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RF Gun Photocathode Research at SLAC

Description: LCLS is presently operating with a third copper photocathode in the original rf gun, with a quantum efficiency (QE) of {approx}1 x 10{sup -4} and projected emittance {gamma}{var_epsilon}{sub x,y} = 0.45 {micro}m at 250 pC bunch charge. The spare LCLS gun is installed in the SLAC Accelerator Structure Test Area (ASTA), fully processed to high rf power. As part of a wider photocathode R and D program, a UV laser system and additional gun diagnostics are being installed at ASTA to measure QE, QE lifetime, and electron beam emittance under a variety of operating conditions. The near-term goals are to test and verify the spare photocathode production/installation sequence, including transfer from the final holding chamber to the rf gun. Mid- and longer-term goals include development of a rigorous understanding of plasma and laser-assisted surface conditioning and investigation of new, high-QE photocathode materials. In parallel, an x-ray photoemission spectroscopy station is nearing completion, to analyze Cu photocathode surface chemistry. In this paper we review the status and anticipated operating parameters of ASTA and the spectroscopy test chamber.
Date: May 16, 2012
Creator: Jongewaard, E.; Akre, R.; Brachmann, A.; Corbett, J.; Gilevich, S.; Grouev, K. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The Anomalous Currents In The Front Foils of the JET Lost Alpha Diagnostic KA-2

Description: We have examined the observed currents in the front foils of the JET Faraday cup lost alpha particle diagnostic KA-2. In particular, we have sought to understand the currents during Ohmic plasmas for which the ion flux at the detectors was initially assumed to be negligible. We have considered two sources of this current: plasma ions #2; both deuterium and impurity#3; in the vicinity of the detector #2; including charge exchange neutrals#3; and photoemission from scattered UV radiation. Based upon modeling and empirical observation, the latter source appears most likely and, moreover, seems to be applicable to the currents in the front foil during ELMy H-mode plasmas. A very thin gold or nickel foil attached to the present detector aperture is proposed as a solution to this problem, and realistic calculations of expected fluxes of lost energetic neutral beam ions during TF ripple experiments are presented as justification of this proposed solution.
Date: May 4, 2011
Creator: F.E. Cecil, V. Kiptily, A. Salmi, A. Horton, K. Fullard, A. Murari, D. Darrow, K. Hill and JET-EFDA Contributors
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

THE TWO-DIMENSIONAL VALENCE ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE OF A MONOLYAER OF Ag ON Cu(00l)

Description: The metal overlayer system c(10x2)Ag/Cu(001) was studied at coverages near one monolayer with angle-resolved photoemission. The observed spectroscopic features indicate a two-dimensional d-band electronic structure that can be interpreted using a model with planar, hexagonal symmetry in which crystal field effects dominate over spin-orbit effects.
Date: May 1, 1985
Creator: Tobin, J. G.; Robey, S. W. & Shirley, D. A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Two-photon Photoemission of Organic Semiconductor Molecules on Ag(111)

Description: Angle- and time-resolved two-photon photoemission (2PPE) was used to study systems of organic semiconductors on Ag(111). The 2PPE studies focused on electronic behavior specific to interfaces and ultrathin films. Electron time dynamics and band dispersions were characterized for ultrathin films of a prototypical n-type planar aromatic hydrocarbon, PTCDA, and representatives from a family of p-type oligothiophenes.In PTCDA, electronic behavior was correlated with film morphology and growth modes. Within a fewmonolayers of the interface, image potential states and a LUMO+1 state were detected. The degree to which the LUMO+1 state exhibited a band mass less than a free electron mass depended on the crystallinity of the layer. Similarly, image potential states were measured to have free electron-like effective masses on ordered surfaces, and the effective masses increased with disorder within the thin film. Electron lifetimes were correlated with film growth modes, such that the lifetimes of electrons excited into systems created by layer-by-layer, amorphous film growth increased by orders of magnitude by only a few monolayers from the surface. Conversely, the decay dynamics of electrons in Stranski-Krastanov systems were limited by interaction with the exposed wetting layer, which limited the barrier to decay back into the metal.Oligothiophenes including monothiophene, quaterthiophene, and sexithiophene were deposited on Ag(111), and their electronic energy levels and effective masses were studied as a function of oligothiophene length. The energy gap between HOMO and LUMO decreased with increasing chain length, but effective mass was found to depend on domains from high- or low-temperature growth conditions rather than chain length. In addition, the geometry of the molecule on the surface, e.g., tilted or planar, substantially affected the electronic structure.
Date: May 15, 2008
Creator: Yang, Aram & Yang, Aram
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

