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Energy Economic Data Base (EEDB) Program. Phase III. Final report and third update

Description: The objective of the USDOE EEDB Program is to provide periodic updates of technical and cost (capital, fuel and operating and maintenance) information of significance to the US Department of Energy. This information is intended to be used by USDOE in evauating and monitoring US civilian nuclear power programs, and to provide them with a consistent means of evaluating the nuclear option and proposed alternatives. The data tables, which make up the bulk of the report, are updated to January 1, 1980. The data in these tables and in the backup data file supercede the information presented in the Second Update (1979). Where required, new descriptive information is added in the text to supplement the data tables.
Date: July 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Review of draft HTGR-SC/C design and technology development plans

Description: GCRA has approached the initial review of the subject plans from the vantage of Utility/User interests in an HTGR-SC/C Lead Project as characterized in the HTGR-SC/C Lead Project Plan. At their current stage of development, the plans are considered to represent the early views of General Atomic Company, acting as a potential NSSS vendor, on the effort necessary to design and license an HTGR-SC/C plant. As such, these plans embody GA's perception of the level of technical development and demonstration needed to support the cost and risk sharing assumptions in the Lead Project Plan. These plans and the plant design which they address will be subjected to a more formal review by other vendor and Utility interests in the course of establishing the Project Decision Package scheduled for June 1982. The culmination of these review activities will be the adoption of this information by all participants as the HTGR-SC/C Program Baseline.
Date: September 22, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature process heat. Interim design and cost status report, FY 1981

Description: Studies conductd on HTGR systems in FY 1980 were concluded in Application Study Reports to describe the preconceptual system designs to that point and discuss possible applications for three variations of the systems; the steam cycle/cogeneration plant, the higher temperature reformer plant, and the gas turbine concept. The HTGR-Reformer Application Study was conceived and directed to evaluate the HTGR-R with a core outlet temperature of 850/sup 0/C as a near-term Lead Project and as a vehicle to long-term HTGR Program Objectives. The scope of this effort included evaluations of the HTGR-R technology, evaluation of potential HTGR-R markets, assesment of the economics of commercial HTGR-R plants, and the evaluation of the program scope and expenditures necessary to establish HTGR-R technology through the completion of the Lead Project.
Date: October 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature gas-cooled reactor safety-reliability program plan

Description: The purpose of this document is to present a safety plan as part of an overall program plan for the design and development of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor (HTGR). This plan is intended to establish a logical framework for identifying the technology necessary to demonstrate that the requisite degree of public risk safety can be achieved economically. This plan provides a coherent system safety approach together with goals and success criterion as part of a unifying strategy for licensing a lead reactor plant in the near term. It is intended to provide guidance to program participants involved in producing a technology base for the HTGR that is fully responsive to safety consideration in the design, evaluation, licensing, public acceptance, and economic optimization of reactor systems.
Date: March 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Outline and schedule for the HTGR-SC/C licensing plan

Description: The Licensing Plan is based on licensing a HTGR-SC/C lead plant in the near term. The plan also provides reference safety material and a basis (requirements, criteria, etc.) for licensing commercial follow-on plants. The plan is structured in two parts: program management and project management, and covers three sequences of licensing activities: pre-application, construction permit application, and operating licensing application. Major activities and a schedule of events are outlined in these three phases indicating the approach, the objective and the documentation involved. The Licensing Plan will be further developed in detail in FY 1982 as part of a Project Decision Package.
Date: September 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the siting characteristic of the HTGR steam cycle/cogeneration

Description: This report presents an overview of the siting characteristics of the HTGR-SC/C design and compares them to current NRC limiting criteria for radiological impact considerations. A systems advantage comparison is also made to an equivalent size PWR. Data is presented in summary tabular format that is derived from existing plant designs and published safety and environmental analysis for both the HTGR and the PWR.
Date: November 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of the United States National HTGR program

