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Aerodynamic Re-Entry Analysis. Task 2. Thermoelectric Generator Summary Report

Description: An analytical trajectory and aerothermodynamic analysis of a satellite containing a Task 2 thermoelectric generator was completed. A 300-statute mile circular polar orbit was used for this analysis and the launch was assumed to be from Vandenberg Air Force Base. Results of this study show that upon natural decay from a successful mission, the radio-cerium fuel will burn up in space at high altitude, thus only a very minor amount of radio cerium will be released to the stratosphere. A complete analyses of the fate of the radio-cerium fuel following various aborted launching attempts also was carried out. Charts summarizing the various assumed failures and locations of the fuel following failure are shown. A technical discussion of the methods used in performing the analysis is included in the report. (auth)
Date: December 27, 1960
Creator: Oehrli, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Enhanced oil recovery by CO/sub 2/ foam flooding. Annual report, October 1, 1982-September 30, 1983

Description: The objective is to identify commercially available additives which are effective in reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide, CO/sub 2/, thereby improving its efficiency in the recovery of tertiary oil, and which are low enough in cost to be economically attractive. During the past year significant progress has been made in developing a commercial method of reducing the mobility of carbon dioxide in enhanced oil recovery processes. Four basic chemical structures, listed below, appear to show most promise for gas mobility control: (1) ethoxylated adducts of C/sub 8/ - C/sub 14/ linear alcohols; (2) sulfate esters of ethoxylated C/sub 9/ - C/sub 16/ linear alcohols; (3) low molecular weight co-polymers of ethylene oxide and propylene oxide; and (4) synthetic organic sulfonates. With the exception of the sulfonates, the above types are compatible with normal oil field brines, unaffected by the presence of crude oil and stable under conditions common in a petroleum reservoir. The second significant result during the year involves identification of several sulfonate structures that have high potential for mobility control for carbon dioxide. Commercial sulfonate additives are available that appear optimum for reservoirs where freshwater will be used to inject the surfactant solution. They can also be considered for limited brine applications, for as temperature increases the utility of sulfonates for mobility control also increases. This is encouraging since some of the previously identified additives are chemically unstable at temperatures encountered in most petroleum reservoirs. 113 references, 23 figures, 4 tables.
Date: December 22, 1983
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comparative assessment of energy-economy interactions

Description: This analysis is concerned with the impact of energy-policy measures on the level, growth, and structure of the US economy. In particular, the nature and magnitude of the causal relationship between variations in the prices of various energy forms and economic performance, as measured by real gross national product (GNP), is studied. The combined Brookhaven National Laboratory/Dale W. Jorgenson Associates (BNL/DHA) energy-economy model system is used to determine the economic effects of three energy-price futures combined with an invariant set of energy policies. The price alternatives are intended to characterize the uncertainty that exists in the policy-planning environment. In addition, the results are compared to those obtained from another DOE-sponsored analysis which used the Data Resources, Incorporated (DRI) quarterly macroeconomic model to assess the effects of these same three cases. Significant numerical differences in the results from these modeling systems are observed and are attributed to structural differences between the two methodologies. The methodological issues emerging from this comparison have important policy implications which are independent of the specific numerical conclusions. Since it is uncertain which, if either, of the models is correct, the use of one for policy analysis entails the risk that policy will be predicated on inaccurate information. This risk is analyzed within an explicit framework and clear decision rules for information selection and the choice between the modeling systems are formulated.
Date: December 1, 1978
Creator: Goettle, R.J. IV; Hudson, E.A. & Lukachinski, J.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Geothermal Materials Development, Annual Report FY 1991

