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Clean Water Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: In the 106th Congress, no comprehensive activity on reauthorizing the Clean Water Act occurred, although a number of individual clean water bills were enacted. Other issues have been debated recently, such as reforming the law to provide regulatory relief for industry, states and cities, and individual landowners. The debate over many of these issues highlights differing views of the Act and its implementation by some who seek to strengthen existing requirements and others who believe that costs and benefits should be more carefully weighed before additional control programs are mandated.
Date: November 24, 1998
Creator: Copeland, Claudia
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: A number of legislative proposals to restructure or eliminate the Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE laboratories have been introduced since the end of the Cold War, especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. This legislation has been introduced because of perceived major problems with DOE, including its overall mission. Sponsors state, for example, that about 85% of DOE's budget is for non-energy programs, even though the nation's dependency on foreign energy sources has increased since the establishment of the department. Also of concern is the department's failure to go far enough, in their view, in solving its long-term management problems, downsizing, and reducing budgets.
Date: May 17, 2000
Creator: Boesman, William C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Immigration Legislation and Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: In the months approaching China's resumption of sovereignty over Hong Kong on July 1, 1997, policy analysts are trying to assess how the territory will fare under Chinese rule. The answer is important to U.S. interests because of the enormous U.S. economic presence in Hong Kong; because any adverse developments in Hong Kong are likely to affect U.S.-China relations; and because China's promise to give Hong Kong a high degree of autonomy under the "one-China, two-systems" policy has major implications for Taiwan. But given the political situation, the American ability to affect the course of events in Hong Kong seems marginal unless the U.S. decides to confront Beijing more directly. Developments in U.S.-China relations in 1994-1995 suggest Washington might be hesitant to do so.
Date: October 18, 2000
Creator: Wasem, Ruth Ellen; Bruno, Andorra; Krouse, William J. & Eig, Larry M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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The Surface Transportation Board (STB) Reauthorization and the 106th Congress

Description: Authorization of the Surface Transportation Board (Board or STB), successor agency to the Interstate Commerce Commission, ended September 30, 1998. The FY2000 budget request is $16 million, $2.6 million of which could be offset by user fees which would become available at the beginning of FY2001. The Senate Commerce Committee scheduled a hearing for March 3, 1999, to consider S. 90, a bill to reauthorize the STB. The CRS report discusses the Board and selected public policy issues associated with its authority, activities, and reauthorization.
Date: February 26, 1999
Creator: Thompson, Stephen J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Government Performance and Results Act: Implementation and Issues of Possible Concern, 106th Congress

Description: Most federal agencies have submitted their second performance plans (for FY2000) that were mandated by the Government Performance and Results Act of 1993, P.L. 103-62. The GAO and congressional groups have assessed implementation activities
Date: March 30, 1999
Creator: Knezo, Genevieve J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Reauthorizations and Regulatory Reform: From the 104th Congress to the 106th

Description: The 104th Congress pursued efforts to reform environmental regulations on several fronts: (1) revising regulatory decision making processes; (2) attaching specific reforms to funding bills; (3) establishing a House corrections day calendar of bills addressing specific regulatory problems; and (4) incorporating regulatory reforms into individual program reauthorization bills. The 105th Congress has pursued regulatory reform in four primary directions: (1) proposals to establish a comprehensive cost-benefit/risk analysis framework for regulatory programs, (2) private property “takings” initiatives, (3) amendments and reforms directed at individual environmental statutes, and (4) oversight of environmental programs.
Date: January 8, 1999
Creator: Blodgett, John E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disaster Mitigation Bills in the 106th Congress: H.R. 707, S. 1691 Compared

Description: The Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act authorizes the President to declare that an emergency or major disaster exists that overwhelms state and local resources. Legislation before the 106th Congress (H.R. 707 and S. 1691) would, among other matters, amend the Act to: (1) fund hazard mitigation projects designed to reduce future disaster losses; (2) add conditions to assistance; and (3) consolidate provisions governing the distribution of aid to disaster victims. This report compares provisions of the two bills, and will be updated as legislative action occurs.
Date: October 25, 1999
Creator: Bea, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress

Description: This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers. A table at the end of the report shows funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House committee. The Senate agreed to temporary funding extensions for its committees pending a decision to shift to a fiscal year-based funding process.
Date: March 25, 1999
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Committee Funding Resolutions and Processes, 106th Congress

Description: This report describes the procedures under which committee funding resolutions are considered in the two chambers, and 106th Congress action to review and approve committee operating budgets. Also noted are changes in the Senate’s committee funding processes to move from a session-based biennial funding process to one more closely matched to a fiscal year cycle. Tables at the end of the report show funds approved for the 105th Congress, and the funds requested, recommended, and approved for the 106th Congress for each House and Senate committee.
Date: November 3, 1999
Creator: Rundquist, Paul S. & Bullock, Faye M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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House Committee Funding Requests and Authorizations, 104th-109th Congresses

Description: Under House Rule X, clause 6, each standing and select committee of the House (except the Appropriations Committee) is required to submit an operating budget request for its necessary expenses over the two years of a Congress. Each committee chair normally introduces a House resolution to provide his or her committee with the requisite funds for the two years of the Congress.
Date: May 3, 2005
Creator: Petersen, R. Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Biennial Budgeting: Background and Legislative History in the 106th Congress

