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DIMENSIONALLY STABLE ALLOYS. Interim Report

Description: The development of dimensionally stable alloys for high temperature reactor application is discussed. Cold pressing followed by sintering was determined to be the most satisfactory method. Evaluation of alloys by alpha - beta thermal cycling indicated the superiority of U--Mo and U--Nb alloys. A few specimens containing small additions of Mo, Nb, and Si were irradiation tssted in the Materials Testing Reactor. Of these, the Nb alloy (1.6 wt.% Nb) appeared to be most stable. The Mo alloys were somewhat less satisfactory and the alloys containing Si were not stable. (auth)
Date: October 30, 1957
Creator: Eiss, A.L. & Kalish, H.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

CHEMICAL ENGINEERING DIVISION SUMMARY REPORT FOR OCTOBER, NOVEMBER, AND DECEMBER 1956

Description: A study of mass transfer in a continuous-flow mixing chamber, fluoride volatilization separations process, corrosion testing in fused fluoride systems, behavior of Pu during volatilization of UF/sub 6/, preparation of PuF/sub 6/ by fluorination of PuF/sub 4/, particle size distribution and U content of UF/sub 4/ , stoichiometric behavior of the reaction IF/sub 5/ + F/sub 2/ + I/sub ignition data on stainless steel, were reported. Studies were continued on the analysis of crude green salt from U ore concentrates, fluidized-bed green salt pilot plant, calcination of reactor fuel wastes, reactor chemistry, chemical- metallurgical separation processes, waste processing operations, and the operation of the gammairradiation facility. (W.L.H.)
Date: March 1, 1957
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Effects of Nuclear Weapons

Description: This handbook prepared by the Armed Forces Special Weapons Project of the Department of Defense in coordination with other cognizant government agencies and published by the United States Atomic Energy Commission, is a comprehensive summary of current knowledge on the effects of nuclear weapons. The effects information contained herein is calculated for yields up to 20 megatons and the scaling laws for hypothetically extending the calculations beyond this limit are given. The figure of 20 megatons however is not be taken as an indication of capabilities or developments.
Date: June 1, 1957
Creator: Glasstone, Samuel
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A PRELIMINARY STUDY OF MOLTEN SALT POWER REACTORS

Description: A preliminary study of molten salt pcwer reactors was made. The most promising fuel carrier salts were the fluorides and chlorides of the alkali metals, zirconium, and beryllium. The chlorides were found to have lower melting points but were less stable and more corrosive than the fluorides. A Li/sup 7/ F- - BeF/sub 2/ mixture with ThF/sub 4/ and UF/sub 4/appeared to perform best. Of the numerous alloys tested as container material, Inconel and a nickel-- molybdenum alloy INOR-8 appeared to be the most resistant to corrosion. To study the performance, safety, economics, and construction costs of a typical molten salt reactor, a reactor of specific type and size was chosen for study. The reference design reactor was a two-region homogeneous converter with a core salt of 70 mole% Li/sup 7/F and 30% BeF/sub 2. ThF/sub 4/ and enough VF/sub 4/ for criticality were added. Study in- dicated that a molten salt reactor would prcduce economical power, but the problem of developing a salt core and a container metal which would last for mamy years of operation needed further study. (M.C.G.)
Date: April 29, 1957
Creator: MacPherson, H. G.; Alexander, L. G.; Carrison, D. A.; Estabrook, J. Y.; Kinyon, B. W.; Mann, L. A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

GRADED PLATE CARTRIDGE FOR PUREX A-TYPE EXTRACTION COLUMN

Description: Graded nonuniform cartridges are described which have plates with larger holes, greater free area, and/or greater plate spacing. These plates were developed and specified for the Purex Plant A-type columns. Use of the cartridges eliminated cyclic local flooding and increased the complete flooding frequency by 10 and 25 cycles/min at volume velocities of 530 and 1060 gal/hr/ sq ft, respectively, and exhibited satisfactory extraction efficiency over a wide range of frequencies and throughputs. (auth)
Date: March 20, 1957
Creator: Geier, R.G. & Hesson, G.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THOREX PILOT PLANT: SYSTEM FOR CONCENTRATING SECOND URANIUM

