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SM-1 Research and Development Program, Activity Buildup Program Task 1 : final report February 1958 to June 1959

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 (APPR-1) performed from February 1958 to January 1959 are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Mathematical equations to describe the activity buildup are derived. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as the predicted radiation levels at the end of core life.
Date: August 10, 1959
Creator: Brown, William S.; Bergen, C. Richard.; Bergmann, Carl A.; Chupak, Julius.; Fitzsimmons, Susanne R. & Grant, Louis G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-1

Description: Abstract: Critical experiment studies were performed, varying the parameters U235, B10 and metal to water ratio, in the SM-2 7 x 7 core configuration with 38 stationary elements and seven control rods of the SM-1 (APPR-1) type. An experimental mock-up of the SM-1 was assembled using the basic SM-2 fuel plates. Excellent agreement between the SM-1 boron loading, determined by chemical analysis, and the SM-1 mock-up boron loading, for equivalent bank positions, was noted. Several SM-2 mock-ups, cold clean and midlife, were assembled and studied with regard to reflector effects, flow divider effects, relative control rod array worths, critical rod configurations, and relative power distributions. The results of these experiments indicate as satisfactory a U235 loading of 36.4 Kg and a B10 loading of 63.4 grams for the SM-2. Attention is drawn to numerous power peaks present in the active core. The open seven control rod array has a slight reactivity advantage over the closed seven array and consequent minor disadvantage with respect to "stuck rod" criteria.
Date: November 30, 1959
Creator: Noaks, J. W.; McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Schrader, E. W. & Weiss, S. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Extended SM-2 Critical Experiments : CE-2

Description: Abstract: This technical report contains a description and results of a second series of critical experiments performed on the SM-2 core mock-up, as additional to the first series of experiments reported in APAE No. 54. The SM-2 core mock-up contains 36.4 kg U-235 and and estimated 67.9 gm B-10. The equivalent diameter and the active height are about 22 in.; the metal-to-water volume ration is 0.344. Data is presented on activation, reactivity, and stuck rod measurements. All measurements were conducted on the open seven control rod array employing 38 stationary fuel elements. Activation measurements consisted of neutron flux measurements using uranium fission foils for relative power distribution studies, the effect of flux suppressors on reducing power peaks, blocked coolant channel measurements, and gamma ray dose distribution. Reactivity measurements were performed to determine the effect f flow divider, flux suppressors and stimulated high temperature and pressure operation; b-10 loading in the SM-2 core; and core material coefficients. For the later, the worth in cents per gm or cents per cc was determined at simulated temperature of 510 degree F for B-10, U-235, stainless steel, and void. Stuck rod measurements were made to obtain an indication of the criticality margin in the event one or more control rods should stick in the operating position.
Date: June 30, 1961
Creator: McCool, W. J.; Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; Raby, T. M.; Schrader, E. W. & Walthousen, L. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Reactor Core Inspection at 2/3 Core Life : March 7, 1959 to May 17, 1959

Description: Abstract: This technical report is concerned with the program and results of the SM-1 reactor vessel head removal and core inspection at Fort Belvoir, Virginia from the period March 7, 1969 to May 17, 1959. It covers the operating procedures in detail and records the conditions found and problems encountered in order to make a record for reference in future work of this nature. The major objective of the program, to obtain irradiation data on the SM-1 type core, has been met. The boron control rod elements were found unsatisfactory for full core life, and europium oxide elements were placed in the core for future irradiation stability data. A major problem was experienced with the cracked pressure vessel head studs. The methods developed for the removal of the broken studs are presented. The complete metallurgical study of the stud failure from stress corrosion is included as Appendix B.
Date: January 13, 1960
Creator: Obrist, C. H.; Byrne, B. J.; Connolly, T. F.; Foley, D. D.; Lichtenberger, R. V.; Mackay, S. D. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Zero Power Experiments for the SM-1 Core II : Task XV

Description: Abstract: An element by element reactivity check for SM-1 Core II fuel elements and control rod absorber sections was performed and the burnable nuclear poison loading in the SM-1 Core II stationary fuel elements was established. An approach to criticality of the SM-1 Core II was performed by the inverse multiplication method and the critical rod bank position obtained as a function of fuel loading up to the full SM-1 Core II loading. Maximum and minimum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements and the total "excess K" for the core established. Power distribution measurements in the region of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies were performed. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements and the power peaking in stationary elements adjacent to water gaps in control rod assemblies were measured. Survey measurements established the worth of spiking cold clean SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements, and of water holes in the SM-1 core which might be utilized as flux traps for materials irradiation.
Date: March 15, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development. Task XV, Zero Power Experiments for SM-1 Core II and SM-1A Core I

