressure for solution gas, gas is exsolved from the brine flowing through the pores in the reservoir rock. This exsolved gas is trapped in the reservoir until the fractional gas saturation of pore volume becomes large enough for gas flow to commence through a continuous gas-filled channel. At the same time, the gas/brine ratio becomes smaller and the chemistry of the remaining solution gas changes for the brine from which gas is exsolved. A careful search was made for the changes ...
Date: May 29, 1987
Creator: Hayden, C.G. & Randolph, P.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department