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Geothermal Environmental Impact Assessment: Subsurface Environmental Assessment for Four Geothermal Systems

Description: Geothermal systems are described for Imperial Valley and The Geysers, California; Klamath Falls, Oregon; and the Rio Grande Rift Zone, New Mexico; including information on location, area, depth, temperature, fluid phase and composition, resource base and status of development. The subsurface environmental assessment evaluates potential groundwater degradation, seismicity and subsidence. A general discussion on geothermal systems, pollution potential, chemical characteristics of geothermal fluids and environmental effects of geothermal water pollutants is presented as background material. For the Imperial Valley, all publicly available water quality and location data for geothermal and nongeothermal wells in and near the East Mesa, Salton Sea, Heber, Brawley, Dunes and Glamis KGRAs have been compiled and plotted. The geothermal fluids which will be reinjected range in salinity from a few thousand to more than a quarter million ppm. Although Imperial Valley is a major agricultural center, groundwater use in and near most of these KGRAs is minimal. Extensive seismicity and subsidence monitoring networks have been established in this area of high natural seismicity and subsidence. The vapor-dominated Geysers geothermal field is the largest electricity producer in the world. Groundwater in this mountainous region flows with poor hydraulic continuity in fractured rock. Ground and surface water quality is generally good, but high boron concentrations in hot springs and geothermal effluents is of significant concern; however, spent condensate is reinjected. High microearthquake activity is noted around the geothermal reservoir and potential subsidence effects are considered minimal. In Klamath Falls, geothermal fluids up to 113 C (235 F) are used for space heating, mostly through downhole heat exchangers with only minor, relatively benign, geothermal fluid being produced at the surface. Seismicity is low and is not expected to increase. Subsidence is not recognized. Of all geothermal occurrences in the Rio Grande Rift, the Valles Caldera is currently of primary ...
Date: November 1, 1978
Creator: Sanyal, Subir & Weiss, Richard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Evaluation of the feasibility, economic impact, and effectiveness of underground nuclear power plants. Final technical report

Description: Information on underground nuclear power plants is presented concerning underground nuclear power plant concepts; public health impacts; technical feasibility of underground concepts; economic impacts of underground construction; and evaluation of related issues.
Date: May 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Battery technology - an assessment of the state of the art

Description: A state-of-the-art battery survey and data verification process were conducted with battery manufacturers and organizations involved in battery technology research and development. This report addresses those major battery technologies which were identified as either being developed or explored as potential candidates for major energy storage applications in electric utilities or transportation as well as for future operations with solar or wind energy systems. Near- and far-term battery systems, current data and opinions, and developments in both US and foreign battery technology for utility load leveling and electric vehicles are discussed. Background information and the scope of the report are given first. Then basic data for each battery type are summarized; a general discussion of other potential battery systems is also included. A comparative summary of battery cost and performance is presented; actual battery capabilities are discussed relative to the general requirements of electric utility load leveling and transportation applications. The current status of the scarce materials and environmental and safety problems related to battery technology is presented. The overall status of the current R and D programs and expected progress toward commercialization are discussed; the roles of competing technologies in two major markets for battery technology are addressed. General observations, conclusions, and recommendations are given. 9 figures, 25 tables. (RWR)
Date: March 27, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental Research Laboratories 1977 annual report

Description: Research is reported in the following subject areas: regional-scale effects of energy generation; mesoscale transport and diffusion modeling; effluent plume behavior; forest meteorology; climatological studies. Current research programs include air transport studies, especially in rough terrain; air pollution studies; the meteorological effects of cooling towers and energy production; research on plume and wake behavior (including effects of buoyancy, active thermal convection, building wake interaction, and removal processes); extension of atmospheric transport, diffusion, and effluent removal models to special situations such as over-water and over-forest flows; and study of the role of forest structure on the atmospheric energy balance and on diffusion. Separate abstracts were prepared for those studies on scope for ERA/EDB. (JGB)
Date: December 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Investigating the impact of drilling mud and its major components on bivalve species of Georges Bank

Description: The objective of this program has been to measure the response of commercially important marine bivalve molluscs to low levels of drilling muds. Because these materials are composed of several major components whose proportions vary between wells and with depth for a single well, the approach of this study has been to test the major components individually and then to test a representative synthetic mud and finally a used drilling mud from an offshore platform. In all but one of these tests the target organism has been the sea scallop, Placopecten magellanicus.
Date: November 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geothermal Energy Geopressure Subprogram: DOE Lafourche Crossing No. 1, Terrebonne Parish and Lafourche Parish, Louisiana: Environmental assessment