Description: The HTGR continues to appear as an increasingly attractive option for application to US energy markets. To examine that potential, a program is being pursued to examine the various HTGR applications and to provide information to decision-makers in both the public and private sectors. To date, this effort has identified a substantial technical and economic potential for Steam Cycle/Cogeneration applications. Advanced HTGR systems are currently being evaluated to determine their appropriate role and timing. The encouraging results which have been obtained lead to heightened anticipation that a role for the HTGR will be found in the US energy market and that an initiative culminating in a lead project will be evolved in the forseeable future. The US Program can continue to benefit from international cooperative activities to develop the needed technologies. Expansion of these cooperative activities will be actively pursued.
Date: January 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application-study report: alumina-plant application

Description: This report considers the HTGR-PS/C application to producing alumina from bauxite. For the size alumina plant considered, the 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C supplies 100% of the process steam and electrical power requirements and produces surplus electrical power and/or process steam, which can be used for other process users or electrical power production. Presently, the bauxite ore is reduced to alumina in plants geographically separated from the electrolysis plant. The electrolysis plants are located near economical electric power sources. However, with the integration of an 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C unit in a commercial alumina plant, the excess electric power available (approx. 233 MW(e)) could be used for alumina electrolysis.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Rao, R.; McMain, A.T. Jr. & Stanley, J.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Transient stress wave propagation in HTGR fuel element impacts

Description: A study of transient stress wave propagation in graphite HTGR fuel elements has been undertaken as a step toward developing techniques for the evaluation of seismic impact loads. The objectives of the study were to identify appropriate numerical methods, to understand the influence of the geometry and the multiple holes on the response, and to determine the relative importance of high frequency response and lower mode vibrations. A general review is made of the dynamic contact problem, and the methods available to model impact phenomena and stress wave propagation are evaluated.
Date: February 1, 1981
Creator: Almajan, I.T. & Smith, P.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fission-product SiC reaction in HTGR fuel

Description: The primary barrier to release of fission product from any of the fuel types into the primary circuit of the HTGR are the coatings on the fuel particles. Both pyrolytic carbon and silicon carbide coatings are very effective in retaining fission gases under normal operating conditions. One of the possible performance limitations which has been observed in irradiation tests of TRISO fuel is chemical interaction of the SiC layer with fission products. This reaction reduces the thickness of the SiC layer in TRISO particles and can lead to release of fission products from the particles if the SiC layer is completely penetrated. The experimental section of this report describes the results of work at General Atomic concerning the reaction of fission products with silicon carbide. The discussion section describes data obtained by various laboratories and includes (1) a description of the fission products which have been found to react with SiC; (2) a description of the kinetics of silicon carbide thinning caused by fission product reaction during out-of-pile thermal gradient heating and the application of these kinetics to in-pile irradiation; and (3) a comparison of silicon carbide thinning in LEU and HEU fuels.
Date: July 13, 1981
Creator: Montgomery, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

US/FRG umbrella agreement for cooperation in GCR development. Fuel, fission products, and graphite subprogram. Quarterly status report, July 1, 1981-September 30, 1981

Description: This report describes the status of the cooperative work being performed in the Fuel, Fission Product, and Graphite Subprogram under the HTR-Implementing Agreement of the United States/Federal Republic of Germany Umbrella Agreement for Cooperation in GCR Development. The status is described relative to the commitments in the Subprogram Plan for Fuel, Fission Products, and Graphite, Revision 3, April 1981. The work described was performed during the period July 1, 1981 through September 30, 1981 in the HTGR Base Technology Program at Oak Ridge National Laboratory, the HTGR Fuel and Plant Technology Programs at General Atomic Company, and the Project HTR-Brennstoffkreislauf of the Entwicklungsgemeinschaft HTR at KFA Julich, HRB Mannheim, HOBEG Hanau and SIGRI Meitingen.
Date: October 1, 1981
Creator: Turner, R.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR high temperature process heat design and cost status report. Volume II. Appendices

