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Lightest Isotope of Bh Produced Via the 209Bi(52Cr,n)260BhReaction

Description: The lightest isotope of Bh known was produced in the new {sup 209}Bi({sup 52}Cr,n){sup 260}Bh reaction at the Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Positive identification was made by observation of eight correlated alpha particle decay chains in the focal plane detector of the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator. {sup 260}Bh decays with a 35{sub -9}{sup +19} ms half-life by alpha particle emission mainly by a group at 10.16 MeV. The measured cross section of 59{sub -20}{sup +29} pb is approximately a factor of four larger than compared to recent model predictions. The influences of the N = 152 and Z = 108 shells on alpha decay properties are discussed.
Date: May 7, 2007
Creator: Nelson, Sarah L.; Gregorich, Kenneth E.; Dragojevic, Irena; Garcia, Mitch A.; Gates, Jacklyn M.; Sudowe, Ralf et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Odd-Z Transactinide Compound Nucleus Reactions Including the Discovery of 260Bh

Description: Several reactions producing odd-Z transactinide compound nuclei were studiedwith the 88-Inch Cyclotron and the Berkeley Gas-Filled Separator at the LawrenceBerkeley National Laboratory. The goal was to produce the same compound nucleus ator near the same excitation energy with similar values of angular momentum via differentnuclear reactions. In doing so, it can be determined if there is a preference in entrancechannel, because under these experimental conditions the survival portion of Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" model is nearly identical forthe two reactions. Additionally, because the same compound nucleus is produced, theexit channel is the same. Four compound nuclei were examined in this study: 258Db, 262Bh, 266Mt, and 272Rg. These nuclei were produced by using very similar heavy-ion induced-fusion reactions which differ only by one proton in the projectile or target nucleus (e.g.: 50Ti + 209Bi vs. 51V + 208Pb). Peak 1n exit channel cross sections were determined for each reaction in each pair, and three of the four pairs' cross sections were identical within statistical uncertainties. This indicates there is not an obvious preference of entrancechannel in these paired reactions. Charge equilibration immediately prior to fusionleading to a decreased fusion barrier is the likely cause of this phenomenon. In addition to this systematic study, the lightest isotope of element 107, bohrium, was discovered in the 209Bi(52Cr,n) reaction. 260Bh was found to decay by emission of a 10.16 MeV alpha particle with a half-life of 35 ms. The cross section is 59 pb at an excitation energy of 15.0 MeV. The effect of the N = 152 shell is also seen in this isotope's alpha particle energy, the first evidence of such an effect in Bh. All reactions studied are also compared to model predictions by Swiatecki, Siwek-Wilcznska, and Wilczynski's"Fusion By Diffusion" theory.
Date: May 14, 2008
Creator: Nelson, Sarah L & Nelson, Sarah L
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Current Status of the Thermodynamic Data for Technetium and Its Compounds and Aqueous Species

Description: {sup 99}Tc is a major fission product from nuclear reactors. Because {sup 99}Tc has few applications outside of scientific research, most of this technetium will ultimately be disposed of as nuclear waste. The radioactive decay of {sup 99}Tc to {sup 99}Ru produces a low energy {beta}{sup -} particle, but because of its fairly long half-life of t{sub 1/2} = 2.13 x 10{sup 5} years, {sup 99}Tc is a major source of radiation in low level waste. Technetium forms the soluble TcO{sub 4}{sup -} anion under oxic conditions and this ion is very mobile in groundwater, but technetium is reduced to less soluble Tc(IV) hydrolyzed species under anoxic conditions. Geochemical modeling of the dissolution of nuclear waste, and of the solubility and speciation of the dissolved radionuclides in groundwaters, is an integral part of the Performance Assessment of the safety of a nuclear waste repository, and this modeling requires a critically-assessed thermodynamic database. Such a database for technetium was published in the book Chemical Thermodynamics of Technetium, with literature coverage through 1998. This database is described herein, along with more recent relevant studies. Gaps in the knowledge of the chemical and thermodynamic properties of technetium are pointed out, and recommendations are made for measurements that are needed to eliminate these gaps.
Date: May 16, 2005
Creator: Rard, J A
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