Description: The proposed action will consist of drilling one geothermal fluid well for intermittent production testing of 284 days over a three year period. Two disposal wells will initially be drilled to provide disposal of lower volume fluids produced during initial testing. Two additional disposal wells will be drilled, logged, completed, tested, and operated prior to commencement of high volume fluid production. Construction of the proposed action will change the land-use of 2 ha (5 ac) for the test well and each of the injection wells from agriculture or wetlands to resource exploration. Lands will be cleared and erosion and runoff will result. During operation of the well test, the only expected impacts are from venting of gases or flaring of gases and noise. After the tests are completed, the area will be restored as much as possible to its natural condition by revegetation programs using nature species. All sources of pollutants will be collected and disposed in environmentally acceptable ways. Accidents may result from this proposed action.
Date: October 1, 1978
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Geysers-Calistoga KGRA geothermal environmental overview: water quality

Description: Important water-related issues of concern are identified and the available information regarding potential impacts on the quantity and quality of water in an area is assessed. The results of a study and a two-day workshop that included representatives of developers and of concerned local, state, and federal agencies are presented. An inventory of existing data is included in an appendix. (MHR)
Date: February 1, 1978
Creator: Moore, S.F.; Pimentel, K.D. & Krone, R.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Air quality as the limiting factor on development of the Geysers geothermal resources

Description: An air quality problem exists at the Geysers California as a result of hydrogen sulfide (H/sub 2/S) emissions from geothermal power generation. The policy and legal issues engulfing the air quality problem and efforts to mitigate the problem are examined. Estimates are made of the air quality impacts of future generation capacity based on utility electricity supply plans as submitted to California Energy Commission (CEC). The status of current and developing H/sub 2/S abatement technologies is examined for availability and technical characteristics. Analysis is provided on the prospect and consequences of inadequate control of H/sub 2/S emissions. H/sub 2/S control efficiencies of less than 95 percent may ultimately be ineffective if full field development is to be achieved at the Geysers.
Date: August 16, 1978
Creator: Fontes, R.A. & Joyce, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental analysis for geothermal energy development in the Geysers Region: executive summary

Description: The following are summarized for the Geysers--Calistoga KGRA: geothermal resource development, highlights of the master environmental assessment, control technology for hydrogen sulfide emissions, meteorological/climatological data base for hydrogen sulfide predictions, and future research needs. (MHR)
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Dorset, P.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Annual abstracts of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems

Description: The National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems at Brookhaven has been in operation since January 1976. This 1978 Annual Abstracts report illustrates the scope of activities of the Center involving the integrated analyses of technological, economic, environmental, and social aspects of energy at the regional, national, and international levels. The major ongoing activities of the Center include: analysis of energy-economic relationships; regional energy and environmental policy; comparative health effects of alternative energy systems; technology assessment and energy R and D priorities; development of energy-economic-environmental models and data bases; R and D strategies for the International Energy Agency; and energy technologies for developing countries. The objectives of the Center and major accomplishments of 1978 are described in the Annual Highlights of the National Center for Analysis of Energy Systems, BNL 50969, which also describes the energy data bases and analytical models used in the course of policy analyses. The multi-disciplinary approach used in the Center, and the close interaction with other analytical groups in universities and industry, provides a unique perspective on the energy situation. This is evidenced by the broad range of activities cited in this Annual Abstracts report.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: None
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Overview of the Mono-Long Valley known geothermal resource area

Description: Key issues relating to noise effects are identified. Existing data are described that may be useful in resolving these issues: ambient noise conditions within the region, geothermal noise sources to be expected, types or sensive noise receptors, and any applicable regulations or standards. The additional informtion needed to help ensure that geothermal development can proceed without creating unacceptable noise impacts is outlined. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Leitner, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Environmental analysis of geopressured-geothermal prospect areas, Brazoria and Kenedy Counties, Texas

Description: Preliminary environmental data, including current land use, substrate lithology, soils, natural hazards, water resources, biological assemblages, meteorological data, and regulatory considerations have been collected and analyzed for approximately 150 km/sup 2/ of land: (1) near Chocolate Bayou, Brazoria County, Texas, where a geopressured-geothermal test well was drilled in 1978, and (2) near the rural community of Armstrong, Kenedy County, Texas, where future geopressured-geothermal test well development may occur. The study was designed to establish an environmental data base and to determine, within spatial constraints set by subsurface reservoir conditions, environmentally suitable sites for geopressured-geothermal wells.
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: White, W.A.; McGraw, M. & Gustavson, T.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

COSOS geothermal environmental overview study

Description: Key issues relating to noise effects are identified. Existing data are described that may be useful in resolving these issues: ambient noise conditions within the region, geothermal noise sources to be expected, types of sensitive noise receptors, and any applicable regulations or standards. The additional information needed to help ensure that geothermal development can proceed without creating unacceptable noise impacts is outlined. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: Leitner, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Siting criteria as a function of sensitivity of nesting ferruginous hawks to geothermal development