Description: Information is presented concerning the 850/sup 0/C IDC reactor vessel; primary cooling system; secondary helium system; steam generator; heat cycle evaluations for the 850/sup 0/C IDC plant; 950/sup 0/C DC reactor vessel; 950/sup 0/C DC steam generator; direct and indirect cycle reformers; methanation plant; thermochemical pipeline; methodology for screening candidate synfuel processes; ECCG process; project technical requirements; process gas explosion assessment; HTGR program economic guidelines; and vendor respones.
Date: December 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Scale-model study of the seismic response of a nuclear reactor core

Description: The use of scale models to study the dynamics of a system of graphite core blocks used in certain nuclear reactor designs is described. Scaling laws, material selection, model instrumentation to measure collision forces, and the response of several models to simulated seismic excitation are covered. The effects of (1) Coulomb friction between the blocks, and (2) the clearance gaps between the blocks on the system response to seismic excitation are emphasized. 6 refs., 10 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: Dove, R.C.; Dunwoody, W.E. & Rhorer, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of prestress and stress on the strength and oxidation rate of nuclear graphite

Description: Effects of prestress or stress during oxidation on the reactivities and strengths of PGX and H451 graphites were examined at oxidation temperatures of 450 to 600/sup 0/C in air and 550 to 750/sup 0/C in 2% H/sub 2/O/He. Little or no effect of compressive prestress at stress levels of up to 75% of the mean fracture strengths, was found. A small effect on the reactivity of H451 graphite was observed in the case of 2% H/sub 2/O/He, i.e., the rate was enhanced by no more than 30% for compressive prestress levels of up to 90% of the fracture strength. Tensile and compressive stresses during oxidation did not affect the reactivities of these graphites at stress levels of up to 28% of the mean compressive strength and 35% of the mean tensile strength for H451 graphite, and 44% and 56% for PGX graphite, respectively. 13 refs., 18 figs.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Eto, M. & Growcock, F.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Correction for gamma-ray self-attenuation in regular heterogeneous materials

Description: A procedure for determining the total correction factor for gamma-ray self-attenuation in regular heterogeneous materials is derived and discussed. The result of a practical application of the procedure to the passive gamma-ray assay of the /sup 235/U content of high-temperature gas reactor fuel is presented.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Parker, J.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Corrosion-induced changes in pore-size distributions of fuel-matrix material

Description: In order to understand the mechanism of metallic fission-product adsorption and desorption as well as diffusion in graphitic materials, a detailed knowledge of the material microstructure is essential. Different types of grahitic matrix material used or to be used in fuel elements of the German HTR Program were measured at ORNL in cooperation with the Hahn-Meitner-Institut Berlin. Actual measurements of fission product diffusion and adsorption/desorption were performed at HMI Berlin.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Krautwasser, P. & Eatherly, W.P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Computational experiences with variable modulus, elastic-plastic, and viscoelastic concrete models. [HTGR]

Description: Six years ago the Reactor Safety Research Division of the Nuclear Regulatory Commission (NRC) approached the Los Alamos National Laboratory to develop a comprehensive concrete structural analysis code to predict the static and dynamic behavior of Prestressed Concrete Reactor Vessels (PCRVs) that serve as the containment structure of a High-Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor. The PCRV is a complex concrete structure that must be modeled in three dimensions and posseses other complicating features such as a steel liner for the reactor cavity and woven cables embedded vertically in the PCRV and wound circumferentially on the outside of the PCRV. The cables, or tendons, are used for prestressing the reactor vessel. In addition to developing the computational capability to predict inelastic three dimensional concrete structural behavior, the code response was verified against documented experiments on concrete structural behavior. This code development/verification effort is described.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Anderson, C.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Safety concerns and suggested design approaches to the HTGR Reformer process concept

Description: This report is a safety review of the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer Application Study prepared by Gas-Cooled Reactor Associates (GCRA) of La Jolla, California. The objective of this review was to identify safety concerns and suggests design approaches to minimize risk in the High Temperature Gas-Cooled Reactor Reformer (HTGR-R) process concept.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Green, R.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

