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Assessment of the radiological impact of coal utilization. I. Preliminary studies on Western coal. [Western USA; radionuclide impurities]

Description: It was the purpose of this project to broadly survey pathways of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle, identifying critical questions and providing direction for subsequent, definitive studies of radionuclides in coal and the technological enhancement of concentrations of naturally occurring radionuclides through use of this coal. Western coal was selected for study because of its prominence in the National Energy Plan. Specific objectives were to: investigate the fate of radionuclides in the coal fuel cycle and, where possible, delineate the scope of the potential environmental and human health problem associated with radionuclides in coal; compile and evaluate data for uranium-238, uranium-234, lead-210, polonium-210, and thorium-230 in coal; study the release, fate, and accumulation of radionuclides from a power plant burning Western coal; and assess the possible need for additional control technology or standards. Results indicate that concentration of radionuclides in coal from Western mines varies widely, both within and between mines similar to other minor and trace constituents. The concentration of radionuclides in Western coal being mined today is roughly comparable to that of Eastern coal and is slightly below the average for all U.S. coal. A radionuclide balance for a power plant indicated that over 80% of uranium-234, uranium-238, and lead-210 present in the feed coal remained with the fly ash. Thus, collection of fly ash by electrostatic precipitators is of value in controlling radionuclide emissions. An additional 8 to 9% of the radionuclidesremained with bottom ash. Since over 90% of uranium-234, uranium-238, and lead-210 in feed coal remains with bottom ash and fly ash, it is suggested that the possible migration of radionuclides--particularly radon-222 which decays to lead-210 and polonium-210--from the ash pond, warrants further study.
Date: February 12, 1979
Creator: Styron, C.E.; Casella, V.R.; Farmer, B.M.; Hopkins, L.C.; Jenkins, P.H.; Phillips, C.A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Criteria for an ideal solar photovoltaic powered industry

Description: A study based on the results of a literature survey on the application of solar photovoltaic energy and the use of energy in the Primary Metals Industries is given. A criteria is outlined for an ideal solar photovoltaic powered industry and the Primary Metals Industries is evaluated with respect to this criteria. Some of the major findings of this report are: (1) The most important requirements of an ideal solar photovoltaic powered industry are the ability to use dc electrical power, ability to be located in Southern California or the Southwestern US and ability to do without power for extended periods of time. (2) The costs of varying from the ideal are most severe with respect to the loss of power element of the criteria. (3) Although most of the industries in the Primary Metals group use tremendous amounts of electrical energy, the general requirements of an uninterruptable power source makes them less than ideal users of photovoltaic energy. (4) It appears to be both technologically and economically feasible to develop processes which would make at least four of the seven members of the Primary Metals Industries ideal solar photovoltaic powered industries.
Date: June 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal products industry

Description: Set targets for increased utilization of energy-saving recovered materials in the metals and metal products industries (ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead) are discussed. Data preparation and methodology development and analysis of the technological and economic factors in order to prepare draft targets for the use of recovered materials are covered. Chapter 2 provides an introductory discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33, including industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends for the 5 industries: ferrous, aluminium, copper, zinc, and lead. Chapter 4 presents the evaluation of recycling targets for those industries. (MCW)
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proposed industrial recovered materials utilization targets for the metals and metal-products industry

Description: The introductory chapter provides a discussion of the factors that affect the recovery and reuse of secondary materials and the competition between the primary and secondary metals industries. It discusses these industries in terms of resource characteristics, industry technology, pollution control requirements, market structure, the economics of recycling, and the issues involved in econometrically estimating scrap supply response behavior. It further presents the methodology established by DOE for the metals, textiles, rubber, and pulp and paper industries. The areas in which government policies might have a significant impact on the utilization of primary and secondary metals and on any recycling targets between now and 1987 are noted. Chapter 3 presents general profiles for the major industrial segments comprising SIC 33. The profiles include such topics as industry structure, process technology, materials and recycling flow, and future trends. Chapter 4 specifically covers the evaluation of recycling targets for the ferrous, aluminum, copper, zinc, and lead industries. (MCW)
Date: May 1, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Neutron particle-hole electric dipole states in /sup 206/ /sup 207/ /sup 208/Pb. [16. 2 to 17. 8 MeV]

