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Nomenclature for Aeronautics

Description: "This nomenclature for aeronautics was prepared by a special conference on aeronautical nomenclature by the Executive Committee of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics at a meeting held August 11, 1933. This publication supersedes all previous publications of the committee on this subject. The purpose of the committee in the preparation and publication of this report is to secure uniformity in the official documents of the government and, as far as possible, in technical and other commercial publications" (p. 603).
Date: 1924
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nonlifting Wing-Body Combinations With Certain Geometric Restraints Having Minimum Wave Drag at Low Supersonic Speeds

Description: "Several variational problems involving optimum wing and body combinations having minimum wave drag for different kinds of geometrical restraints are analyzed. Particular attention is paid to the effect on the wave drag of shortening the fuselage and, for slender axially symmetric bodies, the effect of fixing the fuselage diameter at several points or even of fixing whole portions of its shape" (p. 113).
Date: August 4, 1955
Creator: Lomax, Harvard
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Use of the Indicial-Function Concept in the Analysis of Unsteady Motions of Wings and Wing-Tail Combinations

Description: "The concept of indicial aerodynamic functions is applied to the analysis of the short-period pitching mode of aircraft. By the use of simple physical relationships associated with the indicial-function relationships concept, quantitative studies are made of the separate effects on the damping in pitch of changes in Mach number, aspect ratio, plan-form shape, and frequency. The concept is further shown to be of value in depicting physically the induced effects on a tail surface which follows in the wake of a starting forward surface" (p. 1).
Date: 1954
Creator: Tobak, Murray
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Nomenclature for Aeronautics

Description: "This nomenclature for aeronautics was prepared by a special conference on aeronautical nomenclature, composed of representatives of the Army and Navy Air Services, the Air Mail Service, the Bureau of Standards, the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics, and private life. This report supersedes all previous publications of the committee on this subject. It is published with the intention of securing greater uniformity and accuracy in official documents of the government, and, as far as possible, in technical and other commercial publications" (p. 619).
Date: 1923
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Normal Component of the Induced Velocity in the Vicinity of a Lifting Rotor and Some Examples of Its Application

Description: "Paper presents a practical method for computing the approximate values of the normal component of the induced velocity at points in the flow field of a lifting rotor. Tables and graphs of the relative magnitudes of the normal component of the induced velocity are given for selected points in the longitudinal plane of symmetry of the rotor and on the lateral rotor axis. A method is also presented for utilizing the tables and graphs to determine the interference induced velocities arising from the second rotor of a tandem or side-by-side-rotor helicopter and the induced flow angle at a horizontal tail plane" (p. 1).
Date: August 11, 1952
Creator: Castles, Walter, Jr. & De Leeuw, Jacob Henri
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Noise From Two-Blade Propellers

Description: "The two-blade propeller, one of the most powerful sources of sound known, has been studied with the view of obtaining fundamental information concerning the noise emission. In order to eliminate engine noise, the propeller was mounted on an electric motor. A microphone was used to pick up the sound whose characteristics were studied electrically. The distribution of noise throughout the frequency range, as well as the spatial distribution about the propeller, was studied. The results are given in the form of polar diagrams. An appendix of common acoustical terms is included" (p. 359).
Date: January 17, 1935
Creator: Stowell, E. Z. & Deming, A. F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Present Status of Aircraft Instruments

Description: This report gives a brief description of the present state of development and of the performance characteristics of instruments included in the following group: speed instruments, altitude instruments, navigation instruments, power-plant instruments, oxygen instruments, instruments for aerial photography, fog-flying instruments, general problems, summary of instrument and research problems. The items considered under performance include sensitivity, scale errors, effects of temperature and pressure, effects of acceleration and vibration, time lag, damping, leaks, elastic defects, and friction.
Date: October 9, 1930
Creator: Subcommittee on Instruments
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Wing Model Tests in the Variable Density Wind Tunnel of the National Advisory Committee for Aeronautics

Description: "This report contains the results of a series of tests with three wing models. By changing the section of one of the models and painting the surface of another, the number of models tested was increased to five. The tests were made in order to obtain some general information on the air forces on wing sections at a high Reynolds number and in particular to make sure that the Reynolds number is really the important factor, and not other things like the roughness of the surface and the sharpness of the trailing edge" (p. 205).
Date: 1926
Creator: Munk, Max M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