Description: A system for concentrating uranyl nitrate solutions was designed and installed in the Thorex Pilot Plant. A total of 16,060 g of uranium was concentrated in the system in 68 batch runs. A total of 14,400 g total uranium (14.180 g U/sup 233/) was recovered as product suitable for shipment. Uranium loss to the evaporator condensate was 0.03% of ihe total uranium processed. The material balance across the system was 98.4%. The average concentration of uranium in the evaporator feed solution was 29 g/liter; the average concentration in the evaporated solution was 298 g U/liter and in the product solution was 199 g/liter. Radiation readings of bottles containing product solutions were taken with a hard-shell cutie pie immediately after each run, and these readings ranged from 35 to 1100 mr/hr. The radiation levels of the bottles of product solution shipped averaged 78 mr/hr. Bottles of product solution reading in excess of 300 mr/hr, maximum allowable for shipment. were reprocessed in the second-cycle solvent extraction system (Thorex) and reconcentrated. The products from seven runs had radiation levels in excess of 300 mr/hr at the time of concentration, or the activities had grown to that level by the time of shipment. The procedures used in the operation of the above system are described in detail. (auth)
Date: January 28, 1957
Creator: Albrecht, W.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A Hydraulic Power Unit for Solvent Extraction Column Pulse Generators

Description: A power unit comprised of a reciprocating hydraulic cylinder controlled by hydraulic, mechanical, and electrical elements was developed to drive pulse generators for solvent extraction columns in the Purex Hot Semiworks. Design bases included remote control of continuouslyvariable pulse amplitudes between 1/ 2 and 1/2 inches, and pulse frequency up to 120 cycles/min. Each of nine power units operated 30 to 60 million cycles without serious difficulty, although minor modifications and corrections were made during scheduled shutdowns of the Semiworks. Operational irregularities, such as erratic or drifting amplitudes, occurred with sufficient frequency to indicate deficiencies in the original design. The triangular pulse wave which is characteristic of the power unit was suspected on several occasions as having an adverse effect on extraction column performance. However, no correlation was found to show that column performance is adversely affected by the triangular pulse. (auth)
Date: August 23, 1957
Creator: Kelly, V. P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON THE DESIGN OF A VERY HIGH-SPEED COMPUTER. Report No. 80

Description: The feasibility of constrncting a digital computer about one hundrnd times faster than present computers, such as ILLIAC, using transistonized circuits and other presently avnilable components and techniques is reported. The results of two design studies are discussed. One involves a minimum of buffer storage in the form of transistor registers, and the other involves a moderrts ammount of buffer storage in the form of a small-capacity, high-speed, random-access buffer memory. Tbe former design is emphasized because its equipment requiremente can be presentiy met. Two controls are used, arithmetic control and advanced control, as well as buffer storage for instructions and operands, and by such meaan various units of the computer are kept in simultaneous operation. The relative speed of the proposed computer compared to that of existing machines depends upon the problem. For problemas dominated by arithmetic operations, it is estimated that the proposed computer will be 100 to 200 times faster than computers such as ILLLAC. For problem dominated by logical and combinatorial operations, the gain in speed will be at least 50times. The computer has a random-access word-arraagement memory of 8192 words of 52 units each with an access time of 1.5 mu sec. The arithmetic unit is designed so that the digite of a multiplier are sensed and acted upon in such a way that the ase of the adder is reduced. Also, ''carry registers'' are used in this unit, and carriers are assimilated only wben neocssary. The computer wiil have an average multiplication time between 3.5 and 4 mu sec, addition times of 0.3 mu sec, and division times of7 to 20 mu sec. The computer, aside from- input-outpat facilities, will contain approximately 15,400 transistors, 34,000 diodes. and 12,000 resistors. The basic circuits built Lfom these transistors have operation times of 5 to40 x 10/sup ...
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Gillies, D.B.; Meagher, R.E.; Muller, D.E.; McKay, R.W.; Nash, J.P.; Robertson, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

