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Applications of nuclear techniques for in vivo body composition studies at Brookhaven National Laboratory

Description: A series of technical developments and their clinical applications in various nuclear technologies at Brookhaven National Laboratory is described. These include the development of a portable neutron activation facility for measuring cadmium in vivo in kidney and liver, a technique for the measurement of body iron utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays, a non-invasive measure of the skeletal levels of lead by an x-ray fluorescence technique, and the development of a pulsed Van de Graaff generator as a source of pulsed neutrons for the measurement of lung silicon. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Cohn, S.H.; Ellis, K.J.; Vartsky, D.; Vaswani, A.N. & Wielopolski, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Use of nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays for in vivo measurement of iron

Description: A technique for determination of elements in human body in-vivo, utilizing nuclear resonant scattering of gamma rays has been developed. 847 keV photons emitted from a gaseous /sup 56/MnCl/sub 2/ source are resonantly scattered from /sup 56/Fe present in the body. The detection of these gamma rays is used to estimate the iron content of the liver or heart of patients. Details of the calibration procedure and potential molecular effects are described.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Vartsky, D.; Wielopolski, L.; Ellis, K.J. & Cohn, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

In vivo-detection, localization and measurement of radionuclides in man: a detection system for the localization amd measurement of small amounts of photon emitters. Progress report, March 1, 1981-October 31, 1981

Description: The design, construction, and testing of a photon detection system which will yield, simultaneously, information proportional to both the magnitude and location of sources of radioactivity are under investigation. The operating principle of the detector system, active collimation, allows spatial resolution by utilizing the crystal elements themselves as the collimating device; hence a greater counting efficiency is attainable. Two approaches have been tested thus far: in the first, the differences in characteristics of various crystals are utilized as the means of separating events occurring in each of five crystals viewed by a single phototube; in the second, smaller, single crystal/phototube elements are used in the array. Mathematical processing of the counts from the individual crystal elements is then employed in conjunction with their geometric relationship to develop both positional data and to quantify the amount of radioactivity. By utilizing crystal elements in an active collimation configuration and incorporating them in an array which permits these crystals to be alternately advanced and retracted in a programmed, ordered manner, a high degree of spatial resolution is achievable without compromising system sensitivity. The experiments include development of the optimal crystal configuration and the evolving of data processing techniques to translate detector response into precise source position information for localization or imaging purposes. Such a system could add another dimension in studies involving uptake, distribution, and retention of radionuclide labeled compounds because of its ability to actively track, in vivo, the distribution of these compounds. In addition, it should be possible to study, dynamically, the motion of organs, such as the heart or lungs, through which these compounds move. (ERB)
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Laurer, G. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Recent developments in cyclotron-produced radiopharmaceuticals

Description: The major areas of interest over the past two years are briefly reviewed. These include: (1) tracers for in vivo measurements of blood flow; (2) tracers for in vivo measurements of regional metabolism; (3) tracers for the measurement of receptor sensitivities; and (4) radioisotope generator systems. (ACR)
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Friedman, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Synthesis of hydrocarbons in the earth's crust

Description: This report suggests an alternative theory for the generation and migration of petroleums. Considerable evidence supports the conclusion that life processes persist deep within terrestrial and marine environments. Such in vivo processes may survive in photon-free ecologies using mechanisms that both reduce carbon dioxide and oxidize sulfides. These in vivo conversions create petroleums.
Date: November 1, 1981
Creator: Vanderborgh, N.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Some Aspects of Radon and Its Daughter-Products in Man and His Environment

Description: A major but short-lived postprandial increase in the exhalation rate of radon by persons containing no radium was observed. The concentrations of radon and its short-lived daughter-products in houses was unusually high (> 5 to 10 pCi l/sup -1/, > 185 to 370 Bq m/sup -3/) in some houses with unpaved crawl spaces, and with concrete basements. External counting of radon daughter-products in the residents of one of the radon-contaminated houses indicated that there may be interference with the assay of plutonium in the lungs of persons who live in those houses.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Rundo, J.; Markun, F.; Plondke, N.J. & Sha, J.Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Measurement of total body calcium in osteoporotic patients treated with salmon calcitonin

Description: In the past, the evaluation of therapies for osteoporosis has been limited by the lack of a suitable quantitative end point. The introduction of the technique of in vivo total body neutron activation analysis (TBNAA) has made possible the precise and accurate measurement of total body calcium (TBCa). Since almost 99 percent of TBCa is in the skeleton, TBNAA gives a direct measurement of skeletal mass. Thus, changes in skeletal mass serve as an objective criterion in the evaluation of the efficacy of the therapy in osteoporosis. Studies performed at Brookhaven National Laboratory and elsewhere have reported the use of calcitonin (CT) in the treatment of primary osteoporosis and related conditions in a limited number of patients. The physiological effects of CT as an inhibitor of bone resorption has been the rationale of its use. The results of a randomized, controlled, 2 year therapeutical trial of CT in a group of postmenopausal osteoporotic women are presented in this report.
Date: January 1, 1981
Creator: Zanzi, I.; Thompson, K. & Cohn, S.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department