Description: Advances in the development of new materials, the commercial availabilities of which are essential for the attainment of Hydrothermal Category Level I and II Objectives, continue to be made in the Geothermal Materials Development Project. Many successes have already been accrued and the results used commercially. In FY 1991, utility company sponsored full cost'' recovery programs based upon materials technology developed in this project were initiated on topics such as condensing heat exchangers, high temperature composites for utility vaults used in district heating systems, and corrosion resistant coatings for use in oil-fired electric generating processes. In FY 1991 the DOE/GD-sponsored R D project was focused on reducing well drilling, fluid transport and energy conversion costs. Specific activities being performed included lightweight CO{sub 2}- resistant well cements, chemical systems for lost circulation control, thermally conductive and scale resistant protective linear systems, corrosion mitigation in process components at The Geysers, and elastomer-metal bonding systems needed for use in high temperature well drilling and safety related applications.
Date: December 1, 1991
Creator: Kukacka, L. E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Selected constituents in the smoke of domestic low tar cigarettes

Description: Thirty-two brands of domestic commercial low tar and nicotine cigarettes were analyzed for their production of tar, nicotine, nitrogen oxides (as nitric oxide), hydrogen cyanide, acrolein, carbon monoxide and carbon dioxide under standard analytical smoking conditions. Results are compared with published data for certain brands.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Griest, W. H.; Quincy, R. B. & Guerin, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Technician support for operation and maintenance of large fusion experiments: the tandem mirror experiment upgrade (TMX-U) approach

Description: As experiments continue to grow in size and complexity, a few technicians will no longer be able to maintain and operate the complete experiment. Specialization is becoming the norm. Subsystems are becoming very large and complex, requiring a great deal of experience and training for technicians to become qualified maintenance/operation personnel. Formal in-house and off-site programs supplement on-the-job training to fulfill the qualification criteria. This paper presents the Tandem Mirror Experiment-Upgrade (TMX-U) approach to manpower staffing, some problems encountered, possible improvements, and safety considerations for the successful operation of a large experimental facility.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Mattson, G.E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Comprehensive energy-management program. Hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Annual report, September 1, 1980-December 31, 1981

Description: Research work was done during the reporting period on the two-part research program: (A) to improve energy conservation through increased unit and system efficiencies, energy management, and system optimization, and (B) to develop a novel, low-cost hybrid photovoltaic/thermal absorber. Performance tests were conducted on all the boilers and chillers on campus. Several corrective measures were indicated and implemented. A detailed survey of energy use by functions and consumption/demand study has been in progress. A preliminary computer simulation model of the entire campus has been developed and made operational. It has been demonstrated both analytically and experimentally that the reradiation losses from the absorber can be reduced significantly by utilizing a light-pipe absorber. Two paraboloidal dishes, one of 6 ft diameter and the other of 20 ft diameter have been utilized. Collector efficiencies have been measured at coolant outlet temperatures up to 282/sup 0/C with a square light-pipe absorber and with 6 ft diameter concentrator. Laser ray testing was conducted on both the 6 ft and 20 ft diameter concentrators. Design of the total energy absorber has been completed.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Kumar, G. N.; Sellers, J. P. & Dybczak, Z. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of an all-glass, evacuated, tubular, nonfocusing, nontracking solar collector array. First annual progress report, July 1, 1976--August 31, 1977

Description: A spaced, evacuated tubular radiation receiver employing a highly selective absorber surface and light enhancement features has been subject to extensive test and analysis. Air was used as the heat transfer fluid. The design, installation, test and analysis of the air cooled collector was conducted. The thermal performance of the air cooled collector was found to be better than predicted when rated on an all day operating basis. The high performance characteristic is enhanced by the features of ease of installation and freedom from maintenance and operational problems. High quality air or liquid may be provided (the latter by heat exchange) for a variety of load applications.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Moan, K L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer simulation of coal preparation plants. Part 2. User's manual. Final report