Description: Abstract: A zero power experiment on the SM-1 Core II included an element by element reactivity check of fuel elements and control rod absorber sections, and an estimate of burnable nuclear poison loading in stationary fuel elements. An approach to criticality was made by the inverse multiplication method, and critical rod bank position obtained as a function fuel loading up to full core loading. Minimum and maximum core reactivity measurements were obtained by selective loading of stationary fuel elements, and total excess K of the core was established. Power distribution measurements were taken in the regions of the core-reflector interface and the fuel-absorber interface in the control rod assemblies. The effectiveness of europium flux suppressors in the top of control rod fuel elements was determined, and power peaking was measured in stationary elements adjacent to control rod assembly water gaps. Survey measurements established the work of spiking clean, cold SM-1 cores with SM-2 elements and the work of water holes in the SM-1 Core. The reduced scope zero power experiment performed on SM-1A core I included an element by element uniformity check of stationary fuel elements, a core assembly test, comparison of Eu2O3 and B4C absorber sections, and development of initial core loading procedures for the SM-1A plant.
Date: October 12, 1960
Creator: Robinson, R. A.; Weiss, S. H.; McCool, W. J. & Schrader, E. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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A Survey of the Effects of Neutron Irradiation on the Impact and Other Mechanical Properties of Pressure Vessel Steels for the SM-2 Reactor

Description: Abstract: This technical report summarizes the data obtained in a recent literature survey conducted to determine the effects of neutron irradiation on the impact and other mechanical properties of both ferritic steels and austenitic stainless steels. The survey was primarily aimed at obtaining sufficient data on the behavior of pressure vessel steels at high integrated neutron flux levels in order that a reference material of construction could be selected for the SM-2 (APPR-1B) reactor vessel. Materials studied in this literature survey included carbon and low alloy steels such as: ASTM A-212B, ASTM A-201, ASTM A-301B (CR-Mo), ASTM A-106 (coarse and fine grained), ASTM A-285, ASTM A-302B (Mn-Mo), ASTM A-353, ASTM A-203 Grade D, E-7016 carbon steel weld metal, USS Carilloy T-1, HY-65 and HY-80. In addition, Types 304 and 347 stainless steels were also investigated as representative austenitic materials which might be used in pressure vessel construction. A careful evaluation was made of the irradiation induced changes in the mechanical properties of the above materials. The ferritic steels were evaluated primarily on the basis of increases in transition temperature due to irradiation and decreases in the amount of maximum energy absorbed prior to ductile failure. Factors such as industrial experience, changes in other mechanical properties and the susceptibility of these materials to temper embrittlement were also considered. Austenitic stainless steels were evaluated on the basis of post-irradiation and low temperature impact strength and on irradiation induced changes in other mechanical properties. Based on available data, it is concluded that austenitic stainless steels are capable of resisting harmful property damage at integrated neutron fluxes > 1 Mev of at least t to 2 x 10(21) nvt. However, with the application of special reactor operating procedures, ASTM A212B will be satisfactory at integrated neutron fluxes up to 5 x 10(19) nvt.
Date: April 1, 1960
Creator: Kelleman, Richard William.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technical Activities Report for April 1953

Description: Two xenon extraction runs were made this month. It appears that a small design change in Trap #2 will be necessary so that a dry ice-trichloroethylene slurry can be used for coolant rather than liquid freon. For each of the runs this month the enriched generator was exposed for four hours in the est pile operating at 100 watts. A period of eight hours for cooling and xenon builidup was allowed before the collection and separation runs were started.
Date: May 4, 1953
Creator: Faulkner, J. E.; Davenport, D. E. & Duvall, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Identification of the Angular Inclusions Present in Rolled Uranium

Description: Hanford uranium contains minute angular inclusions which affect the microstructure, reactivity, and other important factors controlling the serviceability of the metal. Small quantities of the inclusions have been isolated by chemical means, and the x-ray diffraction patterns and chemical analyses of the isolated materials have been determined. As a first step in the identification of the inclusions present in rolled uranium, a search was made for a chemical method of separating the inclusions from the matrix metal.
Date: May 15, 1953
Creator: Scott, F. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Monitoring Thermal and Resonance Neutron Flux

Description: The monitoring of thermal and resonance neutron flux in a thermal reactor having high flux over periods of time from 1 to 12 months using think Co foils is considered. Special attention is paid to the many correction factors to be applied to the activation data; neutron temperature, effective cadmium cutoff energy, burnout of Co59 and Co60, and decay of Co60. Results on a homogeneity test of 10 mil, 0.08% Co-A1 alloy foils is given.
Date: August 17, 1953
Creator: Heineman, R. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Wet Fluoride Studies: Calcium Plutonium (IV) Fluoride