Description: Inelastic proton scattering on /sup 206/Pb, /sup 207/Pb, and /sup 208/Pb through isobaric analog resonances was used to study neutron particle-hole excitations with large ground-state gamma branches in these Pb isotopes. Relative (p,p') cross sections at 90/sup 0/ are extracted for structures selectively excited on the d/sub 5/2/, s/sub 1/2/, and d/sub 3/2/-g/sub 7/2/ resonances. Interpretation of excitations in /sup 206/Pb and /sup 207/Pb in terms of coupling to states in /sup 208/Pb is discussed. Branching ratios for 1/sup -/ states in /sup 208/Pb at 4.84, 5.29, 5.94, and 6.31 MeV and the 1/2/sup +/ state in /sup 207/Pb at 4.63 MeV are deduced. 15 figures, 4 tables.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Dickey, P.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix B: trade-off studies. Volume II. Appendices. [SPEC-78]

Description: These appendices to the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle Trade-off Studies reports present data on the SPEC-78 computer model for simulating vehicle performance, fuel economy, and exhaust emissions; propulsion system alternatives; lead-acid and sodium-sulfur batteries; and production cost estimates. (LCL)
Date: June 15, 1979
Creator: Traversi, M. & Piccolo, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Near Term Hybrid Passenger Vehicle Development Program. Phase I, Final report. Appendix A: mission analysis and performance specification studies. Volume I

Description: Studies are described which were performed for the Near Term Hybrid Vehicle program to determine passenger car usage patterns and to correlate these trip mission characteristics with vehicle design and performance specifications. (LCL)
Date: April 20, 1979
Creator: Traversi, M. & Barbarek, L.A.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Theoretical aspects of solid state reactions in a mixed particulate ensemble and kinetics of lead zirconate formation

Description: A theoretical analysis was carried out to estimate the quasi-steady-state external mass transport by lattice, surface and gaseous diffusion in terms of the stereologically measurable microstructural parameters of a mixed powder compact. It was shown that the gaseous transport can be described by a single dimensionless quantity termed sublimation transport modulus. Using these equations, the relative importance of the alternate external transport modes can be evaluated. Experimental work determined the reaction isotherms for the formation of lead zirconate from yellow PbO and monoclinic zirconia between 710/sup 0/C to 810/sup 0/C for two zirconia size distributions. The larger zirconia showed diffusion controlled shrinking core kinetics up to about 90 percent reaction while the smaller zirconia indicated a diffusion controlled spherical growth of up to 85 percent reaction after an instantaneous nucleation at a limited number of sites. The difference was attributed to the differences in the mixing time and not to the particulate sizes. It was observed that for the same size range, a longer mixing operation gave a better dispersion of reactants which resulted in a higher nucleation site density required for a shrinking core type of product morphology and faster kinetics. A microprobe profile analysis of partially reacted particles confirmed that for the shorter mixing period, reaction resultedin a nucleation-growth-impingement type of morphology. The activation energy as calculated from the nucleation-growth model fit to the data was 138 Kcal/mole which is close to 131 Kcal/mole reported for Pb/sup 2 +/ diffusion in PbZrO/sub 3/. Approximate calculations show that the gaseous external mass flux of PbO was negligible compared to the lattice or surface diffusive flux.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Chandratreya, S.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Feasibility of conducting wetfall chemistry investigations around the Bowen Power Plant

