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Final Report on the Small-Scale Vapor-Explosion Experiments Using a Molten NaCl-H2O System

Description: Vapor explosions were produced by injecting small quantities of water into a container filled with molten sodium chloride. Minimum explosion efficiencies, as evaluated from reaction-impulse measurements, were relatively large. Subsurface movies showed that the explosions resulted from a two-step sequence: an initial bulk-mixing phase in which the two liquids intermix on a large scale, but remain locally separated by an insulating gas-vapor layer; and a second step, immediately following breakdown of the gas layer, during which the two liquids locally fragment, intermix, and pressurize very rapidly. The experimental results were compared with various mechanistic models that had been proposed to explain vapor explosions. Early models seemed inconsistent with the results. More recent theories suggest that vapor explosions may be caused by a nucleation limit or by dynamic mixing combined with high surface-heat-transfer rates. Both types of models are consistent with the results.
Date: April 1976
Creator: Anderson, R. P. & Bova, L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Unified and Mechanistic Approach to Creep-Fatigue Damage

Description: A new creep-fatigue equation is proposed that takes into account both plastic strain and strain rate. The coefficients and exponents in the damage-rate equation are interpreted by means of the various damage mechanisms of the material. The damage-rate equation has been integrated to analyze various phenomena such as the effects of plastic strain rate on monotonic tensile or creep rupture time, rising mean strain on the low-cycle fatigue behavior at elevated temperature, tensile and compressive hold times on the low-cycle fatigue life at elevated temperature, and cyclic creep. The proposed approach has been successfully applied to elevated-temperature data generated at Argonne National Laboratory and elsewhere for Type 304 austenitic stainless steel under various monotonic and cyclic-loading conditions.
Date: January 1976
Creator: Majumdar, S. & Maiya, P. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Automated Approach to Quantitative Error Analysis in Neutron Transport Calculations

Description: A method is described how a quantitative measure for the robustness of a given transport theory code for coarse network calculations can be obtained. A code, that performs this task automatically and at only nominal cost, is described and has been implemented for slab geometry. This code generates also user oriented benchmark problems which exhibit the analytic behavior at interfaces.
Date: September 1976
Creator: Bareiss, Erwin H. & Derstine, Keith L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Materials Science Division Coal Technology Quarterly Report: January-March 1976

Description: Quarterly report of the Argonne National Laboratory Materials Science Division regarding the evaluation of ceramic refractories to withstand abrasion-corrosion by coal slag that will be encountered in the Bituminous Coal Research (BCR) Bi-Gas coal-gasification pilot plant, development of computer models to predict corrosion and erosion behavior of materials, and analysis of pilot-plant components that have failed or are removed from service for other reasons.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Overview of Pool-Type LMFBRs : General Characteristics

Description: This report describes the results of a study conducted by a "Pool Study Group" organized at ANL in mid-1975 to examine the present state of the air of design of pool-type LMFBRs. The study concentrated on examination of various design options used to date in the principle pool-type projects and design studies in this country and abroad, including the Phenix and Super-Phenix reactors (France), PFR and CFR (U.K.), RN-600 (U.S.S.R.) and EBR-II (U.S.A.). The objective of the report is to provide a step toward better understanding of the pool-type system and of the advantages and disadvantages of the various possible approaches to its design.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Amorosi, A.; Hutter, E.; Marciniak, T. J.; Monson, H. O.; Seidensticker, R. W. & Simmons, W. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Examination of the SCEPTRE and CSMP Programs for Solving the Point-Kinetics Equations with Feedback

Description: Two modeling programs, SCEPTRE and CSMP, are used to solve the point-kinetics equations - - seven coupled nonlinear differential equations - - with a linear-feedback function. The constants used are appropriate for EBR-II; therefore the computational accuracy may be tested against the experimental rod drops. Run-time, versatility, programming ease, and accuracy are criteria used to evaluate the two programs. SCEPTRE is found to be more efficient in run time and CSMP more versatile. The ease of programming is about the same for both programs. The accuracy is nearly equivalent if the optimum integration routines are used.
Date: September 1976
Creator: Walkowski, P. D. & Peterson, B. R. (Bruce R.)
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Finite-Element Analysis of a Thick-Wall Tube Containing a Crater-Like Surface Flaw

Description: A three-dimensional finite-element elastic analysis is carried out for a thick-wall tube (as sued in typical LMFBR steam generators) that contains a surface flaw in the form of a paraboloid of revolution. Effects of the depth and aspect ratio of the flaw on the stress distribution and stress concentration in the tube are explored.
Date: June 1976
Creator: Majumdar, S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PTA-1: A Computer Program for Analysis of Pressure Transients in Hydraulic Networks, Including the Effect of Pipe Plasticity