RADIUM AND MESOTHORIUM POISONING AND DOSIMETRY AND INSTRUMENTATION TECHNIQUES IN APPLIED RADIOACTIVITY. Annual Progress Report

Description: The study of the toxicity of Ra and MsTh(Ra/sup 228/) in humans was continued. Several Thorotrast cases were also examined. Physical and clinical studies were made on 151 persons. In all cases possible gamma ray measurements were made of Ra and MsTh decay products retained in the body, alpha -ray measurements of Rn and Rn/sup 220/ in breath, a complete medical history was taken, a complete x-ray examination was made of the skeleton, and urinalysis, hematological, and blood chemistry studies were made. Medical data are appended. An extensive intercomparison of Ra burden measurements on living subjects was carried out between M.I.T. and ANL. Results are tabulated. Complete measurements were made of tooth and bone MsTh/Ra ratios on 24 individuals. Comparison of results with data on Ra/Ca ratios of teeth and total skeleton and with data from whole-body measurements on the same individuals led to the conclusion that estimates of total skeleton Ra burden can be made with reasonable accurateness on the basis of data obtained from Ra gamma -counting a single tooth. Data are being recorded on punched cards for correlation with the incidence of various affects such as tumors, bone fractures, age at exposure, age at occurrence of effects, and other epidemicological conclusions. Whole-body radioactivity measurements weremade on 45 normal employees. Measurements on the halflife of Ra/sup 228/ gave a result of 5.7 plus or minus 0.2 years. Results are summarized from dosimetry measurements, the development of radiation detection instruments and techniques, and miscellaneous related projects. A scintillation-type fast neutron dosimeter based on the Bragg-Gray cavity principle was tested for absolute dose measurements using a Pu-Be neutron source and 2.5 and 14-Mev monoenergetic neutrons obtained from d-d and d-t reactions. Test results are also reported for an instrument designed for storing data in coded form on a magnetic tape ...
Date: May 1, 1960
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

NATIONAL SYNCHROTRON LIGHT SOURCE ACTIVITY REPORT 1998.

Description: In FY 1998, following the 50th Anniversary Year of Brookhaven National Laboratory, Brookhaven Science Associates became the new Managers of BNL. The new start is an appropriate time to take stock of past achievements and to renew or confirm future goals. During the 1998 NSLS Annual Users Meeting (described in Part 3 of this Activity Report), the DOE Laboratory Operations Board, Chaired by the Under Secretary for Energy, Ernest Moniz met at BNL. By chance all the NSLS Chairmen except Martin Blume (acting NSLS Chair 84-85) were present as recorded in the picture. Under their leadership the NSLS has improved dramatically: (1) The VUV Ring current has increased from 100 mA in October 1982 to nearly 1 A today. For the following few years 10 Ahrs of current were delivered most weeks - NSLS now exceeds that every day. (2) When the first experiments were performed on the X-ray ring during FY1985 the electron energy was 2 GeV and the current up to 100 mA - the X-Ray Ring now runs routinely at 2.5 GeV and at 2.8 GeV with up to 350 mA of current, with a very much longer beam half-life and improved reliability. (3) Starting in FY 1984 the proposal for the Phase II upgrade, mainly for a building extension and a suite of insertion devices and their associated beamlines, was pursued - the promises were delivered in full so that for some years now the NSLS has been running with two undulators in the VUV Ring and three wigglers and an undulator in the X-Ray Ring. In addition two novel insertion devices have been commissioned in the X13 straight. (4) At the start of FY 1998 the NSLS welcomed its 7000th user - attracted by the opportunity for pursuing research with high quality beams, guaranteed not ...
Date: May 1, 1999
Creator: ROTHMAN,E.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Fallout strontium-90 and cesium-137 in northern Alaskan ecosystems during 1959--1970