Description: The feasibility of expanding the Meteorological Effects of Thermal Energy Releases - Oak Ridge National Laboratory (METER-ORNL) research at Bower Power Plant, a coal-fired power plant in northwest Georgia, to include wetfall chemistry is evaluated using results of similar studies around other power plants, several atmospheric washout models, analysis of spatial variability in precipitation, and field logistical considerations. An optimal wetfall chemistry network design is proposed, incorporating the inner portion of the existing rain-gauge network and augmented by additional sites to ensure adequate coverage of probable target areas. The predicted sulfate production rate differs by about four orders of magnitude among the models reviewed with a pH of 3. No model can claim superiority over any other model without substantive data verification. The spatial uniformity in rain amount is evaluated using four storms that occurred at the METER-ORNL network. Values of spatial variability ranged from 8 to 31% and decreased as the mean rainfall increased. The field study of wetfall chemistry will require a minimum of 5 persons to operate the approximately 50 collectors covering an area of 740 km/sup 2/. Preliminary wetfall-only samples collected on an event basis showed lower pH and higher electrical conductivity of precipitation collected about 5 km downwind of the power plant relative to samples collected upwind. Wetfall samples collected on a weekly basis using automatic samplers, however, showed variable results, with no consistent pattern. This suggests the need for event sampling to minimize variable rain volume and multiple-source effects often associated with weekly samples.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Chen, N.C.J. & Patrinos, A.A.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition of selected trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest watershed. [Roles of dry and wet deposition concentrations measured in Walker Branch Watershed]

Description: The critical links between anthropogenic emissions to the atmosphere and their effects on ecosystems are the mechanisms and rates of atmospheric deposition. The atmospheric input of several trace elements and sulfate to a deciduous forest canopy is quantified and the major mechanisms of deposition are determined. The study area was Walker Branch Watershed (WBW) in eastern Tennessee. The presence of a significant quantity of fly ash and dispersed soil particles on upward-facing leaf and flat surfaces suggested sedimentation to be a major mechanism of dry deposition to upper canopy elements. The agreement for deposition rates measured to inert, flat surfaces and to leaves was good for Cd, SO/sub 4//sup =/, Zn, and Mn but poor for Pb. The precipitation concentrations of H/sup +/, Pb, Mn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ reached maximum values during the summer months. About 90% of the wet deposition of Pb and SO/sub 4//sup =/ was attributed to scavenging by in-cloud processes while for Cd and Mn, removal by in-cloud scavenging accounted for 60 to 70% of the deposition. The interception of incoming rain by the forest canopy resulted in a net increase in the concentrations of Cd, Mn, Pb, Zn, and SO/sub 4//sup =/ but a net decrease in the concentration of H/sup +/. The source of these elements in the forest canopy was primarily dry deposited aerosols for Pb, primarily internal plant leaching for Mn, Cd, and Zn, and an approximately equal combination of the two for SO/sub 4//sup =/. Significant fractions of the total annual elemental flux to the forest floor in a representative chestnut oak stand were attributable to external sources for Pb (99%), Zn (44%), Cd (42%), SO/sub 4//sup =/ (39%), and Mn (14%), the remainder being related to internal element cycling mechanisms. On an annual scale the dry deposition process constituted ...
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Lindberg, S.E.; Harriss, R.C.; Turner, R.R.; Shriner, D.S. & Huff, D.D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Status of ENDF/B-V neutron emission spectra induced by 14-MeV neutrons. [Partial and total spectra, cross sections, graphs]

Description: ENDF/B-V neutron emission spectra induced by 14.6 MeV incident neutrons are graphically compared with experimental data. The elements selected for the comparisons include Na, Mg, Al, Si, Ca, Ti, V, Cr, Fe, Ni, Cu, Nb, W, and Pb. Partial as well as total spectra from the ENDF/B-V evaluations are shown in each graph, while experimental data were available only for the total. Energy distribution laws utilized for the reaction types in each element are explained. Agreement between evaluated and experimental data is discussed, and recommendations for improvements are made. In general, evaluations which utilized advanced nuclear model codes, including precompound effects, agree well with measured spectra.
Date: April 1, 1979
Creator: Hetrick, D. M.; Larson, D. C. & Fu, C. Y.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nuclear Chemistry Project. Progress report, Janary 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