Description: This report describes a comprehensive computer program that allows the user to simulate the performance of realistic coal preparation plants. The program is very flexible in the sense that it can accommodate any particular plant configuration that may be of interest. This allows the user to compare the performance of different plant configurations and to determine the impact of various modes of operation with the same configuration. In addition, the program can be used to assess the degree of cleaning obtained with different coal feeds for a given plant configuration and a given mode of operation. Use of the simulator requires that the user specify the appearance of the plant configuration, the plant operating conditions, and a description of the coal feed. The simulator will then determine the flowrates within the plant, and a description of each flowrate (i.e., the weight distribution, percent ash, pyritic sulfur and total sulfur, moisture, and Btu content). The simulation program has been written in modular form using the Fortran language. It can be implemented on a great many different types of computers, ranging from large scientific mainframes to IBM-type personal computers with a fixed disk. Some customization may be required, however, to ensure compatibility with the features of Fortran available on a particular computer. Part I of this report contains a general description of the methods used to carry out the simulation. Each of the major types of units is described separately, in addition to a description of the overall system analysis. Part II is intended as a user's manual. It contains a listing of the mainframe version of the program, instructions for its use (on both a mainframe and a microcomputer), and output for a representative sample problem.
Date: December 1, 1985
Creator: Gottfried, B. S. & Tierney, J. W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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An Evaluation of liquid metal leak detection methods for the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Plant

Description: This report documents an independent review and evaluation of sodium leak detection methods described in the Clinch River Breeder Reactor Preliminary Safety Analysis Report. Only information in publicly available documents was used in making the assessments.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Morris, C. J. & Doctor, S. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Tritium half-life

Description: Least squares analyses of calorimetric measurements made at Mound Laboratory on two tritide compounds over a period of 18 y were performed to determine the half-life of tritium. A half-life of 12.3232 +- 0.0043 mean solar years was obtained.
Date: December 22, 1977
Creator: Rudy, C. R. & Jordan, K. C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Management of radioactive waste gases from the nuclear fuel cycle. Volume I. Comparison of alternatives

Description: Alternatives were compared for collection and fixation of radioactive waste gases released during normal operation of the nuclear fuel cycle, and for transportation and storage/disposal of the resulting waste forms. The study used a numerical rating scheme to evaluate and compare the alternatives for krypton-85, iodine-129, and carbon-14; whereas a subjective evaluation, based on published reports and engineering judgement, was made for transportation and storage/disposal options. Based on these evaluations, certain alternatives are recommended for an integrated scheme for waste management of each of the subject waste gases. Phase II of this project, which is concerned with the development of performance criteria for the waste forms associated with the subject gases, will be completed by the end of 1980. This work will be documented as Volume II of this report.
Date: December 1, 1980
Creator: Evans, A. G.; Prout, W. E.; Buckner, J. T. & Buckner, M. R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Effect of Heat Flux on the Corrosion of Aluminum by Water. Part Iii. Final Report on Tests Relative to the High-Flux Isotope Reactor

Description: The effect of very high heat fluxes on the corrosion of 1100 and 6061 aluminum alloys by water was investigated. The test conditions generally simulated those expected to exist during operation of the High-Flux lsotope Reactor. At heat fluxes between 1 and 2 x l0/sup 6/ Btu/hr-ft/sup 2/ and with coolant temperatures and velocities in the ranges of 13l to 250 deg F and 3l to 51 fps, respectively, a layer of boehmite ( alpha Al/sub 2/O/sub 3/- H/sub 2/0), which has low thermal conductivity, formed on the water-cooled aluminum surfaces during test. When only relatively thin films formed, the boehmite adhered tightly to the aluminum, but in those cases where relatively thick films formed, some boehmite spontaneously spalled from the surface. The rate at which the boehmite formed on the surface (and consequently the rate at which the aluminum temperature increased) was a function of the temperature at the specimen-water interface and the pH of the coolant. The lower the temperature and the lower the pH (in the range of 5.0 to 6.5 with HNO/sub 3/), the lower the rate of corrosion- product formation. Within the ranges investigated, pressure and flow rate were without effect, and the same results were obtained with 6061 and 1100 , aluminum. In those cases where the pH of the coolant was adjusted to 5, corrosion penetration was uniform and even under the most severe conditions did not exceed l.5 mils in 10 days. When the test conditions were such that the rate of oxide formation was high and oxide spalled from the surface of the specimen, localized attack of the aluminum in the form of subsurface voids extending several mils into the metal was always observed. From the experimental data, fluid-film heat- transfer coefficients were calculated and the thermal conductivity of the corrosion …
Date: December 20, 1961
Creator: Griess, J. C.; Savage, H. C.; Rainwater, J. G.; Mauney, T. H. & English, J. L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Evaluation of models for developing biological input for the design and location of water-intake structures