Description: The ferruginous hawk has been studied over a number of years in the Raft River Valley area of south-central Idaho and consequently its population densities and dynamics are known. The ferruginous hawk is to be used as a barometer to the effects of human disturbance as might be found during geothermal development. It was proposed to determine what sort of buffer zones need to be established around the species to be compatible with the concepts of multiple use, and accumulate information and baseline data useful to such studies. (MHR)
Date: January 1, 1978
Creator: White, C.M.; Thurow, T.L. & Sullivan, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar production of industrial process steam at Ore-Ida frozen-fried-potato plant

Description: TRW is designing a system for the demonstration of the Solar Production of Industrial Process Steam. Included, besides the Conceptual Design, is an Environmental Impact Assessment and a System Safety Analysis report. The system as proposed and conceptualized consists of an array of 9520 square feet of parabolic trough concentrating solar energy collectors which generate pressurized hot water. The pressurized water is allowed to flash to steam at 300 psi (417/sup 0/F) and fed directly into the high pressure steam lines of the Ore-Ida Foods, Inc., processing plant in Ontario, Oregon. Steam is normally generated in the factory by fossil-fired boilers and is used by means of a steam-to-oil heat exchanger for the process of frying potatoes in their frozen food processing line. The high pressure steam is also cascaded down to 125 psi for use in other food processing operations. This solar system will generate 2 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr during peak periods of insolation. Steam requirements in the plant for frying potatoes are: 43 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr at 300 psi and 52 x 10/sup 6/ Btu/hr at the lower temperatures and pressures. The Ontario plant operates on a 24 hr/day schedule six days a week during the potato processing campaigns and five days a week for the remainder of the year. The seventh day and sixth day, respectively, use steam for cleanup operations. An analysis of the steam generated, based on available annual insolation data and energy utilized in the plant, is included.
Date: December 29, 1978
Creator: Cherne, J.M.; Gelb, G.H.; Pinkerton, J.D. & Paige, S.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar production of industrial process steam for the Lone Star Brewery. Conceptual design report

Description: The project conceptual design activities are divided into six parts: Industrial Plant, Conceptual System Design, Collector Selection, Heat Transfer Fluid Selection, Site Fabrication, and Engineered Equipment. Included is an overview of the solar steam system and a brief discussion on the environmental impact of the project as well as the safety considerations of the system design. The effect of the solar system on the environment is negligible, and the safety analysis of the system indicates the considerations to be taken to minimize any potential safety hazard due to contamination of the food product or to fire. Both of these potential hazards are discussed in detail. Both the question of product contamination and the question of potential fire hazards will be presented to the industrial partner's safety committee so that the selection of the heat transfer fluid meets with their approval.
Date: December 29, 1978
Creator: Deffenbaugh, D.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Solar energy conversion: an analysis of impacts on desert ecosystems. Final report, June 1, 1977-December 31, 1977

Description: A research program is proposed to determine the response of desert ecosystems to the operation of various solar conversion systems. Existing solar powered irrigation pumping systems are described, as well as the 5 MW solar thermal test system at Albuquerque, the proposed 10 MW central receiver system at Barstow, and photovoltaic solar dispersed power systems. The theoretical ecological impacts of solar conversion system are described. Three major impact categories are discussed in detail: shading, wind deflection, and physical disturbance. Research needs necessary to evaluate biotic and abiotic changes in the desert ecosystem are delineated, and specific monitoring and manipulation programs for existing and proposed solar conversion sites are proposed.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Patten, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Planning basis for the development of state and local government Radiological Emergency Response Plans in support of light water nuclear power plants

Description: Information on radiological emergency response plans for light water reactors is presented concerning the recommended planning basis; planning needs; and accident considerations.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Collins, H.E.; Grimes, B.K. & Galpin, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Legal problems inherent in the development of geopressured and geothermal resources in Louisiana. Final report

Description: The legal framework within which the geopressured resource will have to be developed in Louisiana is discussed generally. Those problems which may be created by its development within that framework are identified. Where possible, solutions are offered to those problems or at least techniques or devices are indicated which might be considered in their resolution. Finally, a compendium is assembled of those statutory or regulatory provisions which may regulate or affect the resource to the end that it might serve as a handbook for the evaluation of the legal and institutional problems which will face a prospective developer, when and if the resource development is undertaken in Louisiana. (MHR)
Date: March 1, 1978
Creator: Harrell, T.A.; Pike, R.W.; Wilkins, B. & Hill, T.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary evaluation of 30 potential granitic rock sites for a radioactive waste storage facility in southern Nevada