Description: The first on-line operation of the Princeton electron spectrometer was achieved and its capability for fast life time measurements demonstrated. The first operation of the heavy ion source was achieved and beams of 75 meV /sup 12/C/sup +4/ ions and 37 MeV /sup 6/Li/sup +2/ ions demonstrated. The capability of the isotope separator to provide pure mass separated samples of radioisotopes is being utilized for three different applications. The very weak electron capture branch of 19-s krypton 81m to bromine 81 was studied. This transition probability is of crucial importance for a possible solar neutrino detection method based on natural bromine. Lead 202 has been prepared and mass separated for optical hyperfine spectroscopic studies. The isotope shift shift which measures the second moment, < r/sup 2/ >, of the nuclear charge indicates the more neutron deficient lead isotopes are becoming increasingly soft toward nuclear deformation.
Date: December 21, 1979
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Compatibility of structural materials with fusion reactor coolant and breeder fluids

Description: Fusion reactors are characterized by a lithium-containing blanket, a heat transfer medium that is integral with the blanket and first wall, and a heat engine that couples to the heat transfer medium. A variety of lithium-containing substances have been identified as potential blanket materials, including molten lithium metal, molten LiF--BeF/sub 2/, Pb--Li alloys, and solid ceramic compounds such as Li/sub 2/O. Potential heat transfer media include liquid lithium, liquid sodium, molten nitrates, water, and helium. Each of these coolants and blankets requires a particular set of chemical and mechanical properties with respect to the associated reactor and heat engine structural materials. This paper discusses the materials factors that underlie the selection of workable combinations of blankets and coolants. It also addresses the materials compatibility problems generic to those blanket-coolant combinations currently being considered in reactor design studies.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: DeVan, J.H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Uranium, thorium, and lead concentrations and lead isotopic composition of biotite granodiorite (sample 9527-2b) from LASL Drill Hole GT-2

Description: An investigation of the uranium (U), thorium (Th), and lead (Pb) isotopic systematics was made on the whole rock, microcline, plagioclase, biotite, sphene, zircon, epidote, and pyrite of a biotite granodiorite (core sample 9527-2b) obtained from a depth of almost 3 km in Los Alamos Scientific Laboratory's (LASL) deep drill hole GT-2. Except for quartz, magnetite, and apatite, all primary mineral phases were analyzed, as were epidote and pyrite from minute epidote--calcite--pyrite veinlets formed during a later fracture filling event. The sphene and zircon data offer strong support for an initial crystallization age of about 1500 +- 20 m.y for the biotite granodiorite. Likewise, a model age of about 1500 m.y. is calculated for the microcline. This amount of time is also required for the whole rock to evolve essentially as a closed system from an initial lead isotopic composition similar to that of the microcline. The plagioclase and biotite, on the other hand, clearly record isotopic disturbance at some time(s) subsequent to the crystallization of the rock. The isotopic systematics of the secondary epidote and pyrite do not allow for a unique determination of the age of the fracture-filling event, but suggest a more complex history of chemical migration extending perhaps from Precambrian to Phanerozoic time.
Date: July 1, 1979
Creator: Zartman, R.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Development of fuel cell technology for vehicular applications. Annual report, October 1, 1977-September 30, 1978

Description: A survey of the present state-of-the-art of fuel cells and batteries suitable for hybrid fuel cell/battery power plants is presented. Also given are a systems study on phosphoric acid fuel cells for transportation applications and the results of an experimental study of phosphoric acid and alkaline fuel cells under conditions of intermittent operation. A review of fuel options and fuel processing for fuel cells is included. (WHK)
Date: May 1, 1979
Creator: McBreen, J.; Taylor, E.J.; Kordesch, K.V.; Kissel, G.; Kulesa, F. & Srinivasan, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Complex fragment emission in relativistic heavy ion collisions

Description: Data relative to proton and pion production produced in central collisions have been reviewed by S. Nagamiya. Therefore, the production of complex fragments is emphasized here. A presentation is made of experimental data on d, t, /sup 3/He emission and their discussion in terms of the existing models. The size of fireball derived from the analysis of complex fragments is compared to the results of pion interferometry experiment. Interesting features observed in the distribution of charged particles once an heavy fragment has been detected are reported. Finally, suggestions of phenomena to study with a 4..pi.. detector are given.
Date: October 1, 1979
Creator: Lemaire, M.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Giant resonances excited by heavy-ions