FAST-PERIOD REACTOR SAFETY FUSE TESTS

Description: The combination of an effective fuse with a sensitive trigger is investigated. Tests conducted with two types of fuse, the annular-passage and the control-rod-type fuse, are described and analyzed. Appendixes present the methods of analysis and calculation, an analysis of fuse performance, and a summary of alternative fuse trigger and fuse system designs, with methods for adaption of fuses to power reactors. (auth)
Date: June 1, 1957
Creator: Stilwell, S.N. & Waterfield, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RESEARCH AND INVESTIGATION LEADING TO METHODS OF GENERATING AND DETECTING RADIATION IN THE 100 TO 1000 MICRON WAVELENGTH RANGE OF THE SPECTRUM. Technical Progress Report No. 2 (Quarterly Report No. 6) for June 1, 1957 to September 1, 1957

Description: Work on the present relativistic electron bunching accelerator (S-band rebatron) is concerned with improving the electron bunching, current and beam focusing, and the design of a portable prototype system. Most of the parts for this new machine were fabricated and tested and the construction initiated. A photograph showing the present stage of construction is given. Since an S-band rebatron cannot be scaled directly to X-band, a lower voltage Xband rebatron, followed by a short section of a linear accelerator could solve the problera. An Electronics Associates analog computer was received and is being programmed to explore the design problems. The numerical work of evaluating the TM and TE modes of teflon dielectric cavities is largely completed. New ideas and further modifications are being tried in Si crystal harmonic multipliers for use as sources for testing components. The new klystrons now being used permit driving the crystals harder, and hence improve the harmonic power. (For preceding period see AECU-3535.) (M.H.R.)
Date: September 15, 1957
Creator: Coleman, P.D.; Sirkis, M.D.; Becker, R.C.; Kenyon, R.J.; Spuhler, H.A. & Swago, A.W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

STATUS AND FUTURE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE URANIUM-233 POWER REACTOR PROGRAM

Description: The status of thorium and uraniumn-233 technology for power reactor applications is reviewed. In the areas of fuel cycle, reactor design snd reactor operational problems, information was s developed on current status of techology, current and planned research and developrent programs, need for additional resesrch and developmet, and time schedule of required kilograms of U-23 over the next five years to carry out the research and development now being planned, and the further work believed desirable in the longer term. (auth)
Date: December 11, 1957
Creator: Mash, D.R. & Ottenberg, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

SUPERHEATING WATER-BOILER. Reactor Design and Feasibility Study

Description: A preliminary design is presented for a boilingwater reactor with integral nuclear superheater, which produces steam at 1200 psia, 950 deg F. The design uses stainless steel, UO/sub 2/, and water for materials and stays generally withln the limits of existing reactor technology. The design output is 129,445 lbs of steam per hour at the stated conditions, which corresponds to 17,500 shaft horsepower in a naval steam plant and to 47.25 Mw of heat. This is thought of as a ship propulsion reactor, and its capacity, arrangement, shielding, and control system are appropriate to that application. The feaslbility, size, and weight were studieds also the biologied shielding and mechanical design were studied in relation to plant size and weight. Water treatment, mechanical design of control rod drives, and the steam plant are not considered. The reactor core is cylindrical and divided radially into three regions: a central superheater, an annular boiler, and a surrounding reflector. Moderators are BeO in the superheater and water in the boiler and reflector. Superheater fuel elements consist of three concentric tubes of type 347 stainless steel containing UO/sub 2/ particles in a stainless steel matrix. The boiler elements are of convenional plate type. (M.H.R.)
Date: August 1, 1957
Creator: Marbury, F.; Alden, J.W.; Bedford, R.E.; Bilenas, J.A.; Coppersmith, W.C.; DeVincentis, J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ON THE DESIGN OF A VERY HIGH-SPEED COMPUTER. Report No. 80

Description: A summary of a study on the feasibility of constructing a computer about a hundred times faster than present computers using presently available components amd techniques is presented. (W. L.H.)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Gillies, D.B.; Meagher, R.E.; Muller, D.E.; McKay, R.W.; Nash, J.P.; Robertson, J.E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