HTGR Fuel Technology Program. Semiannual report for the period ending March 31, 1981

Description: This document reports the technical accomplishments on the HTGR Fuel Technology Program at General Atomic during the first half of FY-81. The activities include the fuel process, fuel materials, fuel cycle, fission product transport, and core component verification testing tasks necessary to support the design and development of a steam cycle/cogeneration (SC/C) version of the HTGR with a follow-on reformer (R) version. An important effort which was initiated during this period was the preparation of input data for a long-range technology program plan.
Date: May 1, 1981
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effect of oxidizing environment on the strength and oxidation kinetics of HTGR graphites. Part I. Reactivity and strength loss of H451, PGX and IG-11 graphites

Description: The effects of oxidizing atmosphere and temperature on the reactivities and strengths of PGX, H451, and IG-11 were examined. Preliminary measurements of the oxidation kinetics of these graphites in H/sub 2/O-, CO/sub 2/- and O/sub 2/-containing atmospheres indicated that the reactivities of H451 graphite toward O/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/O are quite similar to those of IG-11 graphite. The apparent activation energy for oxidation of these in O/sub 2/ were estimated to be approx. 175 kJ/mol while that in H/sub 2/O is probably approx. 200 kJ/mol. The apparent activation energy of IG-11 graphite oxidized in CO/sub 2/ is 255 +- 18 kJ/mol. PGX graphite was found to be quite variable in its reactivity toward H/sub 2/O. A linear dependence with (Fe) was determined, but other intrinsic properties were found to affect its absolute reactivity by as much as a factor of X50.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Eto, M. & Growcock, F.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spent graphite fuel element processing

Description: The Department of Energy currently sponsors two programs to demonstrate the processing of spent graphite fuel elements. General Atomic in San Diego operates a cold pilot plant to demonstrate the processing of both US and German high-temperature reactor fuel. Exxon Nuclear Idaho Company is demonstrating the processing of spent graphite fuel elements from Rover reactors operated for the Nuclear Rocket Propulsion Program. This work is done at Idaho National Engineering Laboratory, where a hot facility is being constructed to complete processing of the Rover fuel. This paper focuses on the graphite combustion process common to both programs.
Date: July 1, 1981
Creator: Holder, N.D. & Olsen, C.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

1170-MW(t) HTGR-PS/C plant application study report: Geismar, Louisiana refinery/chemical complex application

Description: This report summarizes a study to apply an 1170-MW(t) high-temperature gas-cooled reactor - process steam/cogeneration (HTGR-PS/C) to an industrial complex at Geismar, Louisiana. This study compares the HTGR with coal and oil as process plant fuels. This study uses a previous broad energy alternative study by the Stone and Webster Corporation on refinery and chemical plant needs in the Gulf States Utilities service area. The HTGR-PS/C was developed by General Atomic (GA) specifically for industries which require both steam and electric energy. The GA 1170-MW(t) HTGR-PC/C design is particularly well suited to industrial applications and is expected to have excellent cost benefits over other energy sources.
Date: May 1, 1981
Creator: McMain, Jr., A. T. & Stanley, J. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

High-temperature helium-loop facility

Description: The high-temperature helium loop is a facility for materials testing in ultrapure helium gas at high temperatures. The closed loop system is capable of recirculating high-purity helium or helium with controlled impurities. The gas loop maximum operating conditions are as follows: 300 psi pressure, 500 lb/h flow rate, and 2100/sup 0/F temperature. The two test sections can accept samples up to 3.5 in. diameter and 5 ft long. The gas loop is fully instrumented to continuously monitor all parameters of loop operation as well as helium impurities. The loop is fully automated to operate continuously and requires only a daily servicing by a qualified operator to replenish recorder charts and helium makeup gas. Because of its versatility and high degree of parameter control, the helium loop is applicable to many types of materials research. This report describes the test apparatus, operating parameters, peripheral systems, and instrumentation system.
Date: September 1, 1981
Creator: Tokarz, R. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department