Description: Laboratory studies have shown that the double salt, CaF2-PuF4, can be precipitated by rapid addition of hydro-fluoric acid to solutions containing 25 to 75 g Pu/1, caleium equimolar to plutonium, and 1 to 10 M HNO3. The precipitate, which is subsequently washed with water and dried to 300 degrees C in dehumidified, deoxygenated argon, can be reduced thermally by calcium to give high yields of plutonium metal.
Date: December 22, 1953
Creator: Branin, P. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Corrosion Effects of Lowering the pH in TBP Waste Storage Tanks

Description: Large savings in waste storage space may be realized by lowering the pH at which TBP waste is stored. Additional savings in neutralizing chemicals and operating time would also increase the monetary gain from such a process change. However, before such a change could be made, the corrosive effect of TBP waste at a lower pH on the mild steel waste storage tanks had to be determined.
Date: April 6, 1954
Creator: Groves, N. D.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Hydrogen Content of Fabricated Uranium

Description: The hydrogen contents of several types of fabricated uranium have been determined by a vacuum method and expressed in terms of ccH2/ccU. The data indicate that alpha-rolled metal contains about 0.25 ccH2(STP)/ccU whereas beta heat-treated uranium yielded values between 0.30 and 0.37 cc per cc. Restricted efforts were made to determine where in the heat treatment the 5 to 10 cc of hydrogen per slug were taken up. It appears that no one operation is wholly responsible for this additional gas, although reactions between beta heat treated surfaces containing microscopic defects, and nitric acid may possibly play a large role. In general it may be said that slug produced by powder metallurgical techniques contain less hydrogen than pieces produced by rolling and heat treatment.
Date: November 30, 1953
Creator: Ray, W. E. & Bowen, H. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Plutonium Trichloride: Preparation by Reaction with Phosgene or Carbon Tetrachloride and Bomb Reduction to Metal

Description: Thirty gram patches of plutonium dioxide can be readily chlorinated by reaction with phosgene or carbon tetrachloride at temperatures of 350 and 450 C respectively. Plutonium trichloride prepared by either method can be reduced to the metal in a hermetically sealed bomb by reaction with calcium. On a twenty gram scale yields of approximately 97 per cent are obtained when a calcium-iodine booster is employed. It has been demonstrated that a method for reduction of plutonium trichloride to the metal without the use of a booster can be development.
Date: December 3, 1953
Creator: Tolley, W. B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Thermal Analysis of SM-1 Core III

Description: Abstract This technical report covers the thermal analysis performed on the SM-1 Core III for both steady state and transient conditions is reported. SM-1 Core III will be used as a test for Type 3 elements in a PM-2A Core. The steady state analysis indicated minimum departure from nucleate boiling ratios (DNBR) for both design and scram conditions above the minimum criteria of 1.5. Local nucleate boiling was noted in the hot internal channels and lattice passage at scram power conditions. Loss of flow transient results indicate DNBR's above 1.5, insuring that the core is safe from burnout. Bulk boiling was noted in the hot channels and lattice passage at scram power condition.
Date: June 29, 1962
Creator: Davidson, S. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Criteria for Evaluating Hazards Involved in Proposed Tests On and/or Modifications To the SM-1

Description: Abstract: This technical report elucidates principles of hazards evaluation. The concept of hazards potential is introduced and utilized to show how a reactor system perturbation will influence its nuclear safety. Literature relating to reactor safety is referenced to provide the sources of information required for hazards analysis and show how they influence a hazards evaluation. A checklist of items which should be considered in evaluating a change, test, or modification is presented.
Date: October 18, 1961
Creator: Scoles, J. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Reactor Vessel Closure Stud Investigation

Description: Abstract: This report presents metallurgical .analyses and corrosion tests conducted to determine :causes of failure of two SM- 1 reactor vessel studs due to fracture in the threaded areas, after 23 months' operation (March 1959). Conclusions of corrosion tests are: (1) failure of the studs was caused by stress corrosion cracking, (2) contributing factors to failure of the studs were improper control of heat treatment of the studs and absence of treatment for stress relief after thread grinding operation.
Date: March 23, 1962
Creator: Reali, D. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Army PWR Support and Development Program Six Months Summary Report : October 1, 1961 - March 31, 1962

Description: Abstract: Progress is reported on research and development tasks under the Program Plan for Engineering Support and Development of Army Pressurized Water Reactor Power Plants, Contract AT(30-1)-2639, during the six months' period October 1, 1061 to March 31, 1962.
Date: May 25, 1962
Creator: Dixon, M. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Preliminary Technical Report SM-1 Core III with Type 3 Elements