Description: The potential of heavy-ion inelastic scattering as a method for studying giant resonance spectroscopy is investigated and compared to results obtained with the (..cap alpha..,..cap alpha..') reaction. Optical model calculations reveal a strong dependence of the excitation cross sections upon bombarding energy. Differences between the backgrounds encountered in light and heavy hadron scattering experiments are discussed. 35 references.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Sandorfi, A.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Proton spectra from 800 MeV protons on selected nuclei. Progress report, January 1, 1979-December 31, 1979

Description: The emission of protons from targets of /sup 6/Li, Li, /sup 12/C, /sup 27/Al, /sup 40/Ca, /sup 51/V, /sup 90/Zr, and Pb under bombardment from 800 MeV protons was studied using the high resolution proton spectrometer at the Los Alamos Meson Physics Facility. Laboratory scattering angles of 5, 7, 9, 11, 13, 15, 20, 25, and 30/sup 0/ were measured, with special emphasis on the quasi-free region. Outgoing momenta corresponding to the region of pion production were examined at 11 and 15/sup 0/. Absolute cross sections derived by reference to known (p,p) scattering data at 800 MeV. The quasi-free scattering has been fit with a DWIA analysis by summing over the unobserved (struck) nucleon. The systematics of proton production and the applicability of the DWIA analyses are discussed. 26 references.
Date: September 1, 1979
Creator: Stearns, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RTI photovoltaic concentrator applications experiment. Phase I. System design. Final report, 1 June 1978-28 February 1979

Description: An experiment has been designed in which a 100 kW photovoltaic concentrator system serving the electrical load provided by an energy-efficient office-laboratory building will be built and operated in the Research Triangle Park of North Carolina. Since the purpose of the experiment is to provide the essential data for design and installation of future operational systems, the system is designed for operational flexibility. In its main operational mode, a defined primary load is diverted from the utility during all peak-demand periods. This requires the use of 1000 kWh of lead-acid batteries for energy storage. Other operational modes provide for obtaining data on peak demand reduction, on alternative battery use strategies, and on system performance with an isolated load. Operation of the system in parallel with utility-supplied power requires that the photovoltaic array outputs be inverted and that the power be controlled to achieve the operational objectives. Ten 2-axis tracking arrays consisting of 70X parabolic concentrators are used. The system will provide approximately 103 megawatt-hours of power annually to the load and the design is compatible with future retrofits including more efficient solar cells, higher concentration ratios, thermal energy collection, and other technological developments, ensuring its usefulness in research and development beyond the PRDA-35 experiment.
Date: March 1, 1979
Creator: Burger, R M; Whisnant, R A; Drake, W C; Daluge, D R & Alberts, R D
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioecology of natural systems. Final report, May 1, 1962-October 31, 1979

Description: This is the final report to the US Department of Energy and its predecessors on Contract EY-76-S-02-1156 with Colorado State University. During the first five years of the program, investigations were focused on the accumulation of fallout radionuclides in a well-studied mule deer population in north-central Colorado. In 1967, the scope of the program was enlarged to include studies on radionuclide behavior in mountain lake ecosystems, radiation effects on a shortgrass plains ecosystem, and the combined effects of radiation and intraspecific competition on the pika (Ochotona princeps). In 1971, studies on the geochemistry of lead in an alpine lake and the foraging impact of grasshoppers were added to the diverse program. The summer of 1972 marked the beginning of the research program which was to dominate the effort for the duration of the contract, namely the behavior of plutonium in the terrestrial environs of the Rocky Flats plutonium facility near Denver, Colorado. This report is a general, qualitative summary of activities and major findings over the entire tenure of the program.
Date: October 31, 1979
Creator: Whicker, F.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Radioisotopic composition of yellowcake: an estimation of stack release rates