AN EVALUATION OF HEAVY WATER REACTORS FOR POWER

Description: Reference designs for pressurized and direct-boiling D/sub 2/O reactors were prepared for electrical outputs of 20, 100, and 250 electrical Mw. A number of possible core designs were considered and those utilized which seemed most appropriate to give low-cost power. The technology and costs available today were employed in the preparation of the over-all plant designs. The Consolidated Western Steel Division of U. S. Steel Corporation assisted by preparing a comprehensive report on the design of large pressure vessels and containment vessels. Zr-clad U fuel elements were used as the study basis, but the effect of using UO/sub 2/ and stainless steel cladding was also considered. The principal results found were: (1) Over a wide range of operating conditions snd economic situations, enriched U (up to perhaps 1.4% U/sup 235/) is presently more economic to employ in D/sub 2/O reactors than is natural U. (2) In the longer range, the use of natural U may become more economic as Zr fabrication costs decrease, continuous charge-discharge devices are developed to permit longer exposure levels, and pressure-vessel technology advances so that the large critical masses and core diameters required are not such sn economic penalty on the natural U. The results agree quite well with the data and discussions of the Canadians. (auth)
Date: October 1, 1957
Creator: Herron, D.P.; Newkirk, W.H. & Puishes, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN OF MTR FUEL-ELEMENT-SOURCE SHIPPING CASK FOR RAILWAY MOBILE IRRADIATION FACILITY. Progress Report

Description: The gamma -radiation field from a battery of 10 MTR spent fuel elements was calculated and a special shipping cask designed to contain the 10 elements. An internal watercooled tank in the cask holds the 10 elements in the vertical position. Two external air-cooled, finned-tube heat exchangers control the water temperature. The sides of the cask open to convert the cask to a radiation source without changing the position of the elements. A unique feature of the design is a device for closing the sides of the cask by gravity in the event of accident or power failure. This provides a ''fail-safe'' safety feature. (auth)
Date: September 1, 1957
Creator: Brownell, L.E.; Patterson, J. & Purohit, S.N.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESCRIPTION OF ORNL POOL TYPE CRITICAL FACILITY

Description: The Pool Type Critical Facility (PTCF) is a low powered, highly eariched (90 to 95% U/sup 235/) ordinary light water cooled and moderated, beryllium oxide reflected assembly. It is generally similar to the present BSR at ORNL, the principal modification being that the grid plate is arranged to accommodate both ORR and BSR fuel elements. The PTCF is located in the northwest corner of the existing BSR pool. The 9 x 7 lattice provides 63 fuel, control rod, or reflector positions. (W.D.M.)
Date: July 16, 1957
Creator: Bates, A.E.G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

DESIGN AND DEVELOPMENT OF A 1/2-INCH TITANIUM TO STAINLESS FLANGE

Description: The gas lift pump has not been considered here as a prinme mover for circulating coolant through a primary circuit, in view of the complexity which would arise in designing such a pump to overcome the head losses associated with the secondary large volumetric flow rates. The purpose of this investigation was merely to make a preliminary study of the general character of a heavy liquid metal gas-lift, to compare its operation with that of water, and to obtain some idea of the relationship of efficiency to flow rate. (A.C.)
Date: November 27, 1957
Creator: Draper, B.D. & Roller, H.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

ELECTRONIC SPECIFIC HEAT OF SODIUM TUNGSTEN BRONZE

Description: The design and operation of a calorimeter for use in the temperature range 1.8 to 4.2 deg K are presented, and the methods used in the treatment of data and calculation of results are discussed. The heat capacities of several Na- W bronzes (Na/sub x/WO/sub 3/) were determined in the temperature interval 1.8 to 4.2 deg K. Samples having x equal to 0.89, heat capacities are described adequately by the sum of two terms, one linear and one cubic in temperature. The electronic specific heat of each sample is obtained by evaluating the coefficient of the linear term, and the Rebye eharacteristic temperature derived from the coefficient of the cubic term. Rensities of one-electron energy levels at the Fermi energy, and effective electronic masses are calculated from the electronic specific heats. A plot of the density of states as a function of energy can be made if it is assumed that this curve is independent of Na concentration. The justification of this assumption is discussed in the light of current theories of the solid state. The density of states curve rises rapidly at higher energies, and this rise is interpreted in terms of the filling of a Brillouin zone or of an overlap of two bands. (auth)
Date: March 1, 1957
Creator: Vest,R.W.; Griffel, M. & Smith, J.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department