Description: Abstract: This preliminary technical report covers design of the SM Type 3 element, its use .in.. SM-1 Core III, and planned use in the Type 3 Core for PM-2A. The Type:3 element characteristics are compared with Type 1 (SM-1 Core I) element nuclear, metallurgical, thermal and hydraulic characteristics and fabrication. The effect of using the Type 3 element in SM-1 Core III and. its planned use in a Type 3 Core for PM-2A is discussed with regard to operation, shielding, reactor safety and all conceivable special problems.
Date: March 30, 1962
Creator: Inglima, J. N.; Beam, R. H.; Davidson, S. L. & Edgar, E. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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BWR Reference Design for PL-3

Description: Abstract: The natural circulation, direct cycle, boiling water reactor reference design presented in this technical report is the alternate to the preferred preliminary design developed under Phase I of the PL-3 contract. The report presents plant design criteria, summary of plant selection, plant description, reactor and primary system description, thermal and hydraulic analysis, nuclear analysis, control and instrumentation description, shielding description, auxiliary systems, power plant equipment, waste disposal, buildings and tunnels, services, operation and maintenance, logistics, erection, cost information and training program outline.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Humphries, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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PWR Preliminary Design for PL-3

Description: Abstract: The pressurized water reactor preliminary design presented in this volume is the preferred design developed under Phase I of the PL-3 contact. This technical report presents plant design criteria, summary of plant selection, plant description, reactor and primary system description, thermal and hydraulic analysis, nuclear analysis, control and instrumentation description, shielding description, auxiliary systems, power plant equipment, waste disposal, buildings and tunnels, services, operation and maintenance, logistics, erection, cost information and a training program outline.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Humphries, G. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Removal of Graphite from Aluminum Surfaces

Description: The first of two general methods are discussed based on the removal of the thin layer of aluminum to which graphite adheres. Two electro-polishing techniques, an electrolytic etch, an anodization-deanodication cycle and two chemical etches are described.
Date: June 30, 1953
Creator: Dillon, R. L. & Hodgson, W. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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SM-1 Research and Development Program: Long-lived Induced Activity Buildup During SM-1 Core I Lifetime. Task XVIII, Phase I

Description: Abstract: The results of activity buildup studies in the SM-1 performed during Core I lifetime (June 3, 1957 to April 28, 1960) are reported. Data are presented on the extent, nature, and mechanism of the buildup of long-lived gamma emitting nuclides in the reactor primary system. Radiation levels after reactor shutdown are presented, as well as mathematical equations used to account for the observed activity levels. The data have shown that Co60 is the major contributor to radiation levels in the SM-1. Co60 activity arises from the cobalt in Haynes 25 alloy flux suppressors, and the cobalt impurity in stainless steel. After 35 months operation at an average power level of 55%, deposited Co60 activity accounted for approximately 83% of the total radiation level (mr/hr) contributed by the long-lived gamma emitting nuclides. The contribution of the primary coolant activity to the total radiation level is insignificant when compared to the contribution of the activity deposited on the walls of the system. The radiation level on the super-heater side of the steam generator was about 1400 mr/hr after 35 months of reactor operation. The percentages of Co60 activity in the coolant and in the deposits were not the same. This indicates either that nuclides are depositing irreversibly on the surface of the system, or that all nuclides are not exchanging at the same rate. The ratio of Co58/Co60 in the deposits shows that a major fraction of the nuclides are irreversibly deposited. Mathematical equations derived during the course of work were used to predict the observed activity buildup on SM-1 primary system surfaces. Certain constants in the the equations were obtained from the experimental data. Calculated values of activity levels based on the equations were in good agreement with the activity levels found on the primary system. The equations may be …
Date: November 30, 1960
Creator: Bergmann, C. A.; Bergen, C.; Cox, J. F.; Chupak, J. & Grant, L. G.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Hazards Report for SM-1 Core Temperature and Flow Instrumentation (Task XIV) Covering Special Test Procedures.

Description: Abstract: Test procedures for special tests involving in-core SM-1 temperature and flow instrumentation are described (Task XIV Package Tests). These tests involve in-core steady state flow and temperature measurements, loss of flow transients, load transients, reduced primary system pressure operations and reduced element flow. The thermal and hydraulic conditions prevailing in these tests, including steady state and transient burnout rations, are developed. The effects of reduced system pressure and flow on the burnout ratios are determined as are the expected stuck rod conditions when Task XIV test elements are installed. The effect on the maximum credible accident is included and a recommendation to conduct these Task XIV package tests is made.
Date: February 28, 1962
Creator: Bradley, P. L. & Coombe, J. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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