One-Dimensional Flows of an Imperfect Diatomic Gas

Description: "With the assumptions that Berthelot's equation of state accounts for molecular size and intermolecular force effects, and that changes in the vibrational heat capacities are given by a Planck term, expressions are developed for analyzing one-dimensional flows of a diatomic gas. The special cases of flow through normal and oblique shocks in free air at sea level are investigated. It is found that up to a Mach number 10 pressure ratio across a normal shock differs by less than 6 percent from its ideal gas value; whereas at Mach numbers above 4 the temperature rise is considerable below and hence the density rise is well above that predicted assuming ideal gas behavior" (p. 239).
Date: December 30, 1948
Creator: Eggers, A. J., Jr.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On Transonic Flow Past a Wave-Shaped Wall

Description: "This report is an extension of a previous investigation (described in NACA rep. 1069) concerned with the solution of the nonlinear differential equation for transonic flow past a wavy wall. In the present work several new notions are introduced which permit the solution of the recursion formulas arising from the method of integration in series. In addition, a novel numerical tests of convergence, applied to the power series (in transonic similarity parameter) representing the local Mach number distribution at the boundary, indicates that smooth symmetrical potential flow past the wavy wall is no longer possible once the critical value of the stream Mach number has been exceeded" (p. 1).
Date: 1953
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Theory of Wing Sections With Particular Reference to the Lift Distribution

Description: This report gives a simple and exact method of calculating the lift distribution on thin wing sections. The most essential feature of the new theory is the introduction of an "ideal angle of attack," this angle being defined as that at which the flow enters the leading edge smoothly or, more precisely, as the angle of attack at which the lift at the leading edge equals zero. The lift distribution at this particular angle is shown to be a characteristic property of the section and has been termed the "basic distribution."
Date: 1931
Creator: Theodorsen, Theodore
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Theory of Oscillating Airfoils of Finite Span in Subsonic Compressible Flow

Description: "The problem of oscillating lifting surface of finite span in subsonic compressible flow is reduced to an integral equation. The kernel of the integral equation is approximated by a simpler expression, on the basis of the assumption of sufficiently large aspect ratio. With this approximation the double integral occurring in the formulation of the problem is reduced to two single integrals, one of which is taken over the chord and the other over the span of the lifting surface" (p. 969).
Date: May 18, 1948
Creator: Reissner, Eric
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Particular Integrals of the Prandtl-Busemann Iteration Equations for the Flow of a Compressible Fluid

Description: "The particular integrals of the second-order and third-order Prandtl-Busemann iteration equations for the flow of a compressible fluid are obtained by means of the method in which the complex conjugate variables are utilized as the independent variables of the analysis. The assumption is made that the Prandtl-Glauert solution of the linearized or first-order iteration equation for the two-dimensional flow of a compressible fluid is known. The forms of the particular integrals, derived for subsonic flow, are readily adapted to supersonic flows with only a change in sign of one of the parameters of the problem" (p. 909).
Date: May 29, 1950
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

On the Use of Residue Theory for Treating the Subsonic Flow of a Compressible Fluid

Description: "A new mathematical technique, due to Milne-Thomson, is used to obtain an improved form of the method of Poggi for calculating the effect of compressibility on the subsonic flow past an obstacle. By means of this new method, the difficult surface integrals of the original Poggi method can be replaced by line integrals. These line integrals are then solved by the use of residue theory. In this way an equation is obtained giving the second-order effect of compressibility on the velocity of the fluid" (p. 39).
Date: September 8, 1941
Creator: Kaplan, Carl
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Preliminary Investigation of a New Type of Supersonic Inlet

Description: "A supersonic inlet with supersonic deceleration of the flow entirely outside of the inlet is considered a particular arrangement with fixed geometry having a central body with a circular annular intake is analyzed, and it is shown theoretically that this arrangement gives high pressure recovery for a large range of Mach number and mass flow and, therefore, is practical for use on supersonic airplanes and missiles. Experimental results confirming the theoretical analysis give pressure recoveries which vary from 95 percent for Mach number 1.33 to 86 percent for number 2.00. These results were originally presented in a classified document of the NACA in 1946" (p. 1).
Date: 1952
Creator: Ferri, Antonio & Nucci, Louis M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Measurement of Pressure Through Tubes in Pressure Distribution Tests

Description: "The tests described in this report were made to determine the error caused by using small tubes to connect orifices on the surface of aircraft to central pressure capsules in making pressure distribution tests. Aluminum tubes of 3/16-inch inside diameter were used to determine this error. Lengths from 20 feet to 226 feet and pressures whose maxima varied from 2 inches to 140 inches of water were used. Single-pressure impulses for which the time of rise of pressure from zero to a maximum varied from 0.25 second to 3 seconds were investigated" (p. 303).
Date: February 23, 1927
Creator: Hemke, Paul E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Effects of Nature of Cooling Surface on Radiator Performance