Description: Uranium concentrate (yellowcake) composites from four mills (Anaconda, Kerr-McGee, Highland, and Uravan) were analyzed for U-238, U-235, U-234, Th-230, Ra-226, and Pb-210. The ratio of specific activities of U-238 to U-234 in the composites suggested that secular radioactive equilibrium exists in the ore. The average activity ratios in the yellowcake were determined to be 2.7 x 10/sup -3/ (Th-230/U-238), 5 x 10/sup -4/ (Ra-226/U-238) and 2 x 10/sup -4/ (Pb-210/U-238). Based on earlier EPA measurements of the release rates from the stacks, the amount of yellowcake released was determined to be 0.1% of the amount processed.
Date: December 1, 1979
Creator: Momeni, M.H.; Kisieleski, W.E.; Rayno, D.R. & Sabau, C.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Distribution of selected transition and heavy metals in clastic overburden units of the Appalachian and Interior Coal Basins: water quality implications

Description: As part of a study to investigate possible sources of transition and heavy metals transported in coal mine drainage, overburden lithologies from 18 surface mines in the Appalachian and Interior Basins were sampled and analyzed for total chemistry. The mines were widely scattered geographically so that samples could be obtained of as many representative lithologies as possible. Overburden units were predominantly Pennsylvanian basin margin clastics, with some Pennsylvanian carbonates and Pleistocene sediments in the Interior Basin. Based on lithologic descriptions, relative percentages of silicon and aluminum, and gross mineralogy from semiquantitative x-ray diffraction, the average metals concentrations for overburden units were developed for two major lithologic groups: (1) quartz-rich units, including sandstones, siltstones, and silts; and (2) clay-rich units, including shales, claystones, clays and tills. Comparing the regional averages for this study with published averages for the coals of the two regions, the highest average concentrations of most metals occurred in the fine-grained (clay-rich) units of the two regions; exceptions were chromium, strontium, and lead in Interior Basin quartz-rich units; and zinc and sulfur in Interior Basin coals. Manganese concentrations were elevated in the quartz-rich units of both regions. In general, the Interior Basin quartz-rich units and coals contained high average concentrations of iron and sulfur; however, substantial quantities of neutralizers (reflected in high average calcium content and high neutralization potential) were also present in the Interior Basin clastics.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Bogner, J.E. & Sobek, A.A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Precipitation sample handling, analysis, and storage procedures. Research report 4

Description: The early and continuing research on atmospheric chemistry, particularly precipitation chemistry, necessitated the adaptation of existing methods for analysis of the complex precipitation water matrix, and the development of sample collection, handling, and storage procedures. Presently available instrumental techniques used for inorganic analysis are sufficiently refined to provide accurate determinations down to ..mu..g l/sup -1/ levels in most cases. Because of the low ionic concentrations (approx. 20 mg l/sup -1/) routinely encountered in precipitation samples, however, biases introduced in handling and storage procedures can become the determining factors affecting reliable data acquisition and interpretation. The procedures presented in this document were developed during the last ten years of precipitation chemistry research. In most cases they represent modified methods adapted specifically to meet the special requirements necessary for trace analysis of inorganic constituents in rainwater samples. All procedures have been rigorously evaluated to ensure that all aspects of collection, handling, and analysis are mutually compatible. Detailed methodologies are outlined from all the major ions normally encountered in precipitation samples in addition to many metals also found in trace amounts in rainwater. They include NH/sub 4/, Cd, Cl/sup -/, Pb, NO/sub 3//sup -/, SO/sub 4//sup 2 -/, Sr, and Zn. (JGB)
Date: June 1, 1979
Creator: Semonin, R.G.; Peden, M.E.; Skowron, L.M. & McGurk, F.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fluid wall reactor systems for impact fusion

Description: The functions required of impact fusion reactor vessels are discussed. Blanket options for impact fusion reactors are summarized. An analysis of fluid wall reactor systems for impact fusion is presented. It is concluded that the liquid wall reactor approach is attractive because it can handle large pellet yields, it minimizes blast and radiation damage, it allows high tritium breeding ratios, and power cycle efficiencies of 40 percent may be achievable.
Date: January 1, 1979
Creator: Powell, J.R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department