Description: Thesis. Cycling routes, rates of transport, and resultant concentrations of the fallout radionuclides /sup 90/Sr and /sup 137/Cs in northern Alaskan ecosystems were defined during the period 1959 to 1970. Radiochemical analysis of extensive samples of biota and whole-body counting of / sup 137/Cs in Eskimo and Indian ethnic groups were related to ecological principles, especially the concept of trophic niche, which elucidated the observed patterns of radionuclide concentrations. Experiments involving Sr and Cs radioisotopes applied to natural Cladonia-- Cetraria lichen carpets yielded effective half-times of 1.O to 1.6 years for Sr and more than 10 years for Cs. Direct and indirect estimates of /sup 131/Cs half-times in Eskimos on a caribou meat diet were made by dietary manipulation and by relating dietary /sup 137/Cs intake and resultant change between periodic whole body counts. Effective half- times of 70 days for adults (more than 21 years old) and minors (14 to 20 years old) and of 45 days for children (less than 14 years old) were found. Suitable mathematical models were used to compute lichen forage ingestion rates of free- ranging adult caribou (4.5 to 5.0 kg dry weight per day), caribou meat ingestion rates of Anaktuvuk Pass residents (up to 2 kg wet weight per day for men), and / sup 90/Sr body burdens of Anaktuvuk Pass residents during the period 1952 to 1968 (maximum value of 8 nCi in adult males during late 1966 to early 1967). Special emphasis was made of cultural influences upon the food-gathering patterns of the native peoples studied. Culture change, especially in the form of food stamps, welfare payments, acquisition of snowmobiles, and improved housing was documented throughout the study and noticeably reduced the radionuclide accumulations. Total radiation dose rates to the Anaktuvuk Pass adult population were estimated to be about 100 mrad/year ...
Date: May 1, 1973
Creator: Hanson, W.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Retention of Halogens in Waste Glass

Description: In spite of their potential roles as melting rate accelerators and foam breakers, halogens are generally viewed as troublesome components for glass processing. Of five halogens, F, Cl, Br, I, and At, all but At may occur in nuclear waste. A nuclear waste feed may contain up to 10 g of F, 4 g of Cl, and ≤100 mg of Br and I per kg of glass. The main concern is halogen volatility, producing hazardous fumes and particulates, and the radioactive iodine 129 isotope of 1.7x10^7-year half life. Because F and Cl are soluble in oxide glasses and tend to precipitate on cooling, they can be retained in the waste glass in the form of dissolved constituents or as dispersed crystalline inclusions. This report compiles known halogen-retention data in both high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) glasses. Because of its radioactivity, the main focus is on I. Available data on F and Cl were compiled for comparison. Though Br is present in nuclear wastes, it is usually ignored; no data on Br retention were found.
Date: May 1, 2010
Creator: Hrma, Pavel R.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Production of an Accelerated Oxygen-14 Beam

Description: BEARS is an ongoing project to provide a light-ion radioactive-beam capability at the 88-Inch Cyclotron at LBNL. Light radioactive isotopes are produced at a 10 MeV proton medical cyclotron, transported 350 m via a high-speed gas transport capillary, cryogenically separated, and injected into the 88-Inch Cyclotron's ion source. The first radioactive beam successfully accelerated was Carbon-11 and beams of intensity more than 108 ions/sec have been utilized for experiments. Development of Oxygen-14 as the second BEARS beam presented considerable technical challenges, both due to its short half-life of 71 seconds and the radiation chemistry of oxygen in the target. The usual techniques developed for medical uses of Oxygen-15 involve the addition of significant amounts of carrier oxygen, something that would overload the ion source. As a solution, Oxygen-14 is produced as water in a carrier-free form, and is chemically converted in two steps to carbon dioxide, a form readily usable by the BEARS. This system has been built and is operational, and initial tests of accelerating an Oxygen-14 beam have been performed.
Date: May 3, 2002
Creator: Powell, James; O'Neil, James P. & Cerny, Joseph
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Signatures of special nuclear material: High-energy gamma rays following fission