Description: This report discusses the effects of roughness, smoothness, and cleanness of cooling surfaces on the performance of aeronautic radiators, as shown by experimental work, with different conditions of surface, on (1) heat transfer from a single brass tube and from a radiator; (2) pressure drop in an air stream in a single brass tube and in a radiator; (3) head resistance of a radiator; and (4) flow of air through a radiator. It is shown that while smooth surfaces are better than rough, the surfaces usually found in commercial radiators do not differ enough to show marked effect on performance, provided the surfaces are kept clean.
Date: 1921
Creator: Parsons, S. R. & Kleinschmidt, R. V.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Inelastic Column Behavior

Description: The significant findings of a theoretical study of column behavior in the plastic stress range are presented. When the behavior of a straight column is regarded as the limiting behavior of an imperfect column as the initial imperfection (lack of straightness) approaches zero, the departure from the straight configuration occurs at the tangent-modulus load. Without such a concept of the behavior of a straight column, one is led to the unrealistic conclusion that lateral deflection of the column can begin at any load between the tangent-modulus value and the Euler load, based on the original elastic modulus. A family of curves showing load against lateral deflection is presented for idealized h-section columns of various lengths and of various materials that have a systematic variation of their stress-strain curves.
Date: October 16, 1950
Creator: Duberg, John E. & Wilder, Thomas W., III
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Axially Symmetric Shapes With Minimum Wave Drag

Description: "The external wave drag of bodies of revolution moving at supersonic speeds can be expressed either in terms of the geometry of the body, or in terms of the body-simulating axial source distribution. For purposes of deriving optimum bodies under various given conditions, it is found that the second of the methods mentioned is the more tractable. By use of a quasi-cylindrical theory, that is, the boundary conditions are applied on the surface of a cylinder rather than on the body itself, the variational problems of the optimum bodies having prescribed volume or caliber are solved" (p. 131).
Date: November 22, 1954
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Integrals and Integral Equations in Linearized Wing Theory

Description: "The formulas of subsonic and supersonic wing theory for source, doublet, and vortex distributions are reviewed and a systematic presentation is provided which relates these distributions to the pressure and to the vertical induced velocity in the plane of the wing. It is shown that care must be used in treating the singularities involved in the analysis and that the order of integration is not always reversible. Concepts suggested by the irreversibility of order of integration are shown to be useful in the inversion of singular integral equations when operational techniques are used. A number of examples are given to illustrate the methods presented, attention being directed to supersonic flight speed" (p. 1267).
Date: October 16, 1950
Creator: Lomax, Harvard; Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Drag Minimization for Wings and Bodies in Supersonic Flow

Description: "The minimization of inviscid fluid drag is studied for aerodynamic shapes satisfying the conditions of linearized theory, and subject to imposed constraints on lift, pitching moment, base area, or volume. The problem is transformed to one of determining two-dimensional potential flows satisfying either Laplace's or Poisson's equations with boundary values fixed by the imposed conditions. A general method for determining integral relations between perturbation velocity components is developed. This analysis is not restricted in application to optimum cases; it may be used for any supersonic wing problem" (p. 1213).
Date: November 29, 1957
Creator: Heaslet, Max A. & Fuller, Franklyn B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Generalized Indical Forces on Deforming Rectangular Wings in Supersonic Flight

Description: "A method is presented for determining the time-dependent flow over a rectangular wing moving with a supersonic forward speed and undergoing small vertical distortions expressible as polynomials involving spanwise and chordwise distances. The solution for the velocity potential is presented in a form analogous to that for steady supersonic flow having the familiar "reflected area" concept discovered by Evvard. Particular attention is paid to indicial-type motions and results are expressed in terms of generalized indicial forces. Numerical results for Mach numbers equal to 1.1 and 1.2 are given for polynomials of the first and fifth degree in the chordwise and spanwise directions, respectively, on a wing having an aspect ratio of 4" (p. 595).
Date: June 30, 1954
Creator: Lomax, Harvard; Fuller, Franklyn B. & Sluder, Loma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-and Three-Dimensional Unsteady Lift Problems in High-Speed Flight

Description: "The problem of transient lift on two- and three-dimensional wings flying at high speeds is discussed as a boundary-value problem for the classical wave equation. Kirchoff's formula is applied so that the analysis is reduced, just as in the steady state, to an investigation of sources and doublets. The applications include the evaluation of indicial lift and pitching-moment curves for two-dimensional sinking and pitching wings flying at Mach numbers equal to 0, 0.8, 1.0, 1.2 and 2.0" (p. 393).
Date: October 12, 1950
Creator: Lomax, Harvard; Heaslet, Max A.; Fuller, Franklyn B. & Sluder, Loma
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department