Description: Results of preliminary study are presented which was performed under subtask 2.7 of the NTS Terminal Waste Storage Program Plan for 1978. Subtask 2.7 examines the feasibility of locating a nuclear waste repository in a granitic stock or pluton in southern Nevada near the Nevada Test Site (NTS). It is assumed for the purposes of this study that such a repository cannot be located at NTS. This assumption may or may not be correct. This preliminary report does not identify a particular site as being a suitable location for a repository. Nor does it absolutely eliminate a particular site from further consideration. It does, however, answer the basic question of probable suitability of some of the sites and present a systematic method for site evaluation. Since the findings of this initial study have been favorable, it will be followed by more exhaustive and detailed studies of the original 30 sites and perhaps others. In future studies some of the evaluation criteria used in the preliminary study may be modified or eliminated, and new criteria may be introduced.
Date: February 15, 1978
Creator: Boardman, C.R. & Knutson, C.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Alternate Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technology Programs. Quarterly report for period 1 April--30 June 1978

Description: Voloxidation and dissolution studies: rotary-kiln heat-transfer tests are under way using a small rotary kiln along with the development of a mathematical model to determine kiln-heat-flux profiles necessary to maintain a desired temperature gradient. The erosion/corrosion test for evaluating materials of construction is operational. Fuel from a BWR (Big Rock Point) yielded more fine solid residue on dissolution than in previous tests with PWR fuel. Two additional parametric voloxidation tests with H.B. Robinson fuel compared air vs pure oxygen atmospheres at 550{sup 0}C; overall tritium release and subsequent fuel dissolution were equivalent. Thorium dissolution studies: the dissolution rate of thoria in fluoride-catalyzed 8 to 14 M HNO{sub 3} (100{sup 0}C) was max between 0.04 to 0.06 M HF; at higher fluoride concentrations, ThF{sub 4}.5H{sub 2}O precipitated. The rate of zircaloy dissolution continued to increase with increasing fluoride concentration. Stainless-steel-clad (Th,U)0{sub 2} fuel rods irradiated in the NRX reactor were sheared, voloxidized, and dissolved. {le}10% of the tritium was released during voloxidation in air at 600{sup 0}C. Carbon-14 removal from off-gas and fixation: carbon dioxide removal with Linde 13X molecular sieves to less than 100 ppB was experimentally verified using 300 ppM CO in air. Decontamination factors from 3000 to 7500 were obtained for CO{sub 2} removal in the gas-slurry stirred-tank reactor with CA(OH){sub 2}.or Ba(0H){sub 2}/sup .8H2O./. With Ba(OH){sub 2}.H{sub 2}0{sup 2} in a fixed-bed column, decontamination factors of about 30,000 were obtained.
Date: August 1, 1978
Creator: Vondra, B.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AFCT/TFCT/ISFS Program. Technical progress report for the period October 1, 1977--December 31, 1977

Description: This is the eighth in a series of quarterly progress reports on studies performed for the Alternate Fuel Cycle Technologies/Thorium Fuel Cycle Technologies/International Spent Fuel Receipt and Storage (AFCT/TFCT/ISFS) Program, formerly the LWR Fuel Recycle Program. This program is designed to provide information needed by industry to close the back end of the power reactor fuel cycle. During the past quarter, studies were conducted in the following tasks: Survey of Current Technology of Fuel Handling Techniques; Investigation of Air Cleaning Processes for Removing Tributyl Phosphate (TBP) from Off-Gas Streams; Study of Iodine Chemistry in Process Solutions; Electropolishing to Decontaminate Metallic Waste from Alternate and Thorium Converter Fuel Cycles; and U.S. Scale Transport, Dispersion and Removal Mode Comparison Safety Criticality Experiments. (11 figs., 7 tables)
Date: February 1978
Creator: Hill, O. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Technology Assessment of Coal Slurry Pipelines

Description: A report by the Office of Technology Assessment (OTA) on the "possible effects on society of coal slurry pipeline development, a comparison of pipeline and unit train costs, and an analysis of relevant legal and regulatory issues" (Foreword).
Date: March 1978
Creator: United States. Congress. Office of Technology Assessment.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Conventional combustion environmental assessment program

Description: Fossil fuels have composed the largest segment of the nation's energy resources. This report discusses conventional methods of converting fossil fuels to usable forms of energy, associated with environmental penalties. The conventional combustion of fossil fuels has multimedia impacts which affect the air, land and water. 7 refs., 11 figs., 6 tabs.
Date: September 1, 1978
Creator: Ponder, W.H.; Kenkeremath, D.C. (Environmental Protection Agency, Research Triangle Park, NC (USA). Industrial Environmental Research Lab. & Mitre Corp., McLean, VA (USA). METREK Div.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department