Description: Proposals for a two-year budget cycle have previously been reported in the Senate in 1988, 1990, 1994, and 1997. Another such proposal, S. 92, was reported by the Senate Governmental Affairs Committee on March 10, 1999 (S.Rept. 106-12). S. 92 calls for the House and Senate to use the first year of each Congress to consider a two-year budget resolution and two-year appropriation bills, and the second year to consider multiyear authorizations and conduct oversight. More recently, biennial budgeting has also been a topic of interest in the House where the Rules Committee conducted a series of hearings on February 16, March 10, and March 16, 2000.
Date: May 4, 2000
Creator: Saturno, James V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Renewal Communities and New Markets Initiatives: Legislation in the 106th Congress

Description: On May 23, 2000, President Clinton and Speaker Dennis Hastert announced a bipartisan agreement on a renewal communities and new markets legislative initiative which would provide tax credits and investment guarantees designed to draw equity capital into impoverished areas. Following two months of negotiations over the specific language of the initiative, H.R. 4923 was introduced on July 24, and passed by the House under suspension of the rules the following day
Date: October 12, 2000
Creator: Mulock, Bruce K.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Campaign Finance Debate in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Measures Under House Consideration

Description: On September 14, the House passed H.R. 417 on a vote of 252-177, as amended by three perfecting amendments: Bereuter/Wicker #6; Faleomavaega #1; and Sweeney #21. This report features two tables. Table 1 summarizes and compares the ten perfecting amendments, current law, and the Shays-Meehan proposal. Table 2 summarizes and compares current law, the Shays-Meehan bill, and the three substitute amendments.
Date: January 12, 2000
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Campaign Finance Bills in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Shays-Meehan, as passed, with McCain-Feingold, as considered

Description: On September 14, 1999, the House passed the Shays-Meehan bill--H.R. 417, the Bipartisan Campaign Finance Reform Act of 1999, as amended, by a vote of 252-177. Senate sponsors of the companion measure, S. 26 (McCain-Feingold), revised their proposal and, on September 16, introduced S. 1593, containing just four sections of H.R. 417 and S. 26. The Senate debated S. 1593 from October 13-20, culminating in unsuccessful cloture votes October 19 on two amendments: Daschle amendment 2298, substituting text nearly identical to the House-passed H.R. 417; and Reid amendment 2229 (a perfecting amendment to no. 2298), substituting text of S. 1593 as offered, plus McCain amendment 2294 (adopted October 14), which added certain disclosure requirements. This report compares provisions of the House-passed bill with the one considered by the Senate in October 1999. No further updates are planned.
Date: January 12, 2000
Creator: Cantor, Joseph E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Elementary and Secondary School Teachers: Action by the 106th Congress

Description: The quality and quantity of public elementary and secondary school teachers are of increasing concern to the 106th Congress. Although states and localities are responsible for most aspects of teacher preparation, recruitment, and employment, the federal government supports a wide array of programs for teachers. Several of these programs are being considered for amendment and extension by the 106th Congress including the Eisenhower Professional Development program and the Class Size Reduction program. The 106th Congress has before it a wide array of legislative proposals to address teacher issues. Action has occurred on several proposals. This report tracks such action and will be updated as it occurs.
Date: August 22, 2000
Creator: Stedman, James B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Disaster Mitigation Assistance Bills in the 106th Congress: Comparison of Provisions

Description: The Administration initiative to shift federal emergency management policy away from a "response and recovery" emphasis has generated little congressional controversy, although some have raised concerns about the cost effectiveness of implementing a mitigation strategy. Greater attention, it is generally argued, should be given to mitigation (loss reduction) efforts before disasters occur in order to reduce future losses. Legislation (H.R. 707, S. 1691) pending before the 106th Congress would amend the Robert T. Stafford Disaster Relief and Emergency Assistance Act (the Stafford Act) which authorizes federal assistance when the President declares that a catastrophe has overwhelmed state and local resources.
Date: May 5, 2000
Creator: Bea, Keith
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Environmental Protection Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: This report discuses issues such as Reforming Superfund, defense cleanup compliance, funding measures, beach assessment, air-related risk management plans, and research received congressional attention in the 106th Congress, first session. In the remaining days, there may be action related on water quality programs involving specific water bodies, and funding of environmental programs.
Date: September 11, 2000
Creator: Lee, Martin R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Clean Air Act Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: The Clean Air Act and its 1990 amendments appear to have contributed to a marked improvement in air quality nationwide. Of nearly 100 metropolitan areas not meeting air quality standards for ozone in 1990, more than two-thirds now do so. Even greater progress has been achieved with carbon monoxide: 36 of 42 areas not in attainment in 1990 now meet the standard. Nevertheless, EPA remains concerned about air pollution. In 1997, the Agency promulgated major revisions to its air quality standards for ozone and particulates, an action that would require most states and urban areas to establish additional controls on a wide range of pollution sources. The revised standards were challenged by numerous parties and the courts have remanded the standards to EPA. Implementation is currently in limbo, pending resolution of appeals by the Supreme Court.
Date: November 14, 2000
Creator: McCarthy, James E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Restructuring DOE and Its Laboratories: Issues in the 106th Congress

Description: A number of legislative proposals to restructure or eliminate the Department of Energy (DOE) and the DOE laboratories have been introduced since the end of the Cold War, especially since the beginning of the 104th Congress. This legislation has been introduced because of perceived major problems with DOE, including its overall mission. Sponsors state, for example, that about 85% of DOE's budget is for non-energy programs, even though the nation's dependency on foreign energy sources has increased since the establishment of the department. Also of concern is the department's failure to go far enough, in their view, in solving its long-term management problems, downsizing, and reducing budgets.
Date: October 6, 2000
Creator: Boesman, William C
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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