Description: The computer program PTA-1 performs pressure-transient analysis of large piping networks using the one-dimensional method of characteristics applied to a fluid-hammer formulation. The effect of elastic-plastic deformation of piping on pulse propagation is included in the computation. The program is particularly oriented toward the analysis of the effects of a sodium/water reaction on the intermediate heat-transport system of a liquid-metal-cooled fast breeder reactor, but may be applied just as usefully to other pulse sources and other piping systems. PTA-1 is capable of treating complex piping networks and includes a variety of junction types. Pipe friction and nonlinear velocity terms are included in the formulation. The program requires a minimum of input-data preparation and is designed to be easily used and modified. This report contains the governing equations, program structure, input requirements, program listing, and other information for PTA-1.
Date: November 1976
Creator: Youngdahl, C. K. & Kot, C. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Fission-Product Releases to the Primary System of EBR-II, January 1974-March 1975

Description: Seven releases of fission products occurred in EBR-II from January 1974 to March 1975 - - five from mixed-oxide elements and two from sodium-bonded driver-fuel elements. Four releases were from elements that contained a xenon tag, which aided considerably in locating three of the elements; data from the fourth element allowed estimation of changes of tag composition with reactor exposure. Rapid release of fission from two breached mixed-oxide elements caused the reactor to trip because of increased delayed-neutron activity, the first time such behavior has been observed. Identification of a subassembly of Mark-1A driver-fuel elements was complicated by multiple failure of its untagged elements during the diagnosis period. Several of these elements had some exposed fuel in the core, which was the likely cause of increasing delayed-neutron signals from the subassembly.
Date: October 1976
Creator: So, B. Y. C.; Lambert, J. D. B.; Johnson, D. L.; Ebersole, E. R. & Brunson, G. S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Inelastic-Collision Cross Sections for Ne

Description: Cross sections for inelastic collisions of slow electrons and the dipole oscillator-strength distribution for the neon atom are given in tabular form. The results are based on experimental data that were checked and adjusted for internal consistency.
Date: 1976
Creator: Soong, S. C. & Kim, Yong-Ki
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Predicted Heat-Transfer Performance of an Evacuated Glass-Jacketed CPC Receiver : Countercurrent Flow Design

Description: The heat-transfer performance of an evacuated glass-jacketed CPC-receiver facility, free on one end and fixed onto the glass jacket at the other, was carried out using heat-transfer relationships and the best information available in the literature. Specifically, the collector examined was a 3x-CPC facility, 8 ft long, with an entrance aperture 4.5 in. wide covered with a single glass cover, and provided with an aluminum reflecting surface (rho = 0.88). To maximize heat retention, a selectively treated receiver surface, epsilon = 0.11, was used. The optical efficiency of this CPC collector facility was calculated to be eta₀ = 0.536.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Thodos, George
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Atomic Spectrum of Neptunium

Description: A description and interpretation of the atomic spectrum of neptunium are given. Wavelengths were measured for 6096 spectrum lines in the range 3793 to 38,812 cm⁻¹ (26,353 to 2575 A), of which 2526 were classified as transitions between 329 odd levels and 130 even levels of neutral neptunium (Np I). The data are presented in five tables.
Date: May 1976
Creator: Fred, Mark; Tompkins, Frank S.; Blaise, Jean E.; Camus, Pierre & Vergès, Jean
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy : Phase 1. Final Report, June 1972-October 1975

Description: Costs and benefits of various urban air pollution control policies have been examined in Phase 1 of the Environmental Pollutants and the Urban Economy study being conducted jointly by Argonne National Laboratory and the University of Chicago. The need for sound economic evaluation of air quality regulations is evidenced by the resistance of many industries to pollution control policies based solely on the technical feasibility of achieving public health-related standards. For many firms that emit air pollutants, the cost of not complying with some regulations is significantly less than the cost of compliance. This final report on the Phase 1 research presents highlights of what has been learned, the mechanisms developed for transferring results to users, a bibliography of documents produced during the project, and a collection of correspondence, articles, and evaluation illuminating the use of project work by others.
Date: October 1976
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Class Notes for a PL/I Course

Description: Presented here are notes for a course in PL/I. They might serve as a guide to those who are developing a course, or as class notes for that course. They might be useful as a textbook independent of any course; as such a textbook, however, they are not self-contained because of the built-in assumption that they will supplement lectures and be accompanied by manuals. Very nearly the full language is taught here, with the emphasis on concepts rather than practical details. Discussion of I/O is avoided until roughly the midpoint of the course. The hoped-for consequence for students is an enhanced perception and understanding of the many concepts and their logical relationships. The dawning of the age of transportability for PL/I programs gives the user a reason, for the first time, to avoid convenient but illegal language.
Date: November 1975
Creator: Dritz, Kenneth W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Development and Demonstration of Compound Parabolic Concentrators for Solar Thermal Power Generation and Heating and Cooling Applications, Progress Report: July-December 1975

Description: Progress report describing the development of Compound Parabolic Concentrators (CPC). A tenfold concentrator with a cavity receiver was constructed and tested. The optical efficiency was very good (65 percent), but the thermal performance was degraded by heat losses of the cavity receiver. A summary of the results of subcontracts described in the previous progress report are presented, and the influence of these results on ANL programs is noted.
Date: 1977
Creator: Allen, John W.; Levitz, Norman M.; Rabl, Ari; Reed, Kent A.; Schertz, William W.; Thodos, George et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Physics of Reactor Safety, Quarterly Report: January-March 1976