Description: An approach for assessing multiple stimulus/response relations between fish and water intake structures is presented in this report. The approach stresses stimulus/response relations influencing fish and shellfish distribution and is made up of two methods. The first places emphasis on spatial and temperal distributions of populations; information is presented in the form of a non-predictive model, which allows for organizing information and documenting review processes. The second approach encompasses functional relationships between environmental and biological stimuli and responses of organisms. By using the two methods together, functional relationships can be evaluated to define the distribution of a fish or shellfish species. This information can then be used to resolve questions relating to impingement and entrainment.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Simmons, M. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Basic aspects of radiation action on microorganisms. Final report for the period ending October 31, 1977. [Radioresistance of micrococcus luteus]

Description: Progress is reported on studies on the basic aspects of radiation effects on microorganisms. Results are included from studies on the effects of uv pretreatment on the survival of ..gamma..-irradiated micrococcus luteus and uv-induced radioresistance to bacteriophage.
Date: December 1, 1977
Creator: Pollard, E.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Bibliography on augmentation of convective heat and mass transfer-II

Description: Heat transfer augmentation has developed into a major specialty area in heat transfer research and development. This report presents and updated bibliography of world literature on augmentation. The literature is classified into passive augmentation techniques, which require no external power, and active techniques, which do require external power. The fifteen techniques are grouped in terms of their applications to the various modes of heat transfer. Mass transfer is included for completeness. Key words are included with each citation for technique/mode identification. The total number of publications cited is 3045, including 135 surveys of various techniques and 86 papers on performance evaluation of passive techniques. Patents are not included, as they are the subject of a separate bibliographic report.
Date: December 1, 1983
Creator: Bergles, A.E.; Nirmalan, V.; Junkhan, G.H. & Webb, R.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Procedure for developing biological input for the design, location, or modification of water-intake structures

Description: To minimize adverse impact on aquatic ecosystems resulting from the operation of water intake structures, design engineers must have relevant information on the behavior, physiology and ecology of local fish and shellfish. Identification of stimulus/response relationships and the environmental factors that influence them is the first step in incorporating biological information in the design, location or modification of water intake structures. A procedure is presented in this document for providing biological input to engineers who are designing, locating or modifying a water intake structure. The authors discuss sources of stimuli at water intakes, historical approaches in assessing potential/actual impact and review biological information needed for intake design.
Date: December 1, 1981
Creator: Neitzel, D. A. & McKenzie, D. H.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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Computer program SCAP-BR for gamma-ray streaming through multi-legged ducts

Description: A computer program, SCAP-BR, has been developed at Burns and Roe for the gamma-ray streaming analysis through multi-legged ducts. SCAP-BR is a modified version of the single scattering code, SCAP, incorporating capabilities of handling multiple scattering and volumetric source geometries. It utilizes the point kernel integration method to calculate both the line-of-sight and scattered gamma dose rates by employing the ray tracing technique through complex shield geometries. The multiple scattering is handled by a repeated process of the single scatter method through each successive scatter region and collapsed pseudo source meshes constructed on the relative coordinate systems. The SCAP-BR results have been compared with experimental data for a Z-type (three-legged) concrete duct with a Co-60 source placed at the duct entrance point. The SCAP-BR dose rate predictions along the duct axis demonstrate an excellent agreement with the measured values.
Date: December 8, 1977
Creator: Byoun, T. Y.; Babel, P. J. & Dajani, A. T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department
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