A combined droplet train and ambient pressure photoemission spectrometer for the investigation of liquid/vapor interfaces

Description: We describe a combined ambient pressure photoelectron spectroscopy/droplet train apparatus for investigating the nature and heterogeneous chemistry of liquid/vapor interfaces. In this instrument a liquid droplet train with typical droplet diameters from 50...150 {micro}m is produced by a vibrating orifice aerosol generator (VOAG). The droplets are irradiated by soft X-rays (100...1500 eV) in front of the entrance aperture of a differentially pumped electrostatic lens system that transfers the emitted electrons into a conventional hemispherical electron analyzer. The photoemission experiments are performed at background pressures of up to several Torr, which allows the study of environmentally important liquid/vapor interfaces, in particular aqueous solutions, under equilibrium conditions. The exposure time of the droplet surface to the background gases prior to the XPS measurement can be varied, which will allow future kinetic measurements of gas uptake on liquid surfaces. As an example, a measurement of the surface composition of a {chi} = 0.21 aqueous methanol solution is presented. The concentration of methanol at the vapor/liquid interface is enhanced by a factor of about 3 over the bulk value, while the expected bulk value is recovered at depths larger than about 1.5 nm.
Date: May 1, 2008
Creator: Starr, David E.; Wong, Ed K.; Worsnop, Douglas R.; Wilson, Kevin R. & Bluhm, Hendrik
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Non-free-electron momentum- and thickness-dependent evolution ofquantum well states in the Cu/Co/Cu(001) system

Description: We present systematic k{sub {parallel}}-dependent measurements of the Fermi surface and underlying band structure of quantum well states in Cu/Co/Cu(001). Compared to bands from normal emission, we find a complicated evolution of ''split'' QW states as a function of the thicknesses of both the copper overlayer and the cobalt barrier layer. Self-consistent calculations show that the penetration of the quantum well states into the cobalt barrier layer is significant and leads to the observed very non-free-electron behavior of these states.
Date: May 21, 2005
Creator: Rotenberg, Eli; Wu, Y.Z.; An, Joonhee M.; Van Hove, Michel A.; Canning, Andrew; Wang, Lin-Wang et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electron-Phonon Coupling in High-Temperature CuprateSuperconductors as Revealed by Angle-resolved PhotoemissonSpectroscopy

Description: We present an application programming interface (API) used to simplify application-level access to both data and semantic range query machinery where both data and search indices are stored and accessed using the HDF5 data model. While the APIs for HDF5 data access and FastBit indexing/query are rather complex, our API simplifies use of these powerful software technologies.
Date: May 1, 2005
Creator: Zhou, X.J.; Hussain, Z. & Shen, Z.-X.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Progress on PEEM3 - An Aberration Corrected X-Ray PhotoemissionElectron Microscope at the ALS

Description: A new ultrahigh-resolution photoemission electron microscope called PEEM3 is being developed and built at the Advanced Light Source (ALS). An electron mirror combined with a much-simplified magnetic dipole separator is to be used to provide simultaneous correction of spherical and chromatic aberrations. It is installed on an elliptically polarized undulator (EPU) beamline, and will be operated with very high spatial resolution and high flux to study the composition, structure, electric and magnetic properties of complex materials. The instrument has been designed and is described. The instrumental hardware is being deployed in 2 phases. The first phase is the deployment of a standard PEEM type microscope consisting of the standard linear array of electrostatic electron lenses. The second phase will be the installation of the aberration corrected upgrade to improve resolution and throughput. This paper describes progress as the instrument enters the commissioning part of the first phase.
Date: May 20, 2006
Creator: MacDowell, Alastair A.; Feng, J.; DeMello, A.; Doran, A.; Duarte,R.; Forest, E. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Electronic Reconstruction through the Structural and Magnetic Transitions in Detwinned NaFeAs

Description: We use angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy to study twinned and detwinned iron pnictide compound NaFeAs. Distinct signatures of electronic reconstruction are observed to occur at the structural (T{sub S}) and magnetic (T{sub SDW}) transitions. At T{sub S}, C{sub 4} rotational symmetry is broken in the form of an anisotropic shift of the orthogonal d{sub xz} and d{sub yz} bands. The magnitude of this orbital anisotropy rapidly develops to near completion upon approaching T{sub SDW}, at which temperature band folding occurs via the antiferromagnetic ordering wave vector. Interestingly, the anisotropic band shift onsetting at T{sub S} develops in such a way to enhance the nesting conditions in the C{sub 2} symmetric state, hence is intimately correlated with the long range collinear AFM order. Furthermore, the similar behaviors of the electronic reconstruction in NaFeAs and Ba(Fe{sub 1-x}Co{sub x}){sub 2}As{sub 2} suggests that this rapid development of large orbital anisotropy between T{sub S} and T{sub SDW} is likely a general feature of the electronic nematic phase in the iron pnictides, and the associated orbital fluctuations may play an important role in determining the ground state properties.
Date: May 25, 2012
Creator: Yi, M.; Lu, D.H.; Moore, R.G.; Kihou, K; Lee, C-H; Iyo, A. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Highly polarized emission in spin resolved photoelectron spectroscopy of alpha-Fe(001)/GaAs(001)

Description: Highly spin-polarized sources of electrons, Integrated into device design, remain of great interest to the spintronic and magneto-electronic device community Here, the growth of Fe upon GaAs(001) has been studied with photoelectron spectroscopy (PES), including Spin Resolved PES. Despite evidence of atomic level disorder such as intermixing, an over-layer with the spectroscopic signature of alpha-Fe(001), with a bcc real space ordering, Is obtained The results will be discussed in light of the possibility of using such films as a spin-polarized source in device applications.
Date: May 19, 2009
Creator: Tobin, James; Yu, Sung Woo; Morton, Simon; Waddill, George; Thompson, Jamie; Neal, James et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The hierarchy of multiple many-body interaction scales in high-temperature superconductors

Description: To date, angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy has been successful in identifying energy scales of the many-body interactions in correlated materials, focused on binding energies of up to a few hundred meV below the Fermi energy. Here, at higher energy scale, we present improved experimental data from four families of high-T{sub c} superconductors over a wide doping range that reveal a hierarchy of many-body interaction scales focused on: the low energy anomaly ('kink') of 0.03-0.09eV, a high energy anomaly of 0.3-0.5eV, and an anomalous enhancement of the width of the LDA-based CuO{sub 2} band extending to energies of {approx} 2 eV. Besides their universal behavior over the families, we find that all of these three dispersion anomalies also show clear doping dependence over the doping range presented.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Meevasana, W.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Superconductivity-Induced Self-Energy Evolution of the Nodal Electron in Optimally-Doped Bi2212

Description: The temperature dependent evolution of the renormalization effect in optimally-doped Bi2212 along the nodal direction has been studied via angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. Fine structure is observed in the real part of the self-energy (Re{Sigma}), including a subkink and maximum, suggesting that electrons couple to a spectrum of bosonic modes, instead of just one mode. Upon cooling through the superconducting phase transition, the fine structures of the extracted Re{Sigma} exhibit a two-processes evolution demonstrating an interplay between kink renormalization and superconductivity. We show that this two-process evolution can be qualitatively explained by a simple Holstein model in which a spectrum of bosonic modes is considered.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Lee, W.S.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Energy Gaps in the Failed High-Tc Superconductor La_1.875Ba_0.125CuO_4

Description: A central issue on high-T{sub c} superconductivity is the nature of the normal-state gap (pseudogap) in the underdoped regime and its relationship with superconductivity. Despite persistent efforts, theoretical ideas for the pseudogap evolve around fluctuating superconductivity, competing order and spectral weight suppression due to many-body effects. Recently, while some experiments in the superconducting state indicate a distinction between the superconducting gap and pseudogap, others in the normal state, either by extrapolation from high-temperature data or directly from La{sub 1.875}Ba{sub 0.125}CuO{sub 4} (LBCO-1/8) at low temperature, suggest the ground-state pseudogap is a single gap of d-wave form. Here we report angle-resolved photoemission (ARPES) data from LBCO-1/8, collected with improved experimental conditions, that reveal the ground-state pseudogap has a pronounced deviation from the simple d-wave form. It contains two distinct components: a d-wave component within an extended region around the node and the other abruptly enhanced close to the antinode, pointing to a dual nature of the pseudogap in this failed high-T{sub c} superconductor which involves a possible precursor pairing energy scale around the node and another of different but unknown origin near the antinode.
Date: May 4, 2010
Creator: He, R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Analysis of the Spectral Function of Nd1.85Ce0.15CuO4, Obtained by Angle Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy

Description: Samples of Nd{sub 2-x}Ce{sub x}CuO{sub 4}, an electron-doped high temperature superconducting cuprate (HTSC), near optimal doping at x = 0.155 were measured via angle resolved photoemission (ARPES). We report a renormalization feature in the self energy ('kink') in the band dispersion at {approx} 50-60 meV present in nodal and antinodal cuts across the Fermi surface. Specifically, while the kink had been seen in the antinodal region, it is now observed also in the nodal region, reminiscent of what has been observed in hole-doped cuprates.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Schmitt, F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Angle-resolved photoemission studies of lattice polaron formation in the cuprate Ca2CuO2Cl2

Description: To elucidate the nature of the single-particle excitations in the undoped parent cuprates, we have performed a detailed study of Ca{sub 2}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} using photoemission spectroscopy. The photoemission lineshapes of the lower Hubbard band are found to be well-described by a polaron model. By comparing the lineshape and temperature dependence of the lower Hubbard band with additional O 2p and Ca 3p states, we conclude that the dominant broadening mechanism arises from the interaction between the photohole and the lattice. The strength of this interaction was observed to be strongly anisotropic and may have important implications for the momentum dependence of the first doped hole states.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Shen, K.M.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Bogoliubov Angle, Particle-Hole Mixture and Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy in Superconductors

Description: Superconducting excitations - Bogoliubov quasiparticles - are the quantum mechanical mixture of negatively charged electron (-e) and positively charged hole (+e). We propose a new observable for Angular Resolved Photoemission Spectroscopy (ARPES) studies that is the manifestation of the particle-hole entanglement of the superconducting quasiparticles. We call this observable a Bogoliubov angle. This angle measures the relative weight of particle and hole amplitude in the superconducting (Bogoliubov) quasiparticle. We show how this quantity can be measured by comparing the ratio of spectral intensities at positive and negative energies.
Date: May 4, 2010
Creator: Balatsky, A.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Direct observation of the mass renormalization in SrVO3 by angle resolved photoemission spectroscopy

Description: We have performed an angle-resolved photoemission study of the three-dimensional perovskite-type SrVO{sub 3}. Observed spectral weight distribution of the coherent part in the momentum space shows cylindrical Fermi surfaces consisting of the V 3d t{sub 2g} orbitals as predicted by local-density approximation (LDA) band-structure calculation. The observed energy dispersion shows a moderately enhanced effective mass compared to the LDA results, corresponding to the effective mass enhancement seen in the thermodynamic properties. Contributions from the bulk and surface electronic structures to the observed spectra are discussed based on model calculations.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Yoshida, t.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doping Dependent Charge Transfer Gap and Realistic Electronic Model of n-type Cuprate Superconductors

Description: Based on the analysis of the measurement data of angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy (ARPES) and optics, we show that the charge transfer gap is significantly smaller than the optical one and is reduced by doping in electron doped cuprate superconductors. This leads to a strong charge fluctuation between the Zhang-Rice singlet and the upper Hubbard bands. The basic model for describing this system is a hybridized two-band t-J model. In the symmetric limit where the corresponding intra- and inter-band hopping integrals are equal to each other, this two-band model is equivalent to the Hubbard model with an antiferromagnetic exchange interaction (i.e. the t-U-J model). The mean-field result of the t-U-J model gives a good account for the doping evolution of the Fermi surface and the staggered magnetization.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Xiang, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Doping Evolution of the Underlying Fermi Surface in La_2&#8722xSr_xCuO_4

Description: We have performed a systematic doping dependent study of La{sub 2-x}Sr{sub x}CuO{sub 4} (LSCO) (0.03 {le} x {le} 0.3) by angle-resolved photoemission spectroscopy. In the entire doping range, the underlying 'Fermi surface' determined from the low energy spectral weight approximately satisfies Luttinger's theorem, even down to the lightly-doped region. This is in strong contrast to the result on Ca{sub 2-x}Na{sub x}CuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2} (Na-CCOC), which shows a strong deviation from Luttinger's theorem. The differences between LSCO and Na-CCOC are correlated with the different behaviors of the chemical potential shift and spectral weight transfer induced by hole doping.
Date: May 3, 2010
Creator: Yoshida, T.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Chemical states and electronic structure of a HfO(-2) / Ge(001) interface

Description: We report the chemical bonding structure and valence band alignment at the HfO{sub 2}/Ge (001) interface by systematically probing various core level spectra as well as valence band spectra using soft x-rays at the Stanford Synchrotron Radiation Laboratory. We investigated the chemical bonding changes as a function of depth through the dielectric stack by taking a series of synchrotron photoemission spectra as we etched through the HfO{sub 2} film using a dilute HF-solution. We found that a very non-stoichiometric GeO{sub x} layer exists at the HfO{sub 2}/Ge interface. The valence band spectra near the Fermi level in each different film structure were carefully analyzed, and as a result, the valence band offset between Ge and GeO{sub x} was determined to be {Delta}E{sub v} (Ge-GeO{sub x}) = 2.2 {+-} 0.15 eV, and that between Ge and HfO{sub 2}, {Delta}E{sub v} (Ge-HfO{sub 2}) = 2.7 {+-} 0.15 eV.
Date: May 4, 2005
Creator: Seo, Kang-ill; McIntyre, Paul C.; /Stanford U., Materials Sci. Dept.; Sun, Shiyu; Lee, Dong-Ick; Pianetta, Piero et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Practical Considerations for High Spatial and Temporal Resolution Dynamic Transmission Electron Microscopy

Description: Although recent years have seen significant advances in the spatial resolution possible in the transmission electron microscope (TEM), the temporal resolution of most microscopes is limited to video rate at best. This lack of temporal resolution means that our understanding of dynamic processes in materials is extremely limited. High temporal resolution in the TEM can be achieved, however, by replacing the normal thermionic or field emission source with a photoemission source. In this case the temporal resolution is limited only by the ability to create a short pulse of photoexcited electrons in the source, and this can be as short as a few femtoseconds. The operation of the photo-emission source and the control of the subsequent pulse of electrons (containing as many as 5 x 10{sup 7} electrons) create significant challenges for a standard microscope column that is designed to operate with a single electron in the column at any one time. In this paper, the generation and control of electron pulses in the TEM to obtain a temporal resolution <10{sup -6} s will be described and the effect of the pulse duration and current density on the spatial resolution of the instrument will be examined. The potential of these levels of temporal and spatial resolution for the study of dynamic materials processes will also be discussed.
Date: May 1, 2006
Creator: Armstrong, M; Boyden, K; Browning, N D; Campbell, G H; Colvin, J D; DeHope, B et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Surface Passivation of Germanium Nanowires

Description: The surface of single crystal, cold-wall CVD-grown germanium nanowires was studied by synchrotron radiation photoemission spectroscopy (SR-PES) and also by conventional XPS. The as-grown germanium nanowires seem to be hydrogen terminated. Exposure to laboratory atmosphere leads to germanium oxide growth with oxidation states of Ge{sup 1+}, Ge{sup 2+}, Ge{sup 3+}, while exposure to UV light leads to a predominance of the Ge{sup 4+} oxidation state. Most of the surface oxide could be removed readily by aqueous HF treatment which putatively leaves the nanowire surface hydrogen terminated with limited stability in air. Alternatively, chlorine termination could be achieved by aq. HCl treatment of the native oxide-coated nanowires. Chlorine termination was found to be relatively more stable than the HF-last hydrogen termination.
Date: May 13, 2005
Creator: Adhikari, Hemant; Sun, Shiyu; Pianetta, Piero; Chidsey, Chirstopher E.D.; McIntyre, Paul C. & /SLAC, SSRL
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Photoemission Study of Cs-NF3 Activated GaAs(100) Negative Electron Affinity Photocathodes

Description: GaAs based negative electron affinity photocathodes activated with Cs and NF{sub 3} are used as polarized electron sources for linear accelerators. It is generally believed that the activation layer consists of CsF. The activation layers of Cs-NF{sub 3} on GaAs photocathodes are herein investigated using synchrotron radiation photoelectron spectroscopy (SR-PES). F1s, N1s and other core levels are recorded at photon energies ranging from 70eV to 820eV. Surprisingly, a significant amount of nitrogen is observed in the activation layers. Two distinct species of nitrogen are observed, one of which decreases along with the Fluorine signal as the yield of the photocathode decays with time.
Date: May 28, 2008
Creator: Liu, Z.; Sun, Y.; Peterson, S. & Pianetta, P.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Imaging the First-Order Magnetic Transition in La0.35Pr0.275Ca0.375MnO3

Description: The nature of the ferromagnetic, charge, orbital, and antiferromagnetic order in La{sub 0.35}Pr{sub 0.275}Ca{sub 0.375}MnO{sub 3} (LPCMO) on the nano and micro scale was investigated by photoemission electron microscopy (PEEM) and resonant elastic soft x-ray scattering (RSXS). The structure of the ferromagnetic domains around the Curie temperature T{sub C} indicates that they nucleate under a high degree of lattice strain, which is brought about by the charge, orbital, and antiferromagnetic order. The combined temperature-dependent PEEM and RSXS measurements suggest that the lattice distortions associated with charge and orbital order are glassy in nature and that phase separation is driven by the interplay between it and the more itinerant charge carriers associated with ferromagnetic metallic order, even well below T{sub C}.
Date: May 1, 2012
Creator: Burkhardt, Mark
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department