Description: Quarterly progress report summarizing work done in Argonne National Laboratory's Applied Physics Division on reactor safety research and technical coordination of the RSR safety analysis program by members of the Reactor Safety Appraisals Group, Monte Carlo analysis of safety-related critical assembly experiments by members of the Theoretical Fast Reactor Physics Group, and planning of DEMO safety-related critical experiments by members of the Zero Power Reactor (ZPR) Planning and Experiments Group.
Date: 197X
Creator: Argonne National Laboratory. Applied Physics Division.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biaxial Creep Behavior of Ribbed GCFR Cladding at 650 degrees C in Nominally Pure Helium (99. 99%)

Description: Biaxial creep-rupture tests were conducted on 12 prototypic GCFR fuel-cladding specimens at 650 deg C and a nominal hoop stress of 241.3 MPa. All test specimens were fabricated from 20% cold-worked Type 316 stainless steel tubes that were ribbed on the outer surface by mechanical grinding or electro-chemical etching. Test variables included specimen length and the presence or absence of weld-reinforcing end collars.
Date: November 1977
Creator: Yaggee, F. L.; Purohit, A.; Grajek, W. J. & Poeppel, R. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Proceedings of the Symposium and Workshop on Advanced Battery Research and Design : March 22-24, 1976

Description: The idea for this meeting evolved from interest expressed by members of the Chicago Section of the Electrochemical Society in convening a symposium on the development of high-energy secondary batteries. The relevance of this subject is evidenced by the several research programs that have been initiated recently in the United States and Europe to develop advanced batteries for use as energy storage devices on electric utility networks and as power sources for electric automobiles.
Date: 1976?
Creator: Selman, J. Robert; Steunenberg, Robert K.; Barghusen, John J. & Howard, William G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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High-Performance Batteries for Off-Peak Energy Storage and Electric-Vehicle Propulsion, Progress Report: July-December 1975

Description: Progress report describing the research and management efforts of Argonne National Laboratory's program on high-performance lithium/metal sulfide batteries during the period July-December 1975. The batteries are being developed for two applications: off-peak energy storage in electric utility networks and electric-vehicle propulsion. The battery designs for the two applications differ, particularly in cell configuration and electrode design because of the differing performance requirements.
Date: April 1976
Creator: Nelson, P. A.; Ivins, R. O.; Yao, N. P.; Battles, J. E.; Chilenskas, A. A.; Gay, E. C. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PTOLEMY, a Program for Heavy-Ion Direction-Reaction Calculations

Description: Ptolemy is an IBM/360 program for the computation of nuclear elastic and direct-reaction cross sections. It carries out both optical-model fits to elastic-scattering data at one or more energies, and DWBA calculations for nucleon-transfer reactions. Ptolemy has been specifically designed for heavy-ion calculations. It is fast and does not require large amounts of core. The input is exceptionally flexible and easy to use. This report outlines the types of calculation that Ptolemy can carry out, summarizes the formulas used, and gives a detailed description of its input.
Date: March 1976
Creator: Gloeckner, D. H.; Macfarlane, M. H. & Pieper, Steven C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PTOLEMY : a Program for Heavy-Ion Direction-Reaction Calculations

Description: Many important additions and improvements have been made to Ptolemy since the previously-documented version of February 1976. An indication of this is that the list of keywords has been expanded by thirty. Collective-model inelastic excitement has been added. The computation of the transfer DWBA amplitudes has been significantly improved by the use of interpolation in the Ri +Ro variable. Elastic scattering and reactions involving identical particles may now be computed. Simultaneous optical model fits to several different elastic channels are possible. Significant changes to this manual are marked with a vertical bar in the left margin and should be carefully reviewed. In addition the contents of the manual have been extensively re-ordered.
Date: 1978
Creator: Macfarlane, M. H. & Pieper, Steven C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Coal Supply and Air Quality Limitations on Fossil-Fueled Energy Centers

Description: The coterminous United States is screened on a county-by-county basis to identify areas most likely to provide sites for fossil energy centers (FECs) utilizing local coals and having capacities between 5,000 and 20,000 MWe. Areas eliminated as potential sites include national public lands excluded by legislation, urbanized areas, Air Quality Maintenance Areas for particulates and SO2, and counties where air quality data indicate violations of particulate or SO2 ambient standards. The remaining counties are further screened for suitable coal reserves. The quality of coal required for an FEC to meet emissions and ambient standards is determined for sulfur content and heating value. Based on Bureau of Mines coal reserve data, counties in areas with not enough quality reserves to support an FEC are eliminated. Areas most likely to provide sites for FECs of 5,000, 10,000, and 20,000 MWe, in two different spatial configurations, each with and without flue gas desulfurization are determined and mapped. The possible impacts of regulations for the prevention of significant deterioration are illustrated.
Date: 1976
Creator: Smith, Albert E.; Wolsko, Thomas D. & Cirillo, Richard R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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