Description: Since September 11, 2001, much effort has been devoted to the development of new and improved means for the detection and prevention of the clandestine transport of special nuclear material (SNM, i.e. {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu) and other materials for producing weapons of mass destruction. In a recent Brief Communication, Borozdin et al. showed that cosmic-ray muons could be used to image dense objects inside containers. Here we describe a method for unequivocally identifying SNM in large seagoing containers. Our method is based on the fact that neutron-induced fission of {sup 235}U or {sup 239}Pu is followed by {beta} decays of short-lived fission fragments during which large numbers of high-energy {gamma} rays (above 3000 keV) are emitted. These {gamma} rays have energies above those of natural {gamma} background, are emitted with significantly greater intensity per fission than {beta}-delayed neutrons, have much higher probabilities of escaping hydrogenous cargo loadings than neutrons, and their energy spectra and time dependencies provide a unique signature of SNM. To demonstrate the main properties of high-energy delayed {gamma} rays, we produced neutrons by bombarding a 1-inch thick water-cooled Be target with 16-MeV deuterons from Lawrence Berkeley National Laboratory's 88-Inch Cyclotron. Neutrons were moderated using steel and polyethylene. We employed a pneumatic transfer system to shuttle targets from the irradiation location inside the polyethylene moderator to a remote shielded counting station. We irradiated {sup 235}U (93% isotopic content), {sup 239}Pu (95% isotopic content), wood, polyethylene, aluminum, sandstone, and steel targets for 30 seconds (in a thermal-neutron flux of 1.5 x 10{sup 6}/cm{sup 2}-sec) and acquired 10 sequential {gamma}-ray spectra, each of 3 sec. duration starting 3 sec. after the end of bombardment. We used an 80% relative efficiency coaxial germanium detector and a 30-cm x 30-cm x 10-cm plastic scintillator to detect {gamma} rays and acquired ...
Date: May 29, 2003
Creator: Norman, Eric B.; Prussin, Stanley G.; Larimer, Ruth-Mary; Shugart, Howard; Browne, Edgardo; Smith, Alan R. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

{Beta}{sup {minus}}-decay and cosmic-ray half-life of {sup 54}Mn

Description: A superconducting solenoid electron spectrometer operated in the lens mode was adapted to search for the {beta}{sup {minus}}-decay of {sup 54}Mn. The Compton-electron and other instrumental backgrounds have been significantly reduced by special shielding of the absorber system. An improved procedure has been developed to select the events by momenta. A limit of 2.7 {times} 10{sup {minus}5} has been established for the {beta}{sup {minus}} branch.
Date: May 1, 1995
Creator: Kibedi, T.; Kerr, M.; Dracoulis, G.D.; Byrne, A.P. & Norman, E.B.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Harvard--MIT research program in short-lived radiopharmaceuticals. Progress report, September 1, 1977--April 30, 1978. [/sup 99m/Tc, positron-emitting radionuclides]

Description: Progress is reported on the following studies: chemistry studies designed to achieve a more complete understanding of the fundamental chemistry of technetium in order to facilitate the design of future radiopharmaceuticals incorporating the radionuclide /sup 99m/Tc; the development of new radiopharmaceuticals intended to improve image quality and lower radiation doses by the use of short-lived radionuclides and disease-specific agents; the development of short-lived positron-emitting radionuclides which offer advantages in transverse section imaging of regional physiological processes; and studies of the toxic effects of particulate radiation.
Date: May 1, 1978
Creator: Adelstein, S.J. & Brownell, G.L.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

The synthetic elements

Description: Prior to 1940, the heaviest element known was uranium, discovered in 1789. Since that time the elements 93 through 109 have been synthesized and identified and the elements 43, 61, 85, and 87 which were missing form the periodic tables of the 1930's have been discovered. The techniques and problems involved in these discoveries and the placement of the transuranium elements in the periodic table will be discussed. The production and positive identification of elements heavier than Md (Z=101), which have very short half-lives and can only be produced an atom-at-a-time, are very difficult and there have been controversies concerning their discovery. Some of the new methods which have been developed and used in these studies will be described. The prospects for production of still heavier elements will be considered.
Date: May 1, 1990
Creator: Hoffman, D.C.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Spontaneous fission of /sup 259/Md

Description: The mass and kinetic energy distributions of fission fragments from the spontaneous fission of th newly discovered nuclide /sup 259/Md were obtained. /sup 259/Md was identified as the E. C. daughter of /sup 259/No, and was found to decay entirely (> 95%) by spontaneous fission with a 95-min half-life. From the kinetic energies measured for 397 pairs of coincident fragments, a mass distribution was derived that is symmetric with sigma = 13 amu. /sup 259/Md, together with /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, form a select group of three nuclides whose mass division in spontaneous fission is highly symmetric. Unlike the total-kinetic-energy (TKE) distributions of /sup 258/Fm and /sup 259/Fm, which peak at approx. = to 240 MeV, this distribution for /sup 259/Md is broad and is 50 MeV lower in energy. Analysis of the mass and energy distributions shows that events near mass symmetry also exhibit a broad TKE distribution, with one-third of the symmetric events having TKEs less than 200 MeV. The associated of low TKEs with symmetric mass division in the fission of very heavy actinides is anomalous and inconsistent with theories based upon the emergence of fragment shells near the scission point. Either three-body fragmentation or peculiar fragment shapes are assumed as the cause for the large consumption of Coulomb energy observed for a significant fraction of symmetric fissions in /sup 259/Md. 6 figures.
Date: May 4, 1979
Creator: Hulet, E.K.; Wild, J.F.; Lougheed, R.W.; Baisden, P.A.; Landrum, J.H.; Dougan, R.J. et al.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department

Biological characterization of radiation exposure and dose estimates for inhaled uranium milling effluents. Annual progress report April 1, 1982-March 31, 1983

Description: The problems addressed are the protection of uranium mill workers from occupational exposure to uranium through routine bioassay programs and the assessment of accidental worker exposures. Comparisons of chemical properties and the biological behavior of refined uranium ore (yellowcake) are made to identify important properties that influence uranium distribution patterns among organs. These studies will facilitate calculations of organ doses for specific exposures and associated health risk estimates and will identify important bioassay procedures to improve evaluations of human exposures. A quantitative analytical method for yellowcake was developed based on the infrared absorption of ammonium diuranate and U/sub 3/O/sub 8/ mixtures in KBr. The method was applied to yellowcake samples obtained from six operating mills. The composition of yellowcake from the six mills ranged from nearly pure ammonium diuranate to nearly pure U/sub 3/O/sub 8/. The composition of yellowcake samples taken from lots from the same mill was only somewhat less variable. Because uranium mill workers might be exposed to yellowcake either by contamination of a wound or by inhalation, a study of retention and translocation of uranium after subcutaneous implantation in rats was done. The results showed that 49% of the implanted yellowcake cleared from the body with a half-time (T sub 1/2) in the body of 0.3 days, and the remainder was cleared with a T sub 1/2 of 11 to 30 days. Exposures of Beagle dogs by nose-only inhalation to aerosols of commercial yellowcake were completed. Biochemical indicators of kidney dysfunction that appeared in blood and urine 4 to 8 days after exposure to the more soluble yellowcake showed significant changes in dogs, but levels returned to normal by 16 days after exposure. No biochemical evidence of kidney dysfunction was observed in dogs exposed to the less soluble yellowcake form. 18 figures, 9 tables.
Date: May 1, 1984
Creator: Eidson, A.F.
Partner: UNT